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definitions - Aberdeen

Aberdeen (n.)

1.a city in northeastern Scotland on the North Sea

2.a town in northeastern Maryland

3.a town in northeastern South Dakota

4.a town in western Washington

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see also - Aberdeen

Aberdeen (n.)

Aberdonian

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Aberdeen

                   

Coordinates: 57°09′09″N 2°06′36″W / 57.1526°N 2.1100°W / 57.1526; -2.1100

Aberdeen
Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain[1]
Scots: Aiberdeen
Granite City, Oil Capital of Europe,
Silver City
Aberdeen from Torry - geograph.org.uk - 1454885.jpg
Aberdeen City Centre skyline
Aberdeen is located in Scotland
Aberdeen

 Aberdeen shown within Scotland
Population 220,420 (2011 Mid-Year Estimate)
    - Density  1,187 /km2 (3,070 /sq mi)[3]
Language English
Scots (Doric)
OS grid reference NJ925065
    - Edinburgh 94 mi (151 km) [4] 
    - London 403 mi (649 km) [4] 
Council area Aberdeen City[2]
Lieutenancy area Aberdeen
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town ABERDEEN
Postcode district AB10-AB13 (part), AB15, AB16, AB21-AB25
Dialling code 01224
Police
Fire
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament Aberdeen South
Aberdeen North
Gordon
Scottish Parliament North East Scotland
Aberdeen Central
Aberdeen North
Aberdeen South
Website aberdeencity.gov.uk
List of places: UK • Scotland •

Aberdeen Listeni/æbərˈdn/ (Scots: Aiberdeen About this sound listen ; Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain [ˈopər ˈʝɛhɪn]) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 29th most populous city, with an official population estimate of 220,420.[5]

Nicknames include the Granite City, the Grey City and the Silver City with the Golden Sands. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver due to their high mica contents.[6] The city has a long, sandy coastline. Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, other nicknames have been the Oil Capital of Europe or the Energy Capital of Europe.[7] The area around Aberdeen has been settled since at least 8,000 years ago,[8] when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don.

Aberdeen received Royal Burgh status from King David I (1124–53),[9] transforming the city economically. The city's two universities, the University of Aberdeen, founded in 1495, and The Robert Gordon University, which was awarded university status in 1992, make Aberdeen the educational centre of the north-east. The traditional industries of fishing, paper-making, shipbuilding, and textiles have been overtaken by the oil industry and Aberdeen's seaport. Aberdeen Heliport is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world[10] and the seaport is the largest in the north-east of Scotland.[11]

In January 2011 Aberdeen was named one of five cities which could help the UK climb its way out of the recession because of its high levels of employment, abundance of skilled workers, and an increase in average weekly earnings. Aberdeen City and Shire was dubbed in the report by officials as the "one to watch" with its rapid growing economy, size and oil reserves.[12]

Aberdeen has won the Britain in Bloom competition a record-breaking ten times,[13] and hosts the Aberdeen International Youth Festival, a major international event which attracts up to 1000 of the most talented young performing arts companies. It was named the 54th most liveable city in the World.[14]

Contents

  History

  Aberdeen
  Aberdeen Mercat Cross
  The Castlegate and Union Street (c.1900)

The Aberdeen area has seen human settlement for at least 8,000 years.[8] The city began as two separate burghs: Old Aberdeen at the mouth of the river Don; and New Aberdeen, a fishing and trading settlement, where the Denburn waterway entered the river Dee estuary. The earliest charter was granted by William the Lion in 1179 and confirmed the corporate rights granted by David I. In 1319, the Great Charter of Robert the Bruce transformed Aberdeen into a property-owning and financially independent community. Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stocket, whose income formed the basis for the city's Common Good Fund which still benefits Aberdonians.[15][16] During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Aberdeen was under English rule, so Robert the Bruce laid siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308 followed by the massacring of the English garrison and the retaking of Aberdeen for the townspeople. The city was burned by Edward III of England in 1336, but was rebuilt and extended, and called New Aberdeen. The city was strongly fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by 1770. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644-1647 the city was impartially plundered by both sides. In 1644, it was taken and ransacked by Royalist troops after the Battle of Aberdeen.[17] In 1647 an outbreak of bubonic plague killed a quarter of the population.

In the 18th century, a new Town Hall was built and the first social services appeared with the Infirmary at Woolmanhill in 1742 and the Lunatic Asylum in 1779. The council began major road improvements at the end of the 18th century with the main thoroughfares of George Street, King Street and Union Street all completed at the start of the next century.

A century later, the increasing economic importance of Aberdeen and the development of the shipbuilding and fishing industries led to the existing harbour with Victoria Dock, the South Breakwater, and the extension to the North Pier. The expensive infrastructure program had repercussions, and in 1817 the city was bankrupt. However, a recovery was made in the general prosperity which followed the Napoleonic wars. Gas street lighting arrived in 1824 and an enhanced water supply appeared in 1830 when water was pumped from the Dee to a reservoir in Union Place. An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in 1865.[16]

The city was first incorporated in 1891. Although Old Aberdeen still has a separate charter and history, it and New Aberdeen are no longer truly distinct. They are both part of the city, along with Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of the River Dee.

  Toponymy

Old Aberdeen is the approximate location of Aberdon the first settlement of Aberdeen; this literally means "at the confluence of the Don [ie. with the sea]" in relation to the local river. The modern name Aberdeen literally means between the Dee (the other local river) and Don. The Celtic prefix; "Aber-" means "the confluence of" in relation to the rivers.[18]

Some scholars believe the name came from the Gaelic prefix Aber- and da-aevi (variation;Da-abhuin, Da-awin) - which means "the mouth of two rivers". In Gaelic the name is Obar Dheathain (variation; Obairreadhain) and in Latin, the Romans referred to it as Devana. Mediaeval (or ecclesiastical) Latin has it as Aberdonia.

  Governance

  Aberdeen City Council's logo with "Simplified" Coat of Arms

Aberdeen is locally governed by Aberdeen City Council, which comprises forty-three councillors who represent the city's wards and is headed by the Lord Provost who is currently Provost Peter Stephen.

From May 2003 until May 2007 the council was run by a Liberal Democrat and Conservatives coalition. Following the May 2007 elections the Liberal Democrats formed a new coalition with the Scottish National Party.[19] In May 2007 the council consisted of: 15 Liberal Democrat, 13 SNP, 10 Labour, 4 Conservative councillors and a single independent councillor.[20] After an SNP by election gain from the Conservatives on 16 August 2007, the Lib Dem/SNP coalition held 28 of the 43 seats). In August 2009 a councillor resigned from the Liberal Democrats and became an independent. The Conservative Group split in August 2010 with two councillors forming the Aberdeen Conservatives. All four Conservatives remain recognised as Conservatives by the party nationally.

Aberdeen is represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom by three constituencies: Aberdeen North, Aberdeen South and Gordon, of which the first two are wholly within the Aberdeen City council area while the latter also encompasses a large swathe of Aberdeenshire.

In the Scottish Parliament the city is represented again by three constituencies: Aberdeen Donside, Aberdeen Central and Aberdeen South and North Kincardine, the first two are again wholly within the Aberdeen City council area, and the latter encompasses the North Kincardine ward of Aberdeenshire Council. A further seven MSPs are elected as part of the North East Scotland electoral region.

In the European Parliament the city is represented by six MEPs as part of the all-inclusive Scotland constituency.

  Heraldry

  Aberdeen City from docks

Symbols of the city typically show three castles, such as in the case of the flag and coat of arms. The image has been around since the time of Robert the Bruce and represents the buildings that stood on the three hills of Aberdeen; Aberdeen Castle on Castle Hill (today's Castlegate); an unknown building on Windmill Hill and a church on St. Catherine's Hill (now levelled).[21]

"Bon Accord" is the motto of the city and is French literally for "Good Agreement". Legend tells that its use dates from the 14th century password used by Robert the Bruce during the Wars of Scottish Independence, when he and his men laid siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308.[15]

The leopard has traditionally been associated with the city and its emblem can be seen on the city crest. The local magazine is called the "Leopard" and, when Union Bridge was widened in the 20th century, small statues of the creature in a sitting position were cast and placed on top of the railing posts (known locally as Kelly's Cats).

The city's toast is "Happy to meet, sorry to part, happy to meet again"; this has been commonly misinterpreted as the translation of Bon Accord.[22]

  Geography

  Aberdeen Coast

Being sited between two river mouths, the city has little natural exposure of bedrock. This leaves local geologists in a slight quandary: despite the high concentration of geoscientists in the area (courtesy of the oil industry), there is only a vague understanding of what underlies the city. To the south side of the city, coastal cliffs expose high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Grampian Group; to the south-west and west are extensive granites intruded into similar high-grade schists; to the north the metamorphics are intruded by gabbroic complexes instead. The small amount of geophysics done, and occasional building-related exposures, combined with small exposures in the banks of the River Don, suggest that it's actually sited on an inlier of Devonian "Old Red" sandstones and silts. The outskirts of the city spread beyond the (inferred) limits of the outlier onto the surrounding metamorphic/ igneous complexes formed during the Dalradian period (approximately 480-600 million years ago) with sporadic areas of igneous Diorite granites to be found, such as that at the Rubislaw quarry which was used to build much of the Victorian parts of the city.[23]

On the coast, Aberdeen has a long sand beach between the two rivers, the Dee and the Don, which turns into high sand dunes north of the Don stretching as far as Fraserburgh; to the south of the Dee are steep rocky cliff faces with only minor pebble and shingle beaches in deep inlets. A number of granite outcrops along the south coast have been quarried in the past, making for spectacular scenery and good rock-climbing.

The city extends to 184.46 km2 (71.22 sq mi),[24] and includes the former burghs of Old Aberdeen, New Aberdeen, Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of River Dee. In 2010 this gave the city a population density of 1,169 / km².[25] The city is built on many hills, with the original beginnings of the city growing from Castle Hill, St. Catherine's Hill and Windmill Hill.[26]

  Location

  Climate

Aberdeen features an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb). Aberdeen is far milder than one might expect for its northern location. During the winter, especially throughout December, the length of the day is very short, averaging 6 hours and 40 minutes between sunrise and sunset at winter solstice. As winter progresses, the length of the day grows fairly quickly, to 8 hours and 20 minutes by the end of January. Around summer solstice, the days will be around 18 hours long, having 17 hours and 57 minutes between sunrise and sunset, with nautical twilight lasting the entire night. Temperatures at this time of year will be typically hovering around 17.0 °C (62.6 °F) during the day in most of the urban area, though nearer 16.0 °C (60.8 °F) directly on the coast, and around 18.0 °C (64.4 °F) to 19.0 °C (66.2 °F) in the Westernmost suburbs,[27] illustrating the cooling effect of the North Sea during summer.

Two weather stations collect climate data for the area, Aberdeen Dyce airport, and Craibstone. Both are about 4.5 miles to the North West of the city centre, and given that they are in close proximity to each other, not surprisingly exhibit very similar climatic regimes. Dyce tends to have marginally warmer daytime temperature's year round owing to its slightly lower elevation, though is more susceptible to harsh frosts. The coldest temperature to occur in recent years was −16.8 °C (1.8 °F) during December 2010.[28] while the following winter, Dyce set a new February high temperature station record on 28 February 2012 of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F).[29], and a new March high temperature record of 21.6 °C (70.9 °F) on the 25 March 2012. [30]

Climate data for Aberdeen Dyce 65m asl, 1971-2000, extremes 1960-
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
(63.0)
17.2
(63.0)
21.6
(70.9)
23.7
(74.7)
24.3
(75.7)
26.7
(80.1)
29.8
(85.6)
29.7
(85.5)
24.9
(76.8)
22.0
(71.6)
18.8
(65.8)
15.7
(60.3)
29.8
(85.6)
Average high °C (°F) 6.1
(43.0)
6.6
(43.9)
8.5
(47.3)
10.5
(50.9)
13.3
(55.9)
16.0
(60.8)
18.3
(64.9)
18.2
(64.8)
15.5
(59.9)
12.3
(54.1)
8.6
(47.5)
6.8
(44.2)
11.8
(53.2)
Average low °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
0.4
(32.7)
1.6
(34.9)
2.9
(37.2)
5.3
(41.5)
8.1
(46.6)
10.3
(50.5)
10.0
(50.0)
8.1
(46.6)
5.6
(42.1)
2.4
(36.3)
0.9
(33.6)
4.7
(40.5)
Record low °C (°F) −19.3
(−2.7)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−15.8
(3.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
−4.2
(24.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
0.1
(32.2)
−0.2
(31.6)
−2.4
(27.7)
−4.4
(24.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−19.3
(−2.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 75
(2.95)
54
(2.13)
61
(2.4)
59
(2.32)
55
(2.17)
56
(2.2)
59
(2.32)
62
(2.44)
73
(2.87)
84
(3.31)
84
(3.31)
79
(3.11)
799.6
(31.48)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55 76 115 143 194 172 167 163 122 97 65 44 1,411
Source no. 1: MeteoFrance[31]
Source no. 2: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI[32]
Climate data for Craibstone 102m asl, 1971-2000, extremes 1951-
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
16.3
(61.3)
20.0
(68.0)
23.4
(74.1)
23.8
(74.8)
26.1
(79.0)
28.8
(83.8)
28.6
(83.5)
25.9
(78.6)
21.1
(70.0)
18.3
(64.9)
15.4
(59.7)
28.8
(83.8)
Average high °C (°F) 5.7
(42.3)
6.1
(43.0)
8.0
(46.4)
9.9
(49.8)
12.7
(54.9)
15.3
(59.5)
17.6
(63.7)
17.5
(63.5)
14.9
(58.8)
11.8
(53.2)
8.2
(46.8)
6.4
(43.5)
11.2
(52.2)
Average low °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
0.6
(33.1)
1.5
(34.7)
2.7
(36.9)
5.0
(41.0)
7.8
(46.0)
9.9
(49.8)
9.8
(49.6)
8.0
(46.4)
5.6
(42.1)
2.6
(36.7)
1.1
(34.0)
4.6
(40.3)
Record low °C (°F) −13.5
(7.7)
−12.2
(10.0)
−11.7
(10.9)
−6.7
(19.9)
−3
(27)
0.3
(32.5)
1.7
(35.1)
1.7
(35.1)
−0.6
(30.9)
−4
(24.8)
−10.8
(12.6)
−12.6
(9.3)
−13.5
(7.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 74.1
(2.917)
53.7
(2.114)
59.8
(2.354)
61.2
(2.409)
56.7
(2.232)
59.5
(2.343)
60.3
(2.374)
65.7
(2.587)
76.7
(3.02)
87.7
(3.453)
84.2
(3.315)
76.9
(3.028)
816.3
(32.138)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 56.4 77.1 114.1 145.8 188.5 166.2 164.9 163.4 122.1 99.2 65.1 46.2 1,409.0
Source no. 1: Met Office[33]
Source no. 2: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI[34]

  Demography

  Aberdeen demographics[35]

In 1396 the population was about 3,000. By 1801 it had become 26,992; (1901) 153,503; (1941) 182,467.[36] In 2001 the UK census records the Aberdeen City Council area's population at 212,125,[37] but the Aberdeen locality's population at 184,788.[38] The latest official population estimate, for 2010, is 217,100.[25] Data from the Aberdeen specific locality of the 2001 UK census shows that the demographics include a median male age of 35 and female age of 38, which are younger than Scotland's average and a 49% to 51% male-to-female ratio.[37]

The census showed that there are fewer young people in Aberdeen, with 16.4% under 16, opposed to the national average of 19.2%.[39] Ethnically, 15.7% were born outside of Scotland, higher than the national average of 12.9%. Of this population 8.4% were born in England.[39] 3% of Aberdonians stated to be from an ethnic minority (non-white) in the 2001 census, with 0.7% from the Indian-subcontinent and 0.6% Asian; in comparison, Scotland's overall population of non-white origin is 2%. This is a lower percentage than any of Scotland's other three main cities, Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Dundee.[39] The most multicultural part of the city is George Street, which has many ethnic restaurants, supermarkets and hairdressers.

In the household, there were 97,013 individual dwellings recorded in the city of which 61% were privately owned, 9% privately rented and 23% rented from the council. The most popular type of dwellings are apartments which comprise 49% of residences followed by semi-detached at just below 22%.[40] The median income of a household in the city is £16,813 (the mean income is £20,292)[41] (2005) which places approximately 18% households in the city below the poverty line (defined as 60% of the mean income). Conversely, an Aberdeen postcode has the second highest number of millionaires of any postcode in the UK.[42]

  Religion

  Allenvale Cemetery

Traditionally Christian, Aberdeen's largest denominations are the Church of Scotland (through the Presbytery of Aberdeen) and the Catholic Church. The last census revealed that Aberdeen is the least religious city in Scotland, with nearly 43 % of people claiming to have no religion[39] and several former churches in the city have been converted into bars and restaurants.[43]

In the Middle Ages, the Kirk of St Nicholas was the only burgh kirk and one of Scotland's largest parish churches. Like a number of other Scottish kirks, it was subdivided after the Reformation, in this case into the East and West churches. At this time, the city also was home to houses of the Carmelites (Whitefriars) and Franciscans (Greyfriars), the latter of which surviving in modified form as the chapel of Marischal College as late as the early 20th century.

St Machar's Cathedral was formed twenty years after David I (1124–53) transferred the pre-Reformation Diocese from Mortlach in Banffshire to Old Aberdeen in 1137. With the exception of the episcopate of William Elphinstone (1484–1511), building progressed slowly. Gavin Dunbar, who followed him in 1518, completed the structure by adding the two western spires and the southern transept.

St. Mary's Cathedral is a Roman Catholic Cathedral in Gothic style, erected in 1859.

St. Andrew's Cathedral is the Scottish Episcopal Cathedral, constructed in 1817 as Archibald Simpson's first commission. It is notable for having consecrated the first bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America.

The Salvation Army citadel dominates the east end of Union Street.

There is a Unitarian Church, established in 1833 and currently located in Skene Terrace, close to the city centre by Union Terrace.

Christadelphians have been present in Aberdeen since at least 1844. Over the years, they have rented space to meet at a number of locations: the West Room of the Music Hall (for over 120 years); the Cowdry Club; the YWCA in Bon Accord Crescent.[44] Today they meet in the Inchgarth Community Centre in Garthdee.[45]

There are two meetinghouses of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

There is also an Islamic Mosque in Old Aberdeen and an Orthodox Jewish Synagogue established in 1945. There are no formal Buddhist or Hindu buildings. The University of Aberdeen has a small Bahá'í society.

There is also a Quaker meetinghouse on Crown street, the only purpose built Quaker House in Scotland that is still in use today.

  Economy

  Donside Paper Mill under demolition, 15 February 2006
  Oil and gas drilling rig
  The Aberdeen coast
  Belmont Street Farmers Market

Traditionally, Aberdeen was home to fishing, textile mills, shipbuilding and paper making. These industries have been largely replaced. High technology developments in the electronics design and development industry, research in agriculture and fishing and the oil industry, which has been largely responsible for Aberdeen's economic boom in the last three decades, are now major parts of Aberdeen's economy.

Until the 1970s, most of Aberdeen's leading industries dated from the 18th century; mainly these were textiles, foundry work, shipbuilding and paper-making, the oldest industry in the city, with paper having been first made there in 1694. Paper-making has reduced in importance since the closures of Donside Paper Mill in 2001 and the Davidson Mill in 2005 leaving the Stoneywood Paper Mill with a workforce of approximately 500. Textile production ended in 2004 when Richards of Aberdeen closed.

Grey granite was quarried at Rubislaw quarry for more than 300 years, and used for paving setts, kerb and building stones, and monumental and other ornamental pieces. Aberdeen granite was used to build the terraces of the Houses of Parliament and Waterloo Bridge in London. Quarrying finally ceased in 1971.

Fishing was once the predominant industry, but was surpassed by deep-sea fisheries, which derived a great impetus from improved technologies throughout the 20th century. Catches have fallen due to overfishing and the use of the harbour by oil support vessels,[46] and so although still an important fishing port it is now eclipsed by the more northerly ports of Peterhead and Fraserburgh. The Fisheries Research Services are headquartered in Aberdeen, and there is a marine research lab in Torry.

Aberdeen is well regarded for the agricultural and soil research carried out at The Macaulay Institute, which has close links to the city's two universities. The Rowett Research Institute is a world-renowned research centre for studies into food and nutrition located in Aberdeen. It has produced three Nobel laureates and there is a high concentration of life scientists working in the city.[47][48]

There is also a dynamic and fast growing electronics design and development industry.[citation needed]

With the discovery of significant oil deposits in the North Sea during the late 20th century, Aberdeen became the centre of Europe's petroleum industry. With the second largest heliport in the world and an important service ship harbour port serving oil rigs off-shore, Aberdeen is often called the Oil Capital of Europe.[49]

There is now a concerted effort to transform Aberdeen's reputation as the Oil Capital of Europe into the Energy Capital of Europe as oil supplies may start to dwindle in coming years, and there is considerable interest in the development of new energy sources; and technology transfer from oil into renewable energy and other industries is under way. The "Energetica" initiative led by Scottish Enterprise has been designed to accelerate this process.[50]

The city ranks third in Scotland for shopping. The traditional shopping streets are Union Street and George Street, now complemented by shopping centres, notably the St Nicholas & Bon Accord and the Trinity Shopping Centre. A new retail £190 million development, Union Square, reached completion in late September/early October 2009. Major retail parks away from the city centre include the Berryden Retail Park, the Kittybrewster Retail Park and the Beach Boulevard Retail Park.

In March 2004, Aberdeen was awarded Fairtrade City status by the Fairtrade Foundation.[51] Along with Dundee, it shares the distinction of being the first city in Scotland to receive this accolade.[citation needed]

  Landmarks

  Granite terrace in central Aberdeen

Aberdeen's architecture is known for its principal use during the Victorian era of granite, which has led to its local nickname of the Granite City or more romantically the less commonly used name the Silver City, since the Mica in the stone sparkles in the sun. The hard grey stone is one of the most durable materials available and helps to explain why the city's buildings look brand-new when they have been newly cleaned and the cement has been pointed. Unlike other Scottish cities where sandstone has been used, the buildings are not weathering and need very little structural maintenance on their masonry.

Amongst the notable buildings in the city's main street, Union Street, are the Town and County Bank, the Music Hall, the Trinity Hall of the incorporated trades (originating between 1398 and 1527), now a shopping mall; the former office of the Northern Assurance Company, and the National Bank of Scotland. In Castle Street, a continuation eastwards of Union Street, is the new Town House, a very prominent landmark in Aberdeen, built between 1868 and 1873 to a design by Peddie and Kinnear.[52]

  The West Tower of the new Town House, 1868-73

Alexander Marshall Mackenzie's extension to Marischal College on Broad Street, opened by King Edward VII in 1906, created the second largest granite building in the world (after the Escorial, Madrid).[53]

  Union Terrace Gardens
  On Union Terrace, Robert Burns, 1892 bronze by Henry Bain Smith

In addition to the many fine landmark buildings, Aberdeen has many prominent public statues, three of the most notable being William Wallace at the junction between Union Terrace and Rosemount Viaduct, Robert Burns on Union Terrace; above Union Terrace Gardens, and Robert the Bruce holding aloft the charter he issued to the city in 1319 on Broad Street, outside Marischal College.

  Parks, Gardens and Open spaces

  Johnston Gardens
  Duthie Park Winter Gardens
  Aberdeen Beach

Aberdeen has long been famous for its 45[13] outstanding parks and gardens, and citywide floral displays which include two million roses, eleven million daffodils and three million crocuses. The city has won the Royal Horticultural Society's Britain in Bloom 'Best City' award ten times,[13] the overall Scotland in Bloom competition twenty times[13] and the large city category every year since 1968.[13] However, despite recent spurious reports, Aberdeen has never been banned from the Britain in Bloom competition.[54] The city won the 2006 Scotland in Bloom "Best City" award along with the International Cities in Bloom award. The suburb of Dyce also won the Small Towns award.[55][56]

Duthie Park opened in 1899 on the north bank of the River Dee. It was named after and gifted to the city by Miss Elizabeth Crombie Duthie of Ruthrieston in 1881. It has extensive gardens, a rose hill, boating pond, bandstand, and play area as well as Europe's second largest enclosed gardens the David Welch Winter Gardens. Hazlehead Park, is large and forested, located on the outskirts of the city, it is popular with walkers in the forests, sports enthusiasts, naturalists and picnickers. There are football pitches, two golf courses, a pitch and putt course and a horse riding school.

Aberdeen's success in the Britain in Bloom competitions is often attributed to Johnston Gardens, a small park of one hectare in the west end of the city containing many different flowers and plants which have been renowned for their beauty. The garden was in 2002, named the best garden in the British Islands.[13]

Seaton Park, formerly the grounds of a private house, is on the edge of the grounds of St Machar's Cathedral. The Cathedral Walk is maintained in a formal style with a great variety of plants providing a popular display. The park includes several other areas with contrasting styles to this.

Union Terrace Gardens opened in 1879 and is situated in the centre of the city. It covers 2.5 acres (10,000 m2) in the centre of Aberdeen bordered on three sides by Union Street, Union Terrace and Rosemount Viaduct. The park forms a natural amphitheatre located in the Denburn Valley and is an oasis of peace and calm in the city centre. A recent proposal to build a three storey concrete and steel superstructure in place of the gardens, part of which will provide a commercial concourse, has proved highly controversial.

Situated next to each other, Victoria Park and Westburn Park cover 26 acres (110,000 m2) between them. Victoria Park opened in 1871. There is a conservatory used as a seating area and a fountain made of fourteen different granites, presented to the people by the granite polishers and master builders of Aberdeen. Opposite to the north is Westburn Park opened in 1901. With large grass pitches it is widely used for field sports. There is large tennis centre with indoor and outdoor courts, a children's cycle track, play area and a grass boules lawn.

  Theatres and concert halls

Aberdeen has hosted several theatres throughout its history, some of which have subsequently been converted or destroyed. The most famous include:

The main concert hall is the Music Hall on Union Street, built in 1822.

  Transport

  Plaza outside railway station at Aberdeen in early morning, with Union Square to left
  Aberdeen Railway Station, main concourse

Aberdeen Airport (ABZ), at Dyce in the north of the city, serves a number of domestic and international destinations including France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Ireland and Scandinavian countries. The heliport which serves the oil industry and rescue services is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world.[10]

Aberdeen railway station is on the main UK rail network and has frequent direct trains to major cities such as Edinburgh, Glasgow and London, including the overnight Caledonian Sleeper train. The station is currently being updated to bring it into the modern age. In 2007 additions were made and a new ticket office was built in the building.

Until 2007, a 1950s-style concrete bus station at Guild Street served out-of-the-city locations; it has since transferred to a new and well-presented bus station just 100 metres to the east off Market Street as part of the Union Square development.

There are six major roads in and out of the city. The A90 is the main arterial route into the city from the north and south, linking Aberdeen to Edinburgh, Dundee, Brechin and Perth in the south and Ellon, Peterhead and Fraserburgh in the north. The A96 links to Elgin and Inverness and the north west. The A93 is the main route to the west, heading towards Royal Deeside and the Cairngorms. After Braemar, it turns south, providing an alternative tourist route to Perth. The A944 also heads west, through Westhill and on to Alford. The A92 was the original southerly road to Aberdeen prior to the building of the A90, and is now used as a tourist route, connecting the towns of Montrose and Arbroath and on the east coast. The A947 exits the city at Dyce and goes on to Newmachar, Oldmeldrum and Turriff finally ending at Banff and Macduff.

Aberdeen Harbour is important as the largest in the north of Scotland and as a ferry route to Orkney and Shetland. Established in 1136, it has been referred to as the oldest business in Britain.[60]

  Sign at Aberdeen Bus Station at Union Square

FirstGroup operates the city buses under the name First Aberdeen, as the successor of Grampian Regional Transport (GRT) and Aberdeen Corporation Tramways. Aberdeen is the global headquarters of FirstGroup plc, having grown from the GRT Group. First is still based at the former Aberdeen Tramways depot on King Street,[61] soon to be redeveloped into a new Global Headquarters and Aberdeen bus depot.

Stagecoach Group also run buses in Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire, under the Stagecoach Bluebird brand. Other bus companies (e.g. Megabus) run buses from the bus station to places north and south of the city.

Aberdeen is connected to the UK National Cycle Network, and has a track to the south connecting to cities such as Dundee and Edinburgh and one to the north that forks about 10 miles from the city into two different tracks heading to Inverness and Fraserburgh respectively. Two particularly popular footpaths along old railway tracks are the Deeside Way to Banchory (which will eventually connect to Ballater) and the Formartine and Buchan Way to Ellon, both used by a mixture of cyclists, walkers and occasionally horses. Four park-and-ride sites serve the city: Stonehaven and Ellon (approx 12–17 miles out from the city centre) and Kingswells and Bridge of Don (approx 3–4 miles out).

  Education

  University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Hall
  King's College, Old Aberdeen
  Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Faculty of Health and Social Care at Garthdee

  Universities and Colleges

Aberdeen has two universities, the University of Aberdeen, and the former polytechnic The Robert Gordon University, often referred to as RGU. Aberdeen's student rate of 11.5% is higher than the national average of 7%.[62]

The University of Aberdeen began as King's College, Aberdeen, which was founded in 1495 by William Elphinstone (1431–1514), Bishop of Aberdeen and Chancellor of Scotland. Marischal College, a separate institution, was founded in "New" Aberdeen by George Keith, fifth Earl Marischal of Scotland in 1593. These institutions were merged by order of Parliament in 1860 to form the University of Aberdeen. The university is the fifth oldest in the English speaking world [63] and offers degrees in a full range of disciplines. Its main campus is in Old Aberdeen in the north of the city and it currently has approximately 14,000 students.

Robert Gordon's College (originally Robert Gordon's Hospital) was founded in 1729 by the merchant Robert Gordon, grandson of the map maker Robert Gordon of Straloch, and was further endowed in 1816 by Alexander Simpson of Collyhill. Originally devoted to the instruction and maintenance of the sons of poor burgesses of guild and trade in the city, it was reorganised in 1881 as a day and night school for secondary and technical education. In 1903, the vocational education component of the college was designated a Central Institution and was renamed as the Robert Gordon Institute of Technology in 1965. In 1992, university status was awarded and it became The Robert Gordon University. The university has expanded and developed significantly in recent years, and was named Best Modern University in the UK for 2012 by The Sunday Times. It was previously The Sunday Times Scottish University of the Year for 2011, primarily due to its record on graduate employment. The citation for the 2011 award read: "With a graduate unemployment rate that is lower than the most famous universities, including Oxford and Cambridge, plus a flourishing reputation for research, high student satisfaction rates and ambitious plans for its picturesque campus, Robert Gordon University is The Sunday Times Scottish University of the Year".[64] RGU has two campuses, one in the city centre at Schoolhill/St. Andrew Street and a larger suburban campus at Garthdee and currently has approximately 15,500 students.

Aberdeen is also home to two artistic schools: Gray's School of Art, founded in 1886, which is one of the oldest established colleges of art in the UK. The Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and the Built Environment, was one of the first architectural schools to have its training courses recognised by the Royal Institute of British Architects. Both are now part of The Robert Gordon University and are based at its Garthdee campus.

Aberdeen College has several campuses in the city and offers a wide variety of part-time and full-time courses leading to several different qualifications in science. It is the largest further education institution in Scotland.[65]

The Scottish Agricultural College is based just outside Aberdeen, on the Craibstone Estate. This is situated beside the roundabout for Aberdeen Airport on the A96. The college provides three services - Learning, Research and Consultancy. The college features many land based courses such as Agriculture, Countryside Management, Sustainable Environmental Management and Rural Business Management. There are a variety of courses from diplomas through to masters degrees.

  Schools

There are currently 12 secondary schools and 54 primary schools which are run by the city council. The most notable are Aberdeen Grammar School (founded in 1257), Harlaw Academy, Cults Academy, and Oldmachar Academy which were all rated in the top 50 Scottish secondary schools league tables published by The Times in 2005. Harlaw Academy was taken down from the list after a short time but is still a popular school.[66]

There are a number of private schools in Aberdeen; Robert Gordon's College, Albyn School for Girls (co-educational as of 2005), St Margaret's School for Girls, the Hamilton School (a Montessori school), the Total French School (for French oil industry families), the International School of Aberdeen and a Waldorf/Steiner School.

Primary schools in Aberdeen include Airyhall Primary School, Albyn School, Ashley Road Primary School, Broomhill Primary School, Cornhill Primary School (the city's largest), Culter Primary School, Cults Primary School, Danestone Primary School,Fernielea Primary school, Ferryhill Primary School, Gilcomstoun Primary School, Glashieburn Primary School, Hamilton School, Kingsford Primary School, Mile-End School, Robert Gordon's College, Skene Square Primary School, St. Joseph’s Primary School and St Margaret's School for Girls.

  Culture

  His Majesty's Theatre
  Looking down Shiprow with Provost Ross's house on the right
  Grey buildings in Aberdeen

The city has a wide range of cultural activities, amenities and museums. The city is regularly visited by Scotland's National Arts Companies. The Aberdeen Art Gallery houses a collection of Impressionist, Victorian, Scottish and 20th century British paintings as well as collections of silver and glass. It also includes The Alexander Macdonald Bequest, a collection of late 19th century works donated by the museum's first benefactor and a constantly changing collection of contemporary work and regular visiting exhibitions.[67]

  Museums and galleries

The Aberdeen Maritime Museum, located in Shiprow, tells the story of Aberdeen's links with the sea from the days of sail and clipper ships to the latest oil and gas exploration technology. It includes an 8.5-metre-high (28 ft) model of the Murchison oil production platform and a 19th-century assembly taken from Rattray Headlighthouse.[68]

Provost Ross' House is the second oldest dwelling house in the city. It was built in 1593 and became the residence of Provost John Ross of Arnage in 1702. The house retains some original medieval features, including a kitchen, fireplaces and beam-and-board ceilings.[69] The Gordon Highlanders Museum tells the story of one of Scotland's best known regiments.[70]

Marischal Museum holds the principal collections of the University of Aberdeen, comprising some 80,000 items in the areas of fine art, Scottish history and archaeology, and European, Mediterranean & Near Eastern archaeology. The permanent displays and reference collections are augmented by regular temporary exhibitions.[71]

  Festivals and Performing arts

Aberdeen is home to a host of events and festivals including the Aberdeen International Youth Festival (the world's largest arts festival for young performers), Aberdeen Jazz Festival, Rootin' Aboot (folk and roots music event based at the Lemon Tree), Triptych, the University of Aberdeen's literature festival Word and the Citymoves Dance Agency produced DanceLive, Scotland's only Festival of contemporary dance.

The Aberdeen Student Show, performed annually without interruption since 1921, under the auspices of the Aberdeen Students' Charities Campaign, is the longest-running of its kind in the United Kingdom. It is written, produced and performed by students and graduates of Aberdeen's institutes of tertiary education, and since 1929 - other than on a handful of occasions - has been staged at His Majesty's Theatre. The Student Show traditionally combines comedy and music, inspired by the North-East's Doric dialect and humour.

In March 2012, the University of Aberdeen will host the Inter Varsity Folk Dance Festival, the longest running folk festival in the United Kingdom.[72] IVFDF is a university-run festival, every year by a different university.[73]

  Music and film

Aberdeen's music scene includes a variety of live music venues including pubs, clubs, and church choirs. The bars of Belmont Street are particularly known for featuring live music. Cèilidhs are also common in the city's halls. The many popular venues include The Moorings, The Lemon Tree, Drummonds, Moshulu (now owned by Barfly), Snafu, The Tunnels, the Aberdeen Exhibition and Conference Centre, and Aberdeen Music Hall.

More modern musicians to come out of Aberdeen have been heavily influenced by the local prodigy, vocalist, and bass player Mike Parker, who moved to Aberdeen only a few years earlier. His heavy blues and jazz influence quickly spread throughout the scene and his style has had a permanent effect on nearly all music to come out of the region since.

Notable Aberdonian musicians include Annie Lennox, Emile Sande, cult band Pallas and contemporary composer John McLeod.

The first and only Doric speaking feature film by Stirton Productions and Canny Films was released in 2008. 'One Day Removals' starring Patrick Wight and Scott Ironside tells the tale of two unlucky removal men whose day goes from bad to worse. Filmed on location in Aberdeenshire for a budget of £60,000, it is a black comedy/adult drama.

Cultural cinema, educational work and local film events are provided by The Belmont Picturehouse on Belmont Street, Peacock Visual Arts and The Foyer.

  Dialect

Listen to recordings of a speaker of Scots from Aberdeen

The local dialect of Lowland Scots is often known as Doric, and is spoken not just in the city, but across the north-east of Scotland. It differs somewhat from other Scots dialects most noticeable are the pronunciation f for what is normally written wh and ee for what in standard English would usually be written oo (Scots ui). Every year the annual Doric Festival[74] takes place in Aberdeenshire to celebrate the history of the north-east's language. As with all Scots dialects in urban areas, it is not spoken as widely as it used to be in Aberdeen.

  Media

Aberdeen is home to Scotland's oldest newspaper the Press and Journal, first published in 1747. The Press and Journal and its sister paper the Evening Express are printed six days a week by Aberdeen Journals. There are two free newspapers: Aberdeen Record PM and Aberdeen Citizen[citation needed].

BBC Scotland has a network studio production base in Aberdeen's Beechgrove area, and BBC Aberdeen produces The Beechgrove Potting Shed for radio and Tern Television produces the Beechgrove Garden television programme.[75] The city is also home to STV North (formerly Grampian Television), which produces the nightly regional news programme, STV News at Six, as well as local commercials. The station, based at Craigshaw Business Park in Tullos, was based at larger studios in Queens Cross from September 1961 until June 2003.

There are three commercial radio stations operating within the city, Northsound Radio, which runs Northsound One and Northsound Two, and independent station Original 106. Other radio stations include NECR FM (North-East Community Radio FM) DAB station,[76] and shmu FM[77] managed by Station House Media Unit[78] which supports community members to run Aberdeen's first (and only) full-time community radio station, broadcasting on 99.8 MHz FM.

  Food

The Aberdeen region, with its varied cuisine and long culinary tradition, has given its name to a number of famous dishes, including the Aberdeen roll (or Aberdeen rowie)[79] and Aberdeen Sausage.[80]

There are a number of regional dishes that are not named after Aberdeen, such as Haggis, Cullen Skink (a smoked haddock soup made with onions, potatoes and cream) and Scotchman's Treat (aka Sticky Toffee Pudding).[81]

Aberdeen Angus (Angus cattle) are a very popular breed of cattle, commonly used in beef production around the world.

  Sport

  Pittodrie's Richard Donald Stand

  Football

The Scottish Premier League football club, Aberdeen F.C. play at Pittodrie Stadium. The club won the European Cup Winners Cup and the European Super Cup in 1983 and the Scottish Premier League Championship four times (1955, 1980, 1984 and 1985), the Scottish Cup seven times (1947, 1970, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986 and 1990). Under the management of Alex Ferguson, Aberdeen was a major force in British football during the 1980s. As of the 2011–12 season, the club is managed by former Scotland boss Craig Brown and captained by Russell Anderson. There are plans to build a new Aberdeen Stadium in the near future.

The other senior team is Cove Rangers F.C. of the Highland Football League (HFL), who play at Allan Park in the suburb of Cove Bay, although they will be moving to Calder Park once it is built to boost their chances of getting into the Scottish Football League.[82] Cove won the HFL championship in 2001 and 2008.

There was also a historic senior team Bon Accord F.C. who no longer play. Local junior teams include Banks O' Dee F.C., Culter F.C., F.C. Stoneywood, Glentanar F.C. and Hermes F.C..

  Rugby Union

Aberdeen hosted Caledonia Reds a Scottish rugby team, before they merged with the Glasgow Warriors in 1998. The city is also home to the Scottish Premiership Division One rugby club Aberdeen GSFP RFC who play at Rubislaw Playing Fields, and Aberdeenshire RFC which was founded in 1875 and runs Junior, Senior Mens, Senior Ladies and Touch sections from the Woodside Sports Complex[83] and also Aberdeen Wanderers RFC. Former Wanderers' player Jason White was captain of the Scotland national rugby union team.

In 2005 the President of the SRU said it was hoped eventually to establish a professional team in Aberdeen.[84] In November 2008 the city hosted a rugby international at Pittodrie between Scotland and Canada, with Scotland winning 41-0.[85] In November 2010 the city once again hosted a rugby international at Pittodrie between Scotland and Samoa, with Scotland winning 19-16.

  Rugby League

Aberdeen Warriors rugby league team play in the Scotland Rugby League Conference Division One. The Warriors also run Under 15's and 17's teams. Aberdeen Grammar School won the Saltire Schools Cup in 2011.[86]

  Golf

The Royal Aberdeen Golf Club, founded in 1780 and the oldest golf club in Aberdeen, hosted the Senior British Open in 2005, and the amateur team event the Walker Cup in 2011.[87] The club has a second course, and there are public golf courses at Auchmill, Balnagask, Hazlehead and King's Links.[88] The 1999 winner of The Open Championship, Paul Lawrie, hails from the city.

There are new courses planned for the area, including world class facilities with major financial backing, the city and shire are set to become a hotbed for golf tourism.

Donald Trump is building his new state of the art golf course out beside Balmedie.[citation needed]

  Swimming

The City of Aberdeen Swim Team (COAST) is based in Northfield swimming pool and has been in operation since 1996. The team comprises several smaller swimming clubs, and has enjoyed success throughout Scotland and in international competitions. Three of the team's swimmers qualified for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.[89]

  Rowing

There are four boat clubs that row on the River Dee: Aberdeen Boat Club (ABC), Aberdeen Schools Rowing Association (ASRA), Aberdeen University Boat Club (AUBC) and Robert Gordon University Boat Club (RGUBC). There are regattas and head races annually, managed by the Committee of the Dee. There is also a boat race held every year between AUBC and RGUBC. The race is in mixed eights, and usually held in late February / early March.

  Cricket

Aberdeen boasts a large cricket community with 4 local leagues operating that comprise of a total of 25 clubs fielding 36 teams. The city has two national league sides, Aberdeenshire, and Stoneywood-Dyce. Local 'Grades'[90] cricket has been played in Aberdeen since 1884. Aberdeenshire were the 2009 Scottish National Premier League and Scottish Cup Champions[91]

  Floorball

Aberdeen Oilers Floorball Club was founded in 2007. The club initially attracted a range of experienced Scandinavian and other European players who were studying in Aberdeen. Since their formation, Aberdeen Oilers have played in the British Floorball Northern League and went on to win the league in the 2008/09 season. The club played a major role in setting up a ladies league in Scotland. The Oiler's ladies team ended up 2nd in the first ladies league season (2008/09).[92]

  Ice Skating

Aberdeen Boasts a 56x26 meter ice arena with a café, bar, and meeting rooms. The ice arena was closed in the summer of 2008 and underwent a necessary refurbishment. This lasted over a year and caused outrage with the skaters. The ice rink re-opened in winter 2009 and hosted the European curling championships.

  Other sports

The city council operates public tennis courts in various parks including an indoor tennis centre at Westburn Park. The Beach Leisure Centre is home to a climbing wall, gymnasium and a swimming pool. There are numerous swimming pools dotted around the city notably the largest, the Bon-Accord Baths which closed down in 2006. Other closed swimming pools include Dyce, Tullos, and Linksfield; and many of the remaining "public" pools are in fact not open to the public for most of the week.[93] Aberdeen has numerous skate parks dotted around the city in Torry, Westburn Park and Transition Extreme. Transition Extreme is an indoor skate park built in 2007 it was designed by Aberdeen skate legend Andy Dobson. Aberdeen City council also have an Outdoor Education service which is now known as adventure aberdeen, that provides abseiling, surfing, white water rafting, gorge walking, kayaking and open canoeing, mountaineering, sailing, mountain biking and rock climbing. They inspire learning through adventure and have many programs for children and adults.[94][citation needed] In common with many other major towns and cities in the UK, Aberdeen has an active roller derby league, Granite City Roller Girls.[95]

  Public services

The public health service in Scotland, NHS Scotland provides for the people of Aberdeen through the NHS Grampian health board. Aberdeen Royal Infirmary is the largest hospital in the city (the location of the city's A&E department), Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital, a paediatric hospital, Royal Cornhill Hospital for mental health, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, an antenatal hospital, Woodend Hospital, which specialises in rehabilitation and long term illnesses and conditions, and City Hospital & Woolmanhill Hospital, which host several out-patient clinics and offices.

Albyn Hospital is a private hospital located in the west end of the city.

Aberdeen City Council is responsible for city owned infrastructure which is paid for by a mixture of council tax and income from HM Treasury. Infrastructure and services run by the council include: clearing snow in winter, city wardens, maintaining parks, refuse collection, sewage, street cleaning and street lighting. Infrastructure in private hands includes electricity, gas and telecoms. Water supplies are provided by Scottish Water.

  • Police: Policing in Aberdeen is the responsibility of Grampian Police (the British Transport Police has responsibility for railways). The Grampian Police headquarters (and Aberdeen divisional headquarters) is located in Queen Street, Aberdeen.

  Twin cities

Aberdeen is twinned with:

  Notable people

  Fictional references

  • Stuart MacBride's crime novels, Cold Granite, Dying Light, Broken Skin, Flesh House, Blind Eye and Dark Blood (a series with main protagonist, DS Logan MacRae) are all set in Aberdeen. DS Logan MacRae is a Grampian Police officer and locations found in the books can be found in Aberdeen and the surrounding countryside.
  • A large part of the plot of the World War II spy thriller Eye of the Needle takes place in wartime Aberdeen, from which a German spy is trying to escape to a submarine waiting offshore.
  • Stewart Home's sex and literary obsessed contemporary novel 69 Things to Do with a Dead Princess is set in Aberdeen
  • A portion of Ian Rankin's novel Black and Blue (1997) is set in Aberdeen.
  • Sarah Jane Smith from the popular sci-fi show Doctor Who was accidentally returned to Aberdeen instead of her home in South Croydon by the fourth incarnation of the Doctor.
  • The successful Channel 4 sitcom Peep Show (TV series) makes occasional reference to Aberdeen, as the employer of one of the main characters has an office in Aberdeen. In one episode Mark Corrigan is desperate to be put on secondment to Aberdeen so as to spend some time with his love interest, Sophie, whilst in another episode, Mark's boss, Alan Johnston, announces that he is "just back from Aberdeen."
  • The fictional character Groundskeeper Willie, a recurring character on the USA TV show "The Simpsons" is heard cheering "Go Aberdeen" upon waking up from a dream in the episode titled 'Scuse Me While I Miss the Sky. Also, in an episode when Homer and Mr Burns go to Loch Ness in search of the Loch Ness Monster, they discover a fake version of the monster with graffiti which reads 'Stomp Aberdeen'. Homer then goes on to proclaim that 'Aberdeen rules!'. This is in spite of the fact that Groundskeeper Willie does not have an Aberdeen accent.
  • Star Trek's chief engineer, Mr. Scott, in the episode "Wolf in the Fold", described himself as "an old Aberdeen pub crawler", but the Canadian actor James Doohan does not speak with an Aberdeenshire accent.
  • Auberdine, a town located in Darkshore in the game World of Warcraft, is a possible reference to the city of Aberdeen.

  See also

Scotland United Kingdom European Union

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  Further reading

  • Carter, Jennifer (1994). Crown and Gown: Illustrated History of the University of Aberdeen, 1495-1995. Aberdeen University Press. ISBN 1-85752-240-0. 
  • Fraser, W. Hamish (2000). Aberdeen, 1800 to 2000: A New History. Tuckwell Press. ISBN 1-86232-175-2. 
  • Keith,, Alexander (1987). A Thousand Years of Aberdeen. Aberdeen University Press. ISBN 0-900015-29-2. 

  External links

   
               

 

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