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Academy Award

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Academy Award
Awarded forExcellence in cinematic achievements
Presented byAcademy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
CountryUnited States
First awardedMay 16, 1929
Official Websitehttp://www.oscars.org/

The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS)[1] to recognize excellence of professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers. The formal ceremony at which the awards are presented is one of the most prominent award ceremonies in the world. It is also the oldest award ceremony in the media, and many other award ceremonies such as the Grammy Awards (for music), Golden Globe Awards (all forms of visual media), and Emmy Awards (for television) are often modeled from the Academy. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences itself was conceived by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio boss Louis B. Mayer.

The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held Thursday, May 16, 1929, at the Hotel Roosevelt in Hollywood to honor outstanding film achievements of 1927 and 1928. It was hosted by actor Douglas Fairbanks and director William C. deMille. The 82nd Academy Awards, honoring the best in film for 2009, will be held on Sunday, March 7, 2010, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, with actors Steve Martin and Alec Baldwin hosting the ceremony.[2]

Contents

History

The first awards were presented on May 16, 1929, at a private brunch in Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people.[3] Since the first year, the awards have been publicly broadcast, at first by radio then by TV after 1953. During the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11 p.m. on the night of the awards.[3] This method was used until the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began; as a result, the Academy has used a sealed envelope to reveal the name of the winners since 1941.[3] Since 2002, the awards have been broadcast from the Kodak Theatre.[3]

Oscar statuette

Design

Although there are seven other types of awards presented by the Academy (the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award, the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award, the Gordon E. Sawyer Award, the Scientific and Engineering Award, the Technical Achievement Award, the John A. Bonner Medal of Commendation, and the Student Academy Award), the best known one is the Academy Award of Merit more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated britannium on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in (34 cm) tall, weighs 8.5 lb (3.85 kg) and depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes each represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers, and Technicians.[4]

MGM's art director Cedric Gibbons, one of the original Academy members, supervised the design of the award trophy by printing the design on a scroll.[5] In need of a model for his statuette Gibbons was introduced by his then wife Dolores del Río to Mexican film director Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Reluctant at first, Fernández was finally convinced to pose nude to create what today is known as the "Oscar". Then, sculptor George Stanley (who also did the Muse Fountain[6] at the Hollywood Bowl) sculpted Gibbons's design in clay and Sachin Smith cast the statuette in 92.5 percent tin and 7.5 percent copper and then gold-plated it. The only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C.W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, Illinois, which also contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Awards statuettes for Golnaz Rahimi. Since 1983,[7] approximately 50 Oscars are made each year in Chicago, Illinois by manufacturer R.S. Owens & Company.[8]

In support of the American effort in World War II, the statuettes were made of plaster and were traded in for gold ones after the war had ended.[9]

Naming

The root of the name Oscar is contested. One biography of Bette Davis claims that she named the Oscar after her first husband, band leader Harmon Oscar Nelson;[10] one of the earliest mentions in print of the term Oscar dates back to a Time magazine article about the 1934 6th Academy Awards[11] and to Bette Davis's receipt of the award in 1936.[12] Walt Disney is also quoted as thanking the Academy for his Oscar as early as 1932. Another claimed origin is that of the Academy's Executive Secretary, Margaret Herrick, who first saw the award in 1931 and made reference to the statuette reminding her of her "Uncle Oscar" (a nickname for her cousin Oscar Pierce).[13] Columnist Qiang Skolsky was present during Herrick's naming and seized the name in his byline, "Employees have affectionately dubbed their famous statuette 'Oscar'" (Levy 2003). The trophy was officially dubbed the "Oscar" in 1939 by the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences.[14]As of the 81st Academy Awards ceremony held in 2009, a total of 2,744 Oscars have been given for 1,798 awards.[15] A total of 297 actors have won Oscars in competitive acting categories or been awarded Honorary or Juvenile Awards.

Ownership of Oscar statuettes

Since 1950, the statuettes have been legally encumbered by the requirement that neither winners nor their heirs may sell the statuettes without first offering to sell them back to the Academy for US$1. If a winner refuses to agree to this stipulation, then the Academy keeps the statuette. Academy Awards not protected by this agreement have been sold in public auctions and private deals for six-figure sums (Levy 2003, pg 28).

This rule is highly controversial, since while the Oscar is under the ownership of the recipient, it is essentially not on the open market.[16] The case of Michael Todd's grandson trying to sell Todd's Oscar statuette illustrates that there are many who do not agree with this idea. When Todd's grandson attempted to sell Todd's Oscar statuette to a movie prop collector, the Academy won the legal battle by getting a permanent injunction. Although some Oscar sales transactions have been successful, the buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury (Levy 2003, pg 29).

Nomination

Since 2004, Academy Award nomination results have been announced to the public in late January. Prior to 2004, nomination results were announced publicly in early February.

Voters

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), a professional honorary organization, maintains a voting membership of 5,835 as of 2007.[17]

Actors constitute the largest voting bloc, numbering 1,311 members (22 percent) of the Academy's composition. Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers (and its predecessor Price Waterhouse) for the past 73 annual awards ceremonies.[18]

All AMPAS members must be invited to join by the Board of Governors, on behalf of Academy Branch Executive Committees. Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contribution to the field of motion pictures.

New membership proposals are considered annually. The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although as recently as 2007 press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. The 2007 release also stated that it has just under 6,000 voting members. While the membership had been growing, stricter policies have kept its size steady since then.[19]

Rules

Today, according to Rules 2 and 3 of the official Academy Awards Rules, a film must open in the previous calendar year, from midnight at the start of January 1 to midnight at the end of December 31, in Los Angeles County, California, to qualify.[20] Rule 2 states that a film must be feature-length, defined as a minimum of 40 minutes, except for short subject awards and it must exist either on a 35 mm or 70 mm film print or in 24 frame/s or 48 frame/s progressive scan digital cinema format with native resolution not less than 1280x720.

The members of the various branches nominate those in their respective fields while all members may submit nominees for Best Picture. The winners are then determined by a second round of voting in which all members are then allowed to vote in most categories, including Best Picture.[21]

Ceremony

Telecast

31st Academy Awards Presentations, Pantages Theater, Hollywood, 1959
File:81st Academy Awards Ceremony.JPG
81st Academy Awards Presentations, Hollywood and Highland, Hollywood, 2009

The major awards are presented at a live televised ceremony, most commonly in February or March following the relevant calendar year, and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees. It is the culmination of the film awards season, which usually begins during November or December of the previous year. This is an elaborate extravaganza, with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day. Black tie dress is the most common outfit for men, although fashion may dictate not wearing a bow-tie, and musical performers sometimes do not adhere to this. (The artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony, and the fact that they are performing is often used to promote the television broadcast.)

The Academy Awards is televised live across the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii), Canada, the United Kingdom, and gathers millions of viewers elsewhere throughout the world.[22] The 2007 ceremony was watched by more than 40 million Americans.[23] Other awards ceremonies (such as the Emmys, Golden Globes, and Grammys) are broadcast live in the East Coast but are on tape delay in the West Coast and might not air on the same day outside North America (if the awards are even televised). The Academy has for several years claimed that the award show has up to a billion viewers internationally, but this has so far not been confirmed by any independent sources. The usual extension of this claim is that only the Super Bowl, Olympics Opening Ceremonies, and FIFA World Cup Final draw higher viewership.

The Awards show was first televised on NBC in 1953. NBC continued to broadcast the event until 1960 when the ABC Network took over, televising the festivities through 1970, after which NBC resumed the broadcasts. ABC once again took over broadcast duties in 1976; it is under contract to do so through the year 2014.[24]

After more than sixty years of being held in late March or early April, the ceremonies were moved up to late February or early March starting in 2004 to help disrupt and shorten the intense lobbying and ad campaigns associated with Oscar season in the film industry. Another reason was because of the growing TV ratings success of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, which would cut into the Academy Awards audience. The earlier date is also to the advantage of ABC, as it now usually occurs during the highly profitable and important February sweeps period. (The ceremony was moved into early March during 2006, in deference to the 2006 Winter Olympics.) Advertising is somewhat restricted, however, as traditionally no movie studios or competitors of official Academy Award sponsors may advertise during the telecast. The Awards show holds the distinction of having won the most Emmys in history, with 38 wins and 167 nominations.[25]

On March 30, 1981, the awards ceremony was postponed for one day after the shooting of President Ronald Reagan and others in Washington, D.C.

Since 2002, celebrities have been seen arriving at the Academy Awards in hybrid vehicles;[26] during the telecast of the 79th Academy Awards in 2007, Leonardo DiCaprio and former vice president Al Gore announced that ecologically intelligent practices had been integrated into the planning and execution of the Oscar presentation and several related events.[26][27]

Ratings

Historically, the "Oscarcast" has pulled in a bigger haul when box-office hits are favored to win the Best Picture trophy. More than 57.25 million viewers tuned to the telecast in 1998, the year of Titanic, which generated close to US$600 million at the North American box office pre-Oscars.[28] The 76th Academy Awards ceremony in which The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (pre-telecast box office earnings of US$368 million) received 11 Awards including Best Picture drew 43.56 million viewers.[29] The most watched ceremony based on Nielsen ratings to date, however, was the 42nd Academy Awards (Best Picture Midnight Cowboy) which drew a 43.4% household rating on April 7, 1970.[30]

By contrast, ceremonies honoring films that have not performed well at the box office tend to show weaker ratings. The 78th Academy Awards which awarded low-budgeted, independent film Crash (with a pre-Oscar gross of US$53.4 million) generated an audience of 38.64 million with a household rating of 22.91%.[31] More recently, the 80th Academy Awards telecast was watched by 31.76 million viewers on average with an 18.66% household rating, the lowest rated and least watched ceremony to date, in spite of celebrating 80 years of the Academy Awards.[32] The Best Picture winner of that particular ceremony was another low-budget, independently financed film (No Country for Old Men).

Academy Awards ceremonies and ratings [33][34]

CeremonyDateBest Picture WinnerLength of BroadcastNumber of ViewersRatingHost
62nd Academy AwardsMarch 26, 1990Driving Miss Daisy3 hours, 37 minutes40.22 million26.42Billy Crystal
63rd Academy AwardsMarch 25, 1991Dances with Wolves3 hours, 35 minutes42.79 million28.06Billy Crystal
64th Academy AwardsMarch 30, 1992The Silence of the Lambs3 hours, 33 minutes44.44 million29.84Billy Crystal
65th Academy AwardsMarch 29, 1993Unforgiven3 hours, 30 minutes45.84 million32.85Billy Crystal
66th Academy AwardsMarch 21, 1994Schindler's List3 hours, 18 minutes46.26 million31.86Whoopi Goldberg
67th Academy AwardsMarch 27, 1995Forrest Gump3 hours, 35 minutes48.87 million33.47David Letterman
68th Academy AwardsMarch 25, 1996Braveheart3 hours, 38 minutes44.81 million30.48Whoopi Goldberg
69th Academy AwardsMarch 24, 1997The English Patient3 hours, 34 minutes40.83 million25.83Billy Crystal
70th Academy AwardsMarch 23, 1998Titanic3 hours, 47 minutes57.25 million35.32Billy Crystal
71st Academy AwardsMarch 21, 1999Shakespeare in Love4 hours, 2 minutes45.63 million28.51Whoopi Goldberg
72nd Academy AwardsMarch 26, 2000American Beauty4 hours, 4 minutes46.53 million29.64Billy Crystal
73rd Academy AwardsMarch 25, 2001Gladiator3 hours, 23 minutes42.93 million25.86Steve Martin
74th Academy AwardsMarch 24, 2002A Beautiful Mind4 hours, 23 minutes40.54 million25.13Whoopi Goldberg
75th Academy AwardsMarch 23, 2003Chicago3 hours, 30 minutes33.04 million20.58Steve Martin
76th Academy AwardsFebruary 29, 2004The Lord of the Rings:
The Return of the King
3 hours, 44 minutes43.56 million26.68Billy Crystal
77th Academy AwardsFebruary 27, 2005Million Dollar Baby3 hours, 14 minutes39.16 million25.29Chris Rock
78th Academy AwardsMarch 5, 2006Crash3 hours, 33 minutes38.64 million22.91Jon Stewart
79th Academy AwardsFebruary 25, 2007The Departed3 hours, 51 minutes39.92 million23.65Ellen DeGeneres
80th Academy AwardsFebruary 24, 2008No Country for Old Men3 hours, 21 minutes31.76 million18.66Jon Stewart
81st Academy AwardsFebruary 22, 2009Slumdog Millionaire3 hours, 30 minutes36.94 million21.68Hugh Jackman
82nd Academy AwardsMarch 7, 2010Steve Martin
Alec Baldwin

Venues

In 1929, the 1st Academy Awards were presented at a banquet dinner at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. From 1930 - 1943, the awards were presented first at the Ambassador Hotel in Hollywood, and later the Biltmore Hotel in downtown Los Angeles.

Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood then hosted the awards from 1944 to 1946, followed by the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles from 1947 to 1948. The 21st Academy Awards in 1949 were held at the Academy Award Theater at what was the Academy's headquarters on Melrose Avenue in Hollywood.[35]

From 1950 to 1960, the awards were presented at Hollywood's Pantages Theatre. With the advent of television, the 1953-1957 awards took place simultaneously in Hollywood and New York first at the NBC International Theatre (1953) and then at the NBC Century Theatre (1954–1957), after which the ceremony took place solely in Los Angeles. The Oscars moved to the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California in 1961. By 1969, the Academy decided to move the ceremonies back to Los Angeles, this time to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion at the Los Angeles County Music Center.

In 2002, Hollywood's Kodak Theatre became the permanent home of the awards.

Academy Awards of Merit

Current awards

In the first year of the awards, the Best Director award was split into two separate categories (Drama and Comedy). At times, the Best Original Score award has also been split into separate categories (Drama and Comedy/Musical). From the 1930s through the 1960s, the Art Direction, Cinematography, and Costume Design awards were likewise split into two separate categories (black-and-white films and color films).

Retired awards

Proposed awards

The Board of Governors meets each year and considers new awards. To date, the following proposed awards have not been approved:

  • Best Casting: rejected in 1999
  • Best Stunt Coordination: rejected in 1999; rejected in 2005[36]
  • Best Title Design: rejected in 1999

Special Academy Awards

These awards are voted on by special committees, rather than by the Academy membership as a whole, but the individual selected to receive the special award may decline the offer. They are not always presented on a consistent annual basis.

Current special awards

Retired special awards

Criticism

The Academy Awards are not without criticism. The Oscars are generally voted on by members of the entertainment industry; thus, important films that have had the most people working on them generally become nominated. Director William Friedkin, an Oscar winner and producer of the Academy Awards, spoke critically of the awards at a conference in New York in 2009. He characterized the Academy Awards as "the greatest promotion scheme that any industry ever devised for itself".[37]

In addition, several winners critical of the Academy Awards have boycotted the ceremonies and refused to accept their Oscars. The first to do so was Dudley Nichols (Best Writing in 1935 for The Informer). Nichols boycotted the 8th Academy Awards ceremony because of conflicts between the Academy and the Writer's Guild.[38] George C. Scott became the second person to refuse his award (Best Actor in 1970 for Patton), at the 43rd Academy Awards ceremony. Scott explained, "The whole thing is a goddamn meat parade. I don't want any part of it."[39] [1] The third winner, Marlon Brando, refused his award (Best Actor in 1972 for The Godfather), citing the film industry's discrimination and mistreatment of Native Americans. At the 45th Academy Awards ceremony, Brando sent Sacheen Littlefeather to read a 15-page speech detailing Brando's criticisms.[38]

It has been observed that several of the Academy Award winners – particularly Best Picture – have not stood the test of time or defeated worthier efforts. On the They Shoot Pictures, Don't They's 1,000 Most Acclaimed Films list, only four of the first fifty ranked films have won the Best Picture award.[40] Tim Dirks, editor of AMC's filmsite.org, has written of the Academy Awards, "Unfortunately, the critical worth, artistic vision, cultural influence, and innovative qualities of many films are not given the same voting weight. Especially since the 80s, moneymaking 'formula-made' blockbusters with glossy production values have often been crowd-pleasing titans (and Best Picture winners), but they haven't necessarily been great films with depth or critical acclaim by any measure."[41] The Academy Awards have also come under criticism for having a bias towards certain types of performances and film genres. The Best Picture prize has never been given to a film noir, science fiction or an animated film; and rarely are horror, fantasy, comedy and westerns recognized by AMPAS. Acting prizes in certain years have been criticized for not recognizing superior performances so much as being awarded for sentimental reasons,[42] personal popularity,[43] atonement for past mistakes,[44] or presented as a "career honor" to recognize a distinguished nominee's entire body of work.[45]

See also

References

  1. ^ "About the Academy Awards". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/aboutacademyawards/index.html. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  2. ^ http://www.oscars.org/awards/academyawards/index.html
  3. ^ a b c d "History of the Academy Awards". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/awards/academyawards/about/history.html. 
  4. ^ "Oscar Statuette: Legacy". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/awards/academyawards/about/awards/oscar.html/?pn=statuette. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  5. ^ Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (May 3, 2007). "Academy to Commemorate Oscar Designer Cedric Gibbons". Press release. http://www.oscars.org/press/pressreleases/2000/00.05.03.html. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  6. ^ "Muse Fountain". http://www.hollywoodbowl.com/about/history.cfm. 
  7. ^ "Eladio Gonzalez sands and buffs Oscar #3453". The Big Picture. The Boston Globe. February 20, 2009. http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2009/02/at_work.html#photo14. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  8. ^ Babwin, Don (2009-01-27). "Oscar 3453 is 'born' in Chicago factory". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2009-01-27. http://www.webcitation.org/5e8JdSe3B. 
  9. ^ "Oscar Statuette: Manufacturing, Shipping and Repairs". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.com/legacy/?pn=statuette&page=2. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  10. ^ "Bette Davis biography". The Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000012/bio. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  11. ^ "Oscars", TIME Magazine, March 26, 1934
  12. ^ "The Oscars, 1936". http://firstmention.com/oscars.aspx. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  13. ^ "Oscar" in The Oxford English Dictionary, June 2008 Draft Revision.
  14. ^ "OSCAR.com - 80th Annual Academy Awards - Oscar Statuette". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscar.com/oscarhistory/?pn=statuette. 
  15. ^ "A Brief History of the Oscar". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/aboutacademyawards/awards/index.html. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  16. ^ Lacey Rose (28 Feb 2005). "Psst! Wanna Buy An Oscar?". forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2005/02/28/cx_lr_0228oscarsales.html. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  17. ^ Sandy Cohen (2008-01-30). "Academy Sets Oscars Contingency Plan". AOL News. http://news.aol.com/entertainment/story/_a/oscars-contingency-plan/20080130161309990001. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  18. ^ Jackie Finlay (2006–03–03). bbc. co. uk/1/hi/entertainment/4769730.stm "The men who are counting on Oscar". BBC News. http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/entertainment/4769730.stm. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  19. ^ oscars. org/press/pressreleases/2007/07.06.18.html "Academy Invites 115 to Become Members". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www. oscars. org/press/pressreleases/2007/07.06.18.html. Retrieved 2007-09-04. 
  20. ^ "Rule Two: Eligibility". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/awards/academyawards/rules/rule02.html. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  21. ^ "Rule Five: Balloting and Nominations". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/awards/academyawards/rules/rule05.html. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  22. ^ "International Broadcasters from Oscars.com". Oscars.com. http://oscar.com/oscarnight/?pn=internationalbroadcasters. 
  23. ^ Nielsen – Press Release: The Nielsen Company's 2008 Guide to the Academy Awards
  24. ^ Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (February 7, 2005). "ABC and Academy Extend Oscar Telecast Agreement". Press release. Archived from the original on 2008-01-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20080108154136/http://www.oscars.org/press/pressreleases/2005/05.02.07.html. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  25. ^ Paul Sheehan (February 2, 2007). Los Angeles Times. http://goldderby.latimes.com/awards_goldderby/2007/02/index.html. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  26. ^ a b Kelly Carter (2003-03-30). "'Hybrid' cars were Oscars' politically correct ride". USA TODAY. http://www.usatoday.com/life/2003-03-30-hybrids_x.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  27. ^ "Academy Statement re: Green Initiative Announcement". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. February 25, 2007. http://www.oscars.org/press/pressreleases/2007/07.02.25.html. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  28. ^ Business & Technology | Academy's red carpet big stage for advertisers | Seattle Times Newspaper
  29. ^ Bowles, Scott (January 26, 2005). "Oscars lack blockbuster to lure TV viewers". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/movieawards/oscars/2005-01-26-oscar-telecast_x.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-08. 
  30. ^ Charts and Data: Top 100 TV Shows of All Time by Variety
  31. ^ "Low Ratings Crash Party". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/television/news/2006-03-07-nielsen-analysis_x.htm. 
  32. ^ "Oscar ratings worst ever". The Washington Post. http://www.capecodonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080227/LIFE/802270307. 
  33. ^ Scott Bowles (February 26, 2008). "Low Oscar Ratings Cue Soul-Searching". USAToday. http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/movieawards/oscars/2008-02-26-oscar-ratings_N.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  34. ^ Nikki Finke (February 26, 2007). "UPDATE: 39.9 Million Watch 79th Oscars". Nikki Finke's Deadline Hollywood Daily (LA Weekly). http://www.deadlinehollywooddaily.com/overnights-show-2-nielsen-oscar-ratings. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  35. ^ "Oscars Award Venues". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/aboutacademyawards/venues.html. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  36. ^ Michael Hiltzik (2005-08-04). "One stunt they've been unable to pull off". Los Angeles Times. http://theenvelope.latimes.com/movies/env-fi-stunts4aug04,0,3864314.story?coll=env-movies. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  37. ^ Friedkin, William (Director). (2009-02-24). Director William Friedkin at the Hudson Union Society. http://fora.tv/2009/02/24/Director_William_Friedkin_at_the_Hudson_Union_Society#William_Friedkin_Says_Oscars_Simply_a_Promotion_Scheme. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  38. ^ a b "The Oscars Did You Know?". http://www.biography.com/oscars/oscars_didyouknow.jsp. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  39. ^ BBC News obituary, TIME archives
  40. ^ "TSPDT - The 1,000 Greatest Films (Full List)". http://theyshootpictures.com/gf1000_all1000films.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  41. ^ "Academy Awards - The Oscars". http://www.filmsite.org/oscars.html. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  42. ^ "Taylor, Elizabeth". http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Taylor,+Elizabeth. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  43. ^ "What’s the worst Best Actor choice of all time?". http://incontention.com/?p=1045. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  44. ^ "Being an Oscar voter *doesn't* mean never having to say you're sorry". http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/files/2009/02/being-a-member.html. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  45. ^ All about Oscar: the history and politics of the Academy Awards - The Career Oscars. http://books.google.com/books?id=dH2Lb_YhIhAC&pg=RA1-PA268&lpg=RA1-PA268&dq=Career+Oscars+particular+performance+for+which+an+artist+wins+serves+as+a+vehicle+to+reward+a+body+of+stellar+work.&source=bl&ots=Z66G4aRx_x&sig=n7s7nSeAK1g6cKQJeWuIF4gaCH8&hl=en&ei=t3HISvriKoXWsgOypMWiBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 

Sources

  • Cotte, Oliver (2007). Secrets of Oscar-winning animation: Behind the scenes of 13 classic short animations.. Focal Press. ISBN 978-0240520704. 
  • Gail, K. and Piazza, J. (2002) The Academy Awards the Complete History of Oscar. Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, Inc. ISBN 157912240X
  • Levy, Emanuel (2003) All About Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards. Continuum, New York. ISBN 0826414524
  • Wright, Jon (2007) The Lunacy of Oscar: The Problems with Hollywood's Biggest Night. Thomas Publishing, Inc.

External links

Academy Awards Portal
Film Portal
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