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Adobe Photoshop

                   
Adobe Photoshop
Adobe Photoshop CS6 Icon
Photoshop CS6.png
Adobe Photoshop CS6 running on Mac OS X Lion
Developer(s) Adobe Systems
Stable release CS6 (13.0) April 23, 2012; 57 days ago (2012-04-23)[1]
Written in C++[2]
Operating system At least Windows XP with Service Pack 3 or Mac OS X 10.5.8[3][4]
Platform IA-32 and x86-64
Available in 27 languages
Type Raster graphics editor
License Proprietary
Website adobe.com/photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems.

Adobe's 2003 "Creative Suite" rebranding led to Adobe Photoshop 8's renaming to Adobe Photoshop CS. Thus, Adobe Photoshop CS6 is the 13th major release of Adobe Photoshop. The CS rebranding also resulted in Adobe offering numerous software packages containing multiple Adobe programs for a reduced price. Adobe Photoshop is released in two editions: Adobe Photoshop, and Adobe Photoshop Extended, with the Extended having extra 3D image creation, motion graphics editing, and advanced image analysis features.[5] Adobe Photoshop Extended is included in all of Adobe's Creative Suite offerings except Design Standard, which includes the Adobe Photoshop edition.

Alongside Photoshop and Photoshop Extended, Adobe also publishes Photoshop Elements and Photoshop Lightroom, collectively called "The Adobe Photoshop Family". In 2008, Adobe released Adobe Photoshop Express, a free web-based image editing tool to edit photos directly on blogs and social networking sites; in 2011 a version was released for the Android operating system and the iOS operating system.[6][7]

Adobe only supports Windows and Macintosh versions of Photoshop, but using Wine, Photoshop CS5 can run well on Linux.[8]

Contents

  Early history

In 1987, Thomas Knoll, a PhD student at the University of Michigan began writing a program on his Macintosh Plus to display grayscale images on a monochrome display. This program, called Display, caught the attention of his brother John Knoll, an Industrial Light & Magic employee, who recommended that Thomas turn it into a fully-fledged image editing program. Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in 1988 to collaborate with his brother on the program. Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was already taken.[9] Later that year, Thomas renamed his program Photoshop and worked out a short-term deal with scanner manufacturer Barneyscan to distribute copies of the program with a slide scanner; a "total of about 200 copies of Photoshop were shipped" this way.[10]

During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September 1988.[9] While John worked on plug-ins in California, Thomas remained in Ann Arbor writing code. Photoshop 1.0 was released in 1990 for Macintosh exclusively.[11]

  File format

Photoshop files have default file extension as .PSD, which stands for "Photoshop Document." A PSD file stores an image with support for most imaging options available in Photoshop. These include layers with masks, color spaces, ICC profiles, CMYK Mode (used for commercial printing), transparency, text, alpha channels and spot colors, clipping paths, and duotone settings. This is in contrast to many other file formats (e.g. .EPS or .GIF) that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30,000 pixels.

Photoshop files sometimes have the file extension .PSB, which stands for "Photoshop Big" (also known as "large document format"). A PSB file extends the PSD file format, increasing the maximum height and width to 300,000 pixels. That limit was apparently chosen somewhat arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints (it is not close to a power of two, as is 30,000) but for ease of software testing. PSD and PSB formats are documented.[12]

Because of Photoshop's popularity, PSD files are widely used and supported to some extent by most competing software. The .PSD file format can be exported to and from Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Premiere Pro, and After Effects, to make professionastandard DVDs and provide non-linear editing and special effects services, such as backgrounds, textures, and so on, for television, film, and the web. Photoshop's primarystrength is as a pixel-based image editor, unlike vector-based image editors. However, Photoshop also enables the creation, incorporation, and manipulation of vector graphics through its Paths, Pen tools, Shape tools, Shape Layers, Type tools, Import command, and Smart object functions. These tools and commands are convenient when you want to combine pixel-based and vector-based images in one Photoshop document, because you may not have to use more than one program. However, if you want to create very complex vector graphics with numerous shapes and colors, you may find it easier to use software that was created primarily for that purpose, such as Adobe Illustrator, CorelDRAW or Xara Designer Pro. If you want to import the complex vector object into Photoshop, you can import it as a Smart Object. Double-click on Photoshop's layers palette to open the object in its original software, such as Adobe Illustrator. You can make changes. When you save, Photoshop will update the Smart Object.

  Language availabilities

Photoshop is available in the following languages:

Brazilian Portuguese, Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish and Ukrainian.[13]

The Arabic, Greek, and Hebrew versions are available from Winsoft.[13]

  Plugins

Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins (or plug-ins). Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe's specifications. Some are free and some are commercial software. Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications.

There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, and automation. The most popular plugins are the filter plugins (also known as a 8bf plugins), available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content. Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:

  • Color correction plugins (Alien Skin Software,[14] Nik Software,[15] OnOne Software,[16] Topaz Labs Software,[17] The Plugin Site,[18] etc.)
  • Special effects plugins (Alien Skin Software, Auto FX Software,[19] AV Bros.,[20] Flaming Pear Software,[21] etc.)
  • 3D effects plugins (Andromeda Software,[22] Strata,[23] etc.)

Adobe Camera Raw (also known as ACR and Camera Raw) is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resultant images can be processed by Photoshop.[24] You use Camera Raw by opening an image file, rather than using the 'Filter' menu. Like other plugins, Camera Raw's help information is in the 'Help > About Plug-In' menu (as "Camera Raw"). You can use Camera Raw also by Adobe Bridge, by clicking on any image and selecting 'File > Open in Adobe Camera Raw'.

  Tools

Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen. These tools typically fall under the categories of cropping and slicing; drawing; painting; measuring and navigation; selection; typing; and retouching.[25] Some tools contain a small triangle in the bottom right of the toolbox icon. These can be expanded to reveal similar tools.[26] While newer versions of Photoshop are updated to include new tools and features, several recurring tools that exist in most versions are discussed below.

  Cropping and Slicing

The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside of the chosen section. This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and excluding unnecessary or excess space.[27]

The "slice" and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of images. The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied.[28] The slice select tool allows sliced sections of an image to be adjusted and shifted.[28]

  Drawing

Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool. The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points.[25] The freeform pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background.[29]

  Painting

A few of the painting tools in Photoshop are the brush, pencil, gradient and paint bucket tools. These can be used to retouch images by altering and adding colored pixels.[30] Original paintings can be created using the brush tool, since it has many different default brush-tips, and brush strokes be easily adjusted in size, shape and texture.[30] There is an option to create custom brushes to suit the user's needs, and original brushes and brush packages can be found on the web.[31]

The pencil tool allows the user to paint rough strokes on the canvas, creating a similar effect to a real pencil on paper.[25] The gradient, fill and paint bucket tools are similar to each other, as they each fill areas of the canvas with color.[31]

  Measuring and Navigation

The eyedropper tool selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and samples it for future use.[25] The hand tool navigates an image by moving it in any direction, and the zoom tool enlarges the part of an image that is clicked on, allowing for a closer view.[25]

  Selection

The marquee tool can make selections that are single row, single column, rectangular and elliptical.[25] Once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas.[25] The lasso tool is similar to the marquee tool, however, the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand. In addition, the lasso tool can make magnetic and polygonal selections.[25]

  Typing

Photoshop also provides tools for adding and editing text. The type tools create an area where text can be entered, and the type mask tools create a selection area that has the shape of text.[25] The type tool creates vector-based text, so symbols, letters and numbers in various fonts and colors can be re-sized while maintaining the same resolution.[32]

  Retouching

There are several tools that are used for retouching, manipulating and adjusting photos, such as the clone stamp, eraser, burn, dodge, smudge and blur tools.[25] The clone stamp tool samples a selected portion of an image, and duplicates it over another area using a brush that can be adjusted in size, flow and opacity.[25] The smudge tool, when dragged across part of an image, stretches and smudges pixels as if they are real paint, and the blur tool softens portions of an image by lowering the amount of detail within the adjusted area.[33] The eraser tool removes pixels from an image, and the magic eraser tool selects areas of solid color and erases them.[25] The burn and dodge tools, which are derived from traditional methods of adjusting the exposure on printed photos, have opposite effects; the burn tool darkens selected areas, and the dodge tool lightens them.[33]

  Content-Aware

Content-awareness is a useful aspect of Photoshop where image editing is done automatically and intelligently. It comes in two forms which are content-aware scaling and content-aware filling, in which elements in a background automatically recompose according to the areas a user of the program decides to fill or scale. More specifically, content-aware scaling works by rescaling an image and causing its content to adapt to the new dimensions and preserving important areas of it. Content-aware filling functions by matching tone, color, and noise of an area of the image that contained an object or detail in which the user decides to remove.[34]

  Healing Tools

With improvement retouching tools like the Clone Stamp tool and Healing Brush tool, imperfections of an image can easily be removed. These tools essentially function by locating a source point (or multiple source points) that can be scaled or rotated in order to cover an imperfection or unwanted detail in a specific area of an image.[34]

  Puppet Warp

Similar to the content-aware tool, the puppet warp tool reveals Photoshop’s intelligence by allowing a user to reposition an object in an image such as a flower or arm. This is done by using points that outline the structure of an object and easily repositioning in the wanted orientation.[34]

  Video Editing

In Adobe CS5 Extended edition, video editing is comprehensive and efficient with a broad compatibility of video file formats such as MOV, AVI, FLC, MPEG-4, and FLV formats and easy workflow. Using simple combination of keys video layers can easily be modified, with other features such as adding text and the creation of animations using single images.[35]

  3D

With the Extended version of Photoshop CS5, 2D elements of an artwork can easily become three-dimensional with the click of a button. Extrusions of texts, an available library of materials for three-dimensional, and even wrapping two-dimensional images around 3D geometry are all possible with this version of Photoshop. Realism can also be added to an image using the 3D features of Photoshop such as animating image-based lights and depth of field.[35]

  Mobile Integration

Third-party plugins have also been added to the most recent version of Photoshop where technologies such as the iPad have integrated the software with different types of applications. Applications like the Adobe Eazel painting app allows the user to easily create paintings with their fingertips and use an array of different paint from dry to wet in order to create rich color blending.[34]

  Camera Raw

With the Camera Raw plug-in, RAW images can be processed without the use of Adobe Photoshop Lightroom, along with other image file formats such as JPEGs, TIFFs, or PNGs. The plug-in allows users to remove noise without the side-effect of over-sharpening, add grain, and even perform post-crop vignetting.[35]

  Techniques

Tennis player
Manipulated image
Extraction of foreground and manipulation of both foreground (artistic filter) and background (blur)

  Extracting

A widely used technique is extraction. By this technique a part of the image, normally the foreground, such as a person, is isolated from the rest of the image and put on a new background. Alternatively both background and the extracted foreground can be manipulated and put back together as shown on the example. To make the extraction a line must be drawn around the foreground figure to select it. Several tools can be used for this process for instance the lasso tool; however, in this case the filter-extraction tool has been used. The latter is normally the preferred tool for extracting figures with hair or fur.[citation needed]

  Cultural impact

Photoshop and derivatives such as Photoshopped (or just Shopped) have become verbs that are sometimes used to refer to images edited by Photoshop,[36] or any image manipulating program. "Photoshop" is also used as a noun to refer to image editing programs in general. Such derivatives are discouraged by Adobe[37] because, in order to maintain validity and protect the trademark from becoming genericized, trademarks must be used as proper adjectives.

  A landscape photo composited and manipulated in Photoshop

Photoshop art has become popular. For example, Tao Lin has a column[38] employing only Photoshop for captioned pieces of art for Vice Magazine. Flickr features many groups devoted to Photoshop art, including one with over 11,000 members.[39]

  Graphic design

Photoshop has been a useful tool for graphic designers to create artwork conveniently and aesthetically. For example, a studio based in Barcelona called Vasava use Photoshop in order to visualize their vision on an initial concept and then move onto different media to complete the concept. The studio takes traditional art and pushes the limits on the medium in order to create artwork for print and web. Some of the many other graphic design studios that use Photoshop are Zee Design and American Greetings.[40]

  Magazines

Before any type of print media is published, whether it is a magazine, newspaper, or even novel it is most likely the case Photoshop has been used to enhance and clean up the imagery and text on many if not all of the pages. Magazines use Photoshop and many of its tools in order to conveniently enhance the imagery in their magazines. Many Health and Beauty Magazines employ many in-house designers in order to retouch the photos of models to enhance their beauty and add finishing touches to the imagery by using tools that balance color and add drop shadows among other edits.[41]

  Photoshop Disasters

This is done by readers of the website who send emails to the administrator of the site who find these disasters. Many of the disasters range from missing limbs to incorrect composition to overdone photo retouching on fashion models among the many others presented on the website.[42]

  Photoshop contest

A Photoshop contest (or "photochop contest") is an online game in which someone posts an image, and other people manipulate the image using a raster graphics editor such as Photoshop.

  Version history

  CS1

The first Photoshop CS was commercially released in October 2003.[43] Photoshop CS increased user control with a reworked file browser augmenting search versatility, sorting and sharing capabilities and the Histogram Palette which monitors changes in the image as they are made to the document.[43] Match Color was also introduced in CS, which reads color data to achieve a uniform expression throughout a series of pictures.[43]

Photoshop CS integrated Camera Raw version 2.0 functionality, which enabled direct manipulation of raw media in an greater set of professional-grade digital cameras.[43]

With the implementation of Layer Comps, it was easier to quickly capture design variants in a single file, then create alternates for clients to review.[43]

Eye-catching typographic designs were possible thank to the new ability to manipulate fully editable text on any path or inside any closed path.[43] Photoshop CS enabled photographers to work more closely with raw media from even more digital cameras and included extensive editing support for 16-bit color images.[43] Color levels across images could be synchronized effortlessly with the new Match Color and Shadow/Highlight features, to cure exposure problems while maintaining mid-tones.[43]

Photoshop CS is a tool that helps design sequences for videos and films by removing the guesswork for film and video professionals.[43] The non-square pixels, typically found in videos, have been a reoccurring challenge when trying to accurately create imagery to display on screens since computer-generated graphics tend to appear distorted.[43] With non-square pixel support in Photoshop CS, videographers could see the image as it would appear on the destination device.[43] The 16-bit support in Photoshop CS preserves the rich color palette of film and the product is closely integrated with Adobe's industry-leading video editing applications: Adobe Premiere Pro, Adobe Encore DVD and Adobe After Effects.[43]

  CS2

Photoshop CS2, released in May 2005, expanded on its predecessor with a new set of tools and features.[44] One of whichs included an upgraded Spot Healing Brush, which is mainly used for handling common photographic problems such as blemishes, red-eye, noise, blurring and lens distortion.[44] One of the most significant inclusions in CS2 was the implementation of Smart Objects, which allows users to scale and transform images and vector illustrations without losing image quality as well as create linked duplicates of embedded graphics so that a single edit updates across multiple iterations.[44]

Adobe had also responded to feedback from the professional media industry by implementing non-destructive editing as well as the producing and modifying of 32-Bit High Dynamic Range (HDR) images, which are optimal for 3D rendering and advanced compositing. FireWire Previews could also be viewed on a monitor via a direct export feature.[44]

Photoshop CS2 also brought the Vanishing Point and Image Warping tools.[44] Vanishing Point makes tedious graphic and photo retouching endeavors much simpler by letting users to clone, paint and transform image objects while maintaining visual perspective.[44] Image Warping makes it easy digitally distort an image into a shape by choosing on-demand presets or by dragging control points.[44]

The File Browser had been upgraded to Adobe Bridge, which functioned as a hub for productivity, imagery and creativity, providing multi-view file browsing and smooth cross-product integration across Adobe Creative Suite 2 software.[44] Adobe Bridge also provides access to Adobe Stock Photos, a new stock photography service that offers users one-stop shopping across five elite stock image providers to deliver high-quality, royalty-free images for layout and design (see separate press release).

Camera Raw version 3.0 was also a new addition to CS2, and it allowed settings for multiple raw files to be modified simultaneously.[44] In addition, processing multiple raw files, to other formats including JPEG, TIFF, DNG or PSD, could be done in the background without executing the Photoshop itself.[44]

Photoshop CS2 also brought a streamlined interface, making it easier to access features for specific instances. In CS2 users were also given the ability to create their own custom presets, which was meant to save time and increase productivity.[44]

  CS3

Smart Objects display filters without altering the original image (here on Mac OS X)

CS3 improves on features from previous versions of Photoshop and introduces new tools. One of the most significant is the streamline interface which allows increased performance, speed, and efficiency. There is also improved support for Camera RAW files which allow users to process images with higher speed and conversion quality. CS3 supports over 150 RAW formats as well as JPEG, TIFF and PDF.[45] Enhancements were made to the Black and White Conversion, Brightness and Contrast Adjustment and Vanishing Point Module tools. The Black and White adjustment option improves control over manual grayscale conversions with a dialog box similar to that of Channel Mixer. There is more control over print options and better management with Adobe Bridge. The Clone Source palette is introduced, adding more options to the clone stamp tool.[46] Other features include the nondestructive Smart Filters, optimizing graphics for mobile devices,[46] Fill Light and Dust Busting tools.[45] Compositing is assisted with Photoshop's new Quick Selection and Refine Edge tools and improved image stitching technology.[47]

CS3 Extended includes everything in CS3 and additional features. There are tools for 3D graphic file formats, video enhancement and animation, and comprehensive image measurement and analysis tools with DICOM file support.[48] The 3D graphic formats allow 3D content to be incorporated into 2D compositions.[45] As for video editing, CS3 supports layers and video formatting so users can edit video files per frame.[45]

CS3 and CS3 Extended were released in April 2007 to the United States and Canada.[45] They were also made available through Adobe’s online store and Adobe Authorized Resellers.[45] Both CS3 and CS3 Extended are offered as either a stand-alone application or feature of Adobe Creative Suite.[45] The price for CS3 is US$649 and the extended version is US$999.[45] Both products are compatible with Intel-based Macs and PowerPCs, supporting Windows XP and Windows Vista.[45]

  CS4

CS4 features smoother panning and zooming, allowing faster image editing at a high magnification. The interface is more simplified with its tab-based interface[49] making it cleaner to work with. Photoshop CS4 features a new 3D engine allowing the conversion of gradient maps to 3D objects, adding depth to layers and text, and getting print-quality output with the new ray-tracing rendering engine. It supports common 3D formats; the new Adjustment and Mask Panels; Content-aware scaling (seam carving[50]); Fluid Canvas Rotation and File display options.[51] The Content-aware scaling allows users to intelligently size and scale images,[49] and the Canvas Rotation tool makes it easier to rotate and edit images from any angle.[49]

Adobe released Photoshop CS4 Extended, which has the features of Adobe Photoshop CS4, plus capabilities for scientific imaging, 3D, motion graphics,[49] accurate image analysis[49] and high-end film and video users. The faster 3D engine allows users to paint directly on 3D models, wrap 2D images around 3D shapes and animate 3D objects.[49] As the successor to Photoshop CS3, Photoshop CS4 is the first x64 edition of Photoshop on consumer computers for Windows.[52] The color correction tool has also been improved significantly.[49]

CS4 and CS4 Extended were released on October 15, 2008.[49] They were also made available through Adobe’s online store and Adobe Authorized Resellers.[49] Both CS4 and CS4 Extended are offered as either a stand-alone application or feature of Adobe Creative Suite. The price for CS4 is US$699 and the extended version is US$999.[49] Both products are compatible with Intel-based Mac OS X and PowerPCs, supporting Windows XP and Windows Vista.[49]

  CS5

  A 2D landscape designed in Adobe Photoshop CS5 Extended.

Photoshop CS5 was launched on April 12, 2010.[53] In a video posted on its official Facebook page, the development team revealed the new technologies under development, including three-dimensional brushes and warping tools.[54]

In May 2011, Adobe Creative Suite 5.5 (CS5.5) was released, with new versions of some of the applications. Its version of Photoshop, 12.1, is identical to the concurrently released update for Photoshop CS5, version 12.0.4, except for support for the new subscription pricing that was introduced with CS5.5.[55]

CS5 introduces new tools such as the Content-Aware Fill, Refine Edge, Mixer Brush, Bristle Tips and Puppet Warp.[56] The community also had a hand in the additions made to CS5 as 30 new features and improvements were included by request.[56] These include automatic image straightening, the Rule-of-Thirds cropping tool, color pickup and saving an 16-bit image as a JPEG.[56] Another feature includes the Adobe Mini Bridge which allows for efficient file browsing and management.[56]

CS5 Extended includes everything in CS5 plus features in 3D and video editing. A new materials library was added, providing more options such as Chrome, Glass, and Cork.[56] The new Shadow Catcher tool can be used to further enhance 3D objects.[56] For motion graphics, the tools can be applied to over more than one frame in a video sequence.[56]

CS5 and CS5 Extended were made available through Adobe's online store, Adobe Authorized Resellers and Adobe direct sales.[56] Both CS5 and CS5 Extended are offered as either a stand-alone application or feature of Adobe Creative Suite 5.[56] The price for CS5 is US$699 and the extended version is US$999.[56] Both products are compatible with Intel-based Mac OS and Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7.[57]

  CS6

On March 21, 2012, Adobe released a beta version of Photoshop CS6. It adds new creative design tools and a redesigned interface[58] with a focus on enhanced performance.[59] New features have been added to the Content-Aware tool such as the Content-Aware Patch and Content-Aware Move.[59]

Adobe Photoshop CS6 also brings suite of tools for video editing. Color and exposure adjustments, as well as layers are among a few things that are featured in this new editor. Upon completion of editing, the user is presented with a handful of options of exporting into a few popular formats.[60]

CS6 brings the "straighten" tool to Photoshop, where a user simply draws a line anywhere on an image, and the canvas will reorient itself so that the line drawn becomes horizontal, and adjusts the media accordingly. This was created with the intention that users will draw a line parallel to a plane in the image, and reorient the image to that plane to easier achieve certain perspectives.[60]

CS6 also allows background saving, which means that while another document is compiling and archiving itself, it is possible to simultaneously edit an image.[60] CS6 also features a customizable auto-save feature, preventing any work from being lost.[60]

All the tools and filters are improved and optimized in CS6.[60] Now, when a filter is applied, it will be applied to the current layer, as opposed all layers in older version of Adobe Photoshop.[60]

Adobe has responded to feedback from the graphic design community, and has modified the User Interface accordingly. Now, it boasts a more unified, static look, and is easier to keep track of all the palettes and documents.[60]

  Photoshop Touch

A special version for tablets.

  See also

  References

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  4. ^ "Photoshop CS5 Extended / Tech specs". Adobe Systems. http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshopextended/tech-specs.html. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
  5. ^ "FAQ". Adobe Systems Incorporated. http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshopextended/faq.html. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
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  8. ^ "WineHQ - Adobe Photoshop". WineHQ. http://appdb.winehq.org/objectManager.php?sClass=application&iId=17. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
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  10. ^ Story, Derrick (2000-02-18). "From Darkroom to Desktop—How Photoshop Came to Light". Story Photography. Archived from the original on 26 June 2007. http://www.storyphoto.com/multimedia/multimedia_photoshop.html. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  11. ^ Hormby, John (2007-06-05). "How Adobe's Photoshop Was Born". Story Photography. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20071011051727/http://siliconuser.com/?q=node/10. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  12. ^ Adobe (2010-07). "Adobe Photoshop File Formats Specification". http://www.adobe.com/devnet-apps/photoshop/fileformatashtml/. 
  13. ^ a b "language versions | Adobe Photoshop CS5". Adobe.com. http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop/photoshop/languages/. Retrieved 2010-05-29. 
  14. ^ "Alien Skin Software website". Alien Skin Software, LLC. http://www.alienskin.com. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
  15. ^ "Nik Software website". Nik Software Inc. http://www.niksoftware.com. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
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  20. ^ "AV Bros. website". AV Bros.. http://www.avbros.com. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
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  23. ^ "Strata website". Strata. http://www.strata.com. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
  24. ^ "Digital camera raw file support". Adobe.com. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop/cameraraw.html. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Adobe Photoshop CS3 User Guide" (PDF). Adobe Systems Incorporated. http://www.adobe.com/support/documentation/archived_content/en/photoshop/cs3/photoshop_cs3_help.pdf. Retrieved 2012-03-27. 
  26. ^ "Selecting and Displaying Tools". Adobe Systems Incorporated. http://help.adobe.com/en_US/photoshop/cs/using/WSba26e7b0742782c737607f0512417fc727b-8000.html. Retrieved 2012-03-27. 
  27. ^ "Crop Images". Adobe Systems Incorporated. http://help.adobe.com/en_US/Photoshop/11.0/WSfd1234e1c4b69f30ea53e41001031ab64-7636a.html. Retrieved 2012-03-27. 
  28. ^ a b "About sliced web pages". Adobe Systems Incorporated. http://help.adobe.com/en_US/Photoshop/11.0/WSfd1234e1c4b69f30ea53e41001031ab64-756ea.html. Retrieved 2012-03-27. 
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