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A steel-cased FMJ 7.62mm Tokarev cartridge.
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Produced||1930 - |
|Bullet diameter||7.8 mm (0.31 in)|
|Neck diameter||8.4 mm (0.33 in)|
|Shoulder diameter||9.4 mm (0.37 in)|
|Base diameter||9.7 mm (0.38 in)|
|Rim diameter||9.9 mm (0.39 in)|
|Rim thickness||1.3 mm (0.051 in)|
|Case length||25 mm (0.98 in)|
|Overall length||34 mm (1.3 in)|
|Rifling twist||1:250 mm (1:10 inches)|
|Primer type||Berdan or Boxer Small Pistol|
|5.5 g (85 gr) JHP||376 m/s (1,230 ft/s)||390 J (290 ft·lbf)|
|5.8 g (90 gr) FMJ||409 m/s (1,340 ft/s)||488 J (360 ft·lbf)|
|5.5 g (85 gr) FMJ||502 m/s (1,650 ft/s)||693 J (511 ft·lbf)|
|5.5 g (85 gr) FMJ||525 m/s (1,720 ft/s)||760 J (560 ft·lbf)|
|5.5 g (85 gr) JHP||510 m/s (1,700 ft/s)||715 J (527 ft·lbf)|
|Test barrel length: 120mm|
The cartridge is in principle an enhanced Soviet version of the 7.63x25mm Mauser. They are very similar: A firearm chambered for the 7.62mm Tokarev can fire the 7.63mm Mauser cartridge.
The Soviets produced a wide array of loadings for this cartridge for use in submachine guns. These include armor-piercing, tracer and incendiary rounds. This cartridge has excellent penetration and can easily defeat lighter ballistic vests (class I, IIA and II). Although most firearms chambered in this caliber were declared obsolete and removed from military inventories, some Police and Special Forces units in Russia, Pakistan and (mainly) in China still use it because of the large quantity of old storages.
It should be noted that there is a common misconception that much of the 7.62 Tokarev surplus ammunition commonly found on the market uses copper-coated mild steel bullets. The myth states that this increases the chances of dangerous ricochets when fired at hard targets and can damage the bullet traps often used on shooting ranges. The importation of 7.62x25 cartridges loaded with copper-coated steel bullets into the USA would be illegal, as federal law defines these as armor-piercing pistol ammunition. These projectiles are actually lead-core projectiles with copper-washed steel jackets, and present no greater risk of ricochet than a standard copper-jacketed projectile.
The cartridge has an average muzzle velocity of around 442 metres per second (1,450 ft/s), and has about 544 joules (401 ft·lbf) of energy. The unusually loud report and bright muzzle flash produced when this cartridge is fired from pistols can surprise onlookers.
One modification of the standard Soviet service cartridge was made in Czechoslovakia, for use in the specially-strengthened Vz. 52 pistol (also known as the CZ-52). This round, called the Czech M48, operated at higher pressures than the standard Tokarev cartridge, improving the ballistics. However, the more powerful loading meant a greater risk of damage to firearms not designed to accommodate such pressure. The Chinese 7.62mm Type P is a special subsonic loading of the cartridge, designed specifically for use in suppressed firearms.
- 7.62mm Type P
- 7.62mm Tokarev
- 7.62x25mm TT
- .30 Tokarev
- Czech M48
- 7.62 Russian
- 7.62 TT
Weapons and Service Use
The most notable use of this cartridge was in the Tokarev TT-33 pistol, which was the Soviet Union's standard service pistol from the early 1930s until the mid 1960s. It was also used in the Czech ČZ vz. 52, which was the standard Czech service pistol from 1952 until 1982. The cartridge was also used in several submachine guns, including the Soviet PPD-40, PPSh-41, and PPS-43, the Russian PP-19 Bizon, and the Czech vz. 24 and vz. 26
Outside COMECON countries it was uncommonly found; however after the Cold War, many weapons, especially pistols, were exported and the round is still in production. Apart from those weapons already mentioned, the cartridge was also used in the Russian OTs-27 Berdysh (Poleaxe) and OTs-39, the North Vietnamese K-50M and VPA/Viet Minh modified MAS-38 (MAS Mle 1938) and MAT-49s, and the Yugoslav M56, a submachine gun similar in appearance to the German MP40.
- ^ Barnes, Frank C. (1997) . McPherson, M.L.. ed. Cartridges of the World (8th Edition ed.). DBI Books. p. 240. ISBN 0-87349-178-5.
- ^ a b "Load data at Makarov.com". http://www.makarov.com/tokloaddata.html. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
- ^ "Sellier and Bellot Cartridge Data". http://www.sellier-bellot.cz/pistol-and-revolver-ammunition.php?product=9. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
- ^ a b "Wolf Ammunition Cartridge Data". http://www.wolfammo.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2&Itemid=13. Retrieved 2008-12-19.
- Cartridges of the World 11th Edition, Book by Frank C. Barnes, Edited by Stan Skinner, Gun Digest Books, 2006, ISBN 0-89689-297-2 pp. 288,337