definition of Wikipedia
|1958 Lebanon Crisis|
U.S. Marine sits in a foxhole outside Beirut, 1958
| Lebanese Government
|Commanders and leaders|
| Camille Chamoun
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Robert Daniel Murphy
| Rashid Karami
Gamal Abdel Nasser
|Casualties and losses|
In July 1958, Lebanon was threatened by a civil war between Maronite Christians and Muslims. Tensions with Egypt had escalated earlier in 1956 when pro-western President Camille Chamoun, a Christian, did not break diplomatic relations with the Western powers that attacked Egypt during the Suez Crisis, angering Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser. These tensions were further increased when Chamoun showed closeness to the Baghdad Pact. Nasser felt that the pro-western Baghdad Pact posed a threat to Arab nationalism. As a response, Egypt and Syria united into the United Arab Republic (UAR). Lebanese Sunni Prime Minister Rashid Karami supported Nasser in 1956 and 1958. Karami formed a national reconciliation government after the 1958 crisis ended.
Lebanese Muslims pushed the government to join the newly created United Arab Republic, while the Christians wanted to keep Lebanon aligned with Western powers. A Muslim rebellion that was allegedly supplied with arms by the UAR through Syria caused President Chamoun to complain to the United Nations Security Council. The United Nations sent a group of inspectors that reported that it didn't find any evidence of significant intervention from the UAR.
The President of the United States, Eisenhower responded by authorizing Operation Blue Bat on July 15, 1958. This was the first application of the Eisenhower Doctrine under which the U.S. announced that it would intervene to protect regimes it considered threatened by international communism. The goal of the operation was to bolster the pro-Western Lebanese government of President Camille Chamoun against internal opposition and threats from Syria and Egypt. The plan was to occupy and secure the Beirut International Airport, a few miles south of the city, then to secure the port of Beirut and approaches to the city.
The chain of command for Operation Blue Bat was as follows: the Eisenhower administration at the strategic level; Specified Command, Middle East (SPECCOMME, a 'double-hat' for Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean) at the operational level; the Sixth Fleet, the 2nd Provisional Marine Force (Task Force 62) and the Army Task Force (ATF) 201 at the tactical level. Each of these three components influenced Operations Plan 215-58 and its execution.
The operation involved approximately 14,000 men, including 8,509 United States Army personnel, a contingent from the 1st Airborne Battle Group, 187th Infantry from the 24th Infantry Division (based in Germany) and 5,670 officers and men of the United States Marine Corps. They were supported by a fleet of 70 ships and 40,000 sailors. The presence of the troops successfully intimidated the opposition and the U.S. withdrew its forces on October 25, 1958.
|History of Lebanon|
This article is part of a series
|1958 Lebanon crisis|
|Lebanese Civil War|
|2006 Lebanon War|
President Eisenhower also sent diplomat Robert D. Murphy to Lebanon as his personal representative. Murphy played a significant role in persuading President Chamoun to resign and also in the selection of moderate Christian general Fuad Chehab as Chamoun's replacement.
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