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definition - 機械学習

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機械学習

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』

機械学習(きかいがくしゅう、Machine learning)とは、人工知能における研究課題の一つで、人間が自然に行っている学習能力と同様の機能をコンピュータで実現させるための技術・手法のことである。ある程度の数のサンプルデータ集合を対象に解析を行い、そのデータから有用な規則、ルール、知識表現、判断基準などを抽出する。データ集合を解析するため、統計学との関連も非常に深い。

機械学習は検索エンジン医療診断スパムメールの検出、金融市場の予測、DNA配列の分類、音声認識や文字認識などのパターン認識、ゲーム戦略、ロボット、など幅広い分野で用いられている。応用分野の特性に応じて学習手法も適切に選択する必要があり、様々な手法が提案されている。それらの手法は、Machine Learning や IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence などの学術雑誌などで発表されることが多い。

機械学習のアルゴリズムは大きく分けて以下のように分類される。

参考文献

  • Thomas Mitchell "Machine Learning" McGraw-Hill (1997) ISBN 978-0071154673 (入門用の教科書) サポートページ
  • Christopher M. Bishop "Pattern Recognition And Machine Learning" Springer-Verlag (2006) ISBN 978-0387310732 (中上級の教科書) サポートページ
    • 日本語版「パターン認識と機械学習 - ベイズ理論による統計的予測」シュプリンガージャパン (2007-2008) 上巻:ISBN 978-4431100133 下巻:ISBN 978-4431100317 日本語版サポートページ
  • Trevor Hastie, Robert Tibshirani, and Jerome H. Friedman "The Elements of Statistical Learning: Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction" Springer-Verlag (2001) ISBN 978-0387952840 (高度な内容も含む.数理・統計系の手法が中心) サポートページ
  • David MacKay "Information Theory, Inference, and Learning Algorithms" (2003) (ベイズ推論を中心に、情報理論と機械学習を包括的にカバーした教科書。全文をPDF形式で著者ページから入手可能) 著者ページ

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