» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - Agra

Agra (n.)

1.a city in northern India; former capital of the Mogul empire; site of the Taj Mahal

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

phrases

-Agra (Lok Sabha constituency) • Agra (disambiguation) • Agra (film) • Agra Air Force Station • Agra Bombay Highway • Agra Canal • Agra Cantonment • Agra City • Agra College • Agra East • Agra Fort • Agra Fort railway station • Agra Independent School District • Agra Kuz • Agra Mumbai Highway • Agra Province • Agra Road • Agra Taj Colony • Agra West • Agra district • Agra division • Agra famine of 1837–38 • Agra gharana • Agra katewinsletae • Agra liv • Agra railway division • Agra schwarzeneggeri • Agra summit • Agra, Italy • Agra, Kalloni • Agra, Kansas • Agra, Oklahoma • Agra, Punjab • Agra, Sindh • Agra, Switzerland • Anand Engineering College, Agra • B.M.A.S Engineering College, Agra • Battle of Agra • Carmen Agra Deedy • Con-Agra • Fatehabad, Agra • Idgah, Agra • Institute of Social Sciences, Agra • Intercity Express – Agra • Jama Masjid, Agra • List of Governors of Agra • List of Lieutenant Governors of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh • List of mandis in Agra • List of villages in Agra district • Moti Masjid (Agra) • Moti Masjid, Agra • Presidency of Agra • Railways in Agra • Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Agra • Sadar Bazaar, Agra • Shamsabad, Agra • St. George's College, Agra • St. John's College, Agra • St. Paul's College, Agra • St. Peter's College, Agra • The Treasures of Agra • United Provinces of Agra and Oudh

   Advertizing ▼

analogical dictionary

Wikipedia - see also

Wikipedia

Agra

                   
Agra
आगरा
—  city  —
Taj Mahal in Agra
Taj Mahal in Agra
Nickname(s): Akbarabad
Agra is located in Uttar Pradesh
Agra
Coordinates: 27°11′N 78°01′E / 27.18°N 78.02°E / 27.18; 78.02Coordinates: 27°11′N 78°01′E / 27.18°N 78.02°E / 27.18; 78.02
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Agra
Area
 • city 188.40 km2 (72.74 sq mi)
Elevation 171 m (561 ft)
Population (2010)
 • city 1,686,976
 • Rank 19
 • Density 8,954/km2 (23,190/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,727,275
Languages
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 282 X
Telephone code 91(562)
Website agra.nic.in

Agra (Listeni/ˈɑːɡrə/; Hindi: आगरा, Urdu: آ گرہ), the former capital of Hindustan, is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, 363 kilometres (226 mi) west of state capital, Lucknow and 200 kilometres (124 mi) south of the national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 (2010 est.), it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most populous in India.[1] Because 80 percent of the city's sewage flows into Yamuna River, it is 20th most polluted city in India.[2] Agra can also refer to the administrative district that has its headquarters in Agra city.

The city finds mention in the epic Mahābhārata where it was called Agrevaṇa, or 'the border of the forest'.[3] Legend ascribes the founding of the city to Rājā Badal Singh, a Sikarwar Rajput king (circa 1475), whose fort, Badalgarh, stood on or near the site of the present Fort. However, the 11th century Persian poet Mas'ūd Sa'd Salmān writes of a desperate assault on the fortress of Agra, then held by the Shāhī King Jayapala, by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni.[4] Sultan Sikandar Lodī was the first to move his capital from Delhi to Agra in the year 1506; he died in 1517 and his son Ibrāhīm Lodī remained in power there for nine more years, finally being defeated at the Battle of Panipat in 1526.[5] It achieved fame as the capital of the Mughal emperors from 1526 to 1658 and remains a major tourist destination because of its many splendid Mughal-era buildings, most notably the Tāj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpūr Sikrī, all three of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Contents

  Climate

Agra features a semiarid climate that borders on a humid subtropical climate. The city features mild winters, hot and dry summers and a monsoon season. However the monsoons, though substantial in Agra, are not quite as heavy as the monsoon in other parts of India. This is a primary factor in Agra featuring a semiarid climate as opposed to a humid subtropical climate.

Agra is mentioned in the ancient epic Mahabharata as Agraban, the sister city of the more prominent Mathura. Agra was established in 1475 by Badal Singh and came into its own when Sikander Lodhi of the Lodhi dynasty chose it for his capital because of its proximity to the Yamuna. Babur defeated the Lodhis to capture not only Agra but also to lay the foundation of the Mughal empire. In the mid-16th and earlier 17th centuries, Agra witnessed afrenzied building activity and it was during this time that the symbol of love, the Taj Mahal, was built. The buildings made during this era were purely in the contemporary Mughal style and of very high quality.

Climate data for Agra, India
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 22.3
(72.1)
25.2
(77.4)
32
(90)
38.5
(101.3)
41.6
(106.9)
40.7
(105.3)
35.2
(95.4)
33.7
(92.7)
34.4
(93.9)
34.3
(93.7)
29.7
(85.5)
24.0
(75.2)
32.63
(90.74)
Average low °C (°F) 8.0
(46.4)
10.4
(50.7)
15.9
(60.6)
22.3
(72.1)
26.4
(79.5)
28.5
(83.3)
26.8
(80.2)
25.8
(78.4)
24.4
(75.9)
19.9
(67.8)
13.7
(56.7)
9.1
(48.4)
13
(55)
Precipitation mm (inches) 9.0
(0.354)
12.0
(0.472)
10.0
(0.394)
10.0
(0.394)
16.0
(0.63)
67.0
(2.638)
196.0
(7.717)
227.0
(8.937)
113.0
(4.449)
27.0
(1.063)
3.0
(0.118)
5.0
(0.197)
695
(27.36)
humidity 64 55 45 35 34 46 72 77 67 54 56 64 55.8
Source: [6]

  Demographics

According to the 2011 India census,[7] Agra has a population of 3,575,134, while the population of Agra cantonment is 50,968 and that of Agra district is 3,620,436. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Agra district population grew by 31% in the decade 1991–2001. Roughly 57% of the population of Agra district lives in urban areas. Agra has an average literacy rate of 81%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 86% males literate. Literacy rate of males is considerably higher than that of women. Agra district literacy rate is 62.56%

Hinduism, Islam, and Jainism are three major religions in Agra district with 89.6%, 8.93%, and 0.51% of the population following them. Jatavs, Baniyas and Jats, along with dominance of Rajputs in the rural areas mainly Sikarwar, Sisodia, Chauhan, Bargujar, Tomar and Raghavs are most numerous castes in Agra. Agra is also considered as dalit capital because Jatavs form a large section of the population and maintains a substantial middle class in society. Some Scheduled Tribes like the Bhotia and Jaunsari have marginal presence (about 0.02% of the population).

52.5% of Agra's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Hindi is the most widely spoken language in Agra. Urdu and Punjabi are also spoken.

  History

Though Agra's history is largely recognised with Mughal Empire, the place was established much before it and has linkages since Mahabharat period and Mahirshi Angira in 1000 BC. It is generally accepted that Sultan Sikandar Lodī, the Ruler of the Delhi Sultanate founded Agra in the year 1504. After the Sultan's death the city passed on to his son Sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī. He ruled his Sultanate from Agra until he fell fighting to Bābar in the First battle of Panipat fought in 1526.

In the year 1556, the great Hindu warrior Hemu Vikramaditya, also known as Samrat Hem Chander Vikramaditya, won the state of Agra as the Prime Minister cum Chief of Army of Adil Shah of the Afghan Sūrī Dynasty. The commander of Humāyūn / Akbar's forces in Agra, Tardi Beg Khan, was so scared of Hemu that he retreated from the city without a fight. This was Hemu's 21st continuous win since 1554, and he later went on to conquer Delhi, having his coronation at Purānā Qil'a in Delhi on 7 October 1556 and re-established the Hindu Kingdom and the Vikramaditya Dynasty in North India.

The golden age of the city began with the Mughals. It was known then as Akbarabād and remained the capital of the Mughal Empire under the Emperors Akbar, Jahāngīr and Shāh Jahān. Shāh Jahān later shifted his capital to Shāhjahānabād in the year 1649.

Since Akbarabād was one of the most important cities in India under the Mughals, it witnessed a lot of building activity. Babar, the founder of the Mughal dynasty, laid out the first formal Persian garden on the banks of river Yamuna. The garden is called the Arām Bāgh or the Garden of Relaxation. His grandson Akbar raised the towering ramparts of the Great Red Fort, besides making Agra a center for learning, arts, commerce and religion. Akbar also built a new city on the outskirts of Akbarabād called Fatehpūr Sikrī. This city was built in the form of a Mughal military camp in stone.

His son Jahāngīr had a love of gardens and flora and fauna and laid many gardens inside the Red Fort or Lāl Qil'a. Shāh Jahān, known for his keen interest in architecture, gave Akbarabād its most prized monument, the Tāj Mahal. Built in loving memory of his wife Mumtāz Mahal, the mausoleum was completed in 1653.

Shāh Jahān later shifted the capital to Delhi during his reign, but his son Aurangzeb moved the capital back to Akbarabād, usurping his father and imprisoning him in the Fort there. Akbarabād remained the capital of India during the rule of Aurangzeb until he shifted it to Aurangabad in the Deccan in 1653. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the city came under the influence of Marathas and was called Agra, before falling into the hands of the British Raj in 1803.

  Agra, Main Street, c.1858

In 1835 when the Presidency of Agra was established by the British, the city became the seat of government, and just two years later it was witness to the Agra famine of 1837–38. During the Indian rebellion of 1857 British rule across India was threatened, news of the rebellion had reached Agra on 11 May and on 30 May two companies of native infantry, the 44th and 67th regiments, rebelled and marched to Delhi. The next morning native Indian troops in Agra were forced to disarm, on 15 June Gwalior (which lies south of Agra) rebelled. By 3 July the British were forced to withdraw into the fort. Two days later a small British force at Sucheta were defeated and forced to withdraw, this led to a mob sacking the city. However, the rebels moved onto Delhi which allowed the British to restore order by 8 July. Delhi fell to the British in September, the following month rebels who had fled Delhi along with rebels from Central India marched on Agra but were defeated. After this British rule was again secured over the city until the independence of India in 1947.[8]

Agra is the birthplace of the religion known as Dīn-i Ilāhī, which flourished during the reign of Akbar and also of the Radhaswami Faith, which has around two million followers worldwide. Agra has historic linkages with Shauripur of Jainism and Runukta of Hinduism, of 1000 BC.

Tāj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpūr Sikrī are all UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

  Transport

  Air

Agra Airport is about 12.5 km (8 mi) from the city center (Indian Air Force Airport - no scheduled commercial flights).

  Rail

Agra is on the central train line between Delhi (Station Code: NDLS) and Mumbai (Bombay) (Station Code: CSTM) and between Delhi and Chennai (Station Code: MAS) and many trains like Bhopal Shatabdi, Bhopal Express, Malwa Express, Gondwana Express, Jabalpur - Jammutawi Express, Shreedham Express, Garib Rath, Tamil Nadu Express, Chennai Rajdhni etc. connect Agra with all major Indian cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Pune, Bhopal, Indore, Kochi, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Ujjain, Jaipur, Lucknow, Thiruvananthapuram etc. every day. Some east-bound trains from Delhi also travel via Agra, so direct connections to points in Eastern India (including Kolkata) (Calcutta) are also available. There are close to 20 trains to New Delhi and Gwalior Junction every day, and at least three or four to Bhopal, Indore, Nagpur, Mumbai and Chennai. There are three main railway stations in Agra:

  • Agra Cantt (Station Code: AGC) is the main railway station and lies southwest of the Taj and Agra Fort, both of which are a short ride from the station by car, auto-rickshaw, or cycle rickshaw.

The luxury trains – the Palace on Wheels, and the Royal Rajasthan On Wheels also stop at Agra on their eight day round trip of tourist destinations in Rajasthan and Agra. The Buddhist Special Train also visits Agra.

  Road

Idgah Bus Stand, Taj Depot, Ford depot and Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) are the major Bus Stands in Agra, connecting it to most of the bigger cities in North India.

  • From Delhi: NH2, a modern divided highway, connects the 200 km (124 mi) distance from Delhi to Agra. The drive is about 4 hours. The primary access to the highway is along Mathura Road in Delhi but, if coming from South Delhi or Delhi Airport, it is easier to take Aurobindo Marg (Mehrauli Road) and then work up to NH2 via Tughlakabad.
  • From Jaipur: National Highway 11, a four lane divided highway, connects Agra with Jaipur via the bird sanctuary town of Bharatpur. The distance of around 255 km (158 mi) can be covered in around 3–4 hours.
  • From Gwalior a distance of around 120 km (75 mi), takes around 1.5 hours on National highway 3, also known as the Agra – Mumbai Highway.
  • From Lucknow / Kanpur NH2, the divided modern highway, continues on to Kanpur (285 km, 5 hours) and from there to points East ending in Kolkata. From Kanpur, NH25 heads for the city of Lucknow (90 km, 2 hours).

The Mahatma Gandhi (MG) Road which runs through the city connects it from one end to the other. In March 2010, the Uttar Pradesh government, through an open bidding process, chose Jaypee Associates to develop an Inner Ring Road to connect NH2/Yamuna Expressway in the north to NH3 in the south in a 30 month timeframe.[9][10] In September 2010, Gifford was chosen to design the road.

  Taxi

Tourists can hire a taxi for local sight seeing or Agra visit from local taxi stand. A prepaid taxi counter is available at Agra Cantt railway station.

  Local transport

Recently, under JNNURM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission) in order to revamp the city's urban infrastructure Tata-Marcopolo's city buses are being run by Agra Municipal Corporation covering the whole city in an efficient way. Other para-transit modes include rickshaws and autorickshaws. While passengers need to negotiate rates for the rickshaws and they are usually expensive, there is a system of (what is called) 'Tempo' which are autorickshaws that run on specific routes called out by the drivers. Tempos take around 6 people simultaneously and work out to be the most economical and practical. Polluting vehicles are not allowed near the Tāj Mahal, so one needs to take electric autos or Tanga (Tonga) from a few kilometres outside the Tāj Mahal.

  Places of interest

  A panoramic view of Taj Mahal, Agra

  Tāj Mahal

Agra's Taj Mahal is one of the most famous buildings in the world, the mausoleum of Shah Jahan's favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It is one of the New Seven Wonders of the world, and one of three World Heritage Sites in Agra.

  Tombs of Shah Jahan and his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
  Persian in script tajmahal

Completed in 1653, the Tāj Mahal was built by the Mughal king Shah Jahan as the final resting place for his beloved wife, Mumtāz Mahal. Finished in marble, it is perhaps India's most fascinating and beautiful monument. This perfectly symmetrical monument took 22 years (1630–1652) of labour and 20,000 workers, masons and jewellers to build and is set amidst landscaped gardens. Built by the Persian architect, Ustād 'Īsā, the Tāj Mahal is on the bank of the Yamuna River. It can be observed from Agra Fort from where Emperor Shāh Jahān gazed at it, for the last eight years of his life, a prisoner of his son Aurangzeb. It is an acknowledged masterpiece of symmetry. Verses of the Koran are inscribed on it and at the top of the gate are twenty-two small domes, signifying the number of years the monument took to build. The Tāj Mahal was built on a marble platform that stands above a sandstone one. The most elegant dome of the Tāj Mahal has a diameter of 60 feet (18 m), and rises to a height of 80 feet (24 m); directly under this dome is the tomb of Mumtāz Mahal. Shah Jahān's tomb was erected next to hers by his son Aurangzeb. The interiors are decorated with fine inlay work, incorporating semi-precious stones.

  Agra Fort

  Amar Singh Gate,
one of two entrances into Agra's Red Fort

Agra Fort (sometimes called the Red Fort), was commissioned by the great Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1565, and is another of Agra's World Heritage Sites. A stone tablet at the gate of the Fort states that it had been built before 1000 but was later renovated by Akbar. The red sandstone fort was converted into a palace during Shāh Jahān's time, and reworked extensively with marble and pietra dura inlay. Notable buildings in the fort include the Pearl Mosque or Motī Masjid, the Dīwān-e-'Ām and Dīwān-e-Khās (halls of public and private audience), Jahāngīr's Palace, Khās Mahal, Shīsh Mahal (mirrored palace), and the Musamman Burj.[citation needed]

The forbidding exteriors of this fort conceal an inner paradise. The fort is crescent shaped, flattened on the east with a long, nearly straight wall facing the river. It has a total perimeter of 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi), and is ringed by double castellated ramparts of red sandstone punctuated at regular intervals by bastions. A moat 9 metres (30 ft) wide and 10 metres (33 ft) deep surrounds the outer wall.

Chhatrapati Shīvajī visited the Agra Fort, as a result of the conditions of the Treaty of Purandar entered into with Mirzā Rājā Jaisingh to meet Aurangzeb in the Dīwān-i-Khās (Special Audience Chamber). In the audience he was deliberately placed behind men of lower rank. An insulted Shīvajī stormed out of the imperial audience and was confined to Jai Sing's quarters on 12 May 1666. Fearing the dungeons and execution he escaped on 17 August 1666. A heroic equestrian statue of Shīvajī has been erected outside the fort.

The fort is a typical example of Mughal architecture, effectively showing how the North Indian style of fort construction differed from that of the South. In the South, the majority of forts were built on the seabed like the one at Bekal in Kerala.[11]

  Fatehpūr Sikrī

  Dīwān-i-Khās – Hall of Private Audience

The Mughal Emperor Akbar built Fatehpūr Sikrī about 35 km (22 mi) from Agra, and moved his capital there. Later abandoned, the site displays a number of buildings of significant historical importance. A World Heritage Site, it is often visited by tourists. The name of the place came about after the Mughal Emperor Bābar defeated Rāṇā Sāngā in a battle at a place called Sikrī (about 40 km (25 mi) from Agra). Then the Mughal Emperor Akbar wanted to make Fatehpūr Sikrī his head quarters, so he built a majestic fort; due to shortage of water, however, he had to ultimately move his headquarters to Agra Fort.

Buland Darwāza or 'the lofty gateway' was built by the great Mughal emperor, Akbar in 1601 CE. at Fatehpūr Sikrī. Akbar built the Buland Darwāza to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. The Buland Darwāza is approached by 52 steps. The Buland Darwāza is 53.63 m high and 35 meters wide. it is made of red and buff sandstone, decorated by carving and black and white marble inlays. An inscription on the central face of the Buland Darwāza demonstrates Akbar's religious broadmindedness, it is a message from Jesus advising his followers not to consider this world as their permanent home.

  I'timād-Ud-Daulah

  The 'Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb at Agra'

The Empress Nūr Jahān built I'timād-Ud-Daulah's Tomb, sometimes called the 'Baby Tāj', for her father, Mirzā Ghiyās Beg, the Chief Minister of the Emperor Jahāngīr. Located on the left bank of the Yamuna river, the mausoleum is set in a large cruciform garden criss-crossed by water courses and walkways. The mausoleum itself covers about 23 square metres (250 sq ft), and is built on a base about fifty meters square and about one meter high. On each corner are hexagonal towers, about thirteen meters tall. Small in comparison to many other Mughal-era tombs, it is sometimes described as a jewel box. Its garden layout and use of white marble, pietra dura, inlay designs and latticework presage many elements of the Tāj Mahal.

The walls are white marble from Rajasthan encrusted with semi-precious stone decorations – cornelian, jasper, lapis lazuli, onyx, and topaz in images of cypress trees and wine bottles, or more elaborate decorations like cut fruit or vases containing bouquets. Light penetrates to the interior through delicate jālī screens of intricately carved white marble.

Many of Nūr Jahān's relatives are interred in the mausoleum. The only asymmetrical element of the entire complex is that the tombs of her father and mother have been set side-by-side, a formation replicated in the Taj Mahal is very famous.

  Akbar's Tomb, Sikandra

Sikandra, the last resting place of the Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great, is on the Delhi-Agra Highway, only 13 kilometres from the Agra Fort. Akbar's tomb reflects the completeness of his personality. The vast, beautifully carved, red-ochre sandstone tomb with deers, rabbits and langurs is set amidst a lush garden. Akbar himself planned his own tomb and selected a suitable site for it. To construct a tomb in one's lifetime was a Turkic custom which the Mughals followed religiously. Akbar's son Jahāngīr completed construction of this pyramidal tomb in 1613. The 99 names of Allah have been inscribed on the tomb.

  Swāmī Bāgh Samādhi

The Swāmī Bāgh Samādhi is a monument to hold the ashes of Huzūr Swāmijī Mahārāj (Shrī Shiv Dayāl Singh Seth) in the Swāmībāgh section, on the high road that goes from Bhagwan Talkies to Dayāl Bāgh, in the outskirts of the city. He was the founder of the Radhāswāmī Faith and the Samādhi is sacred to its followers. Construction began in February 1904 and still continues. Many believe that construction will never end at Swāmī Bāgh – it is often seen as the next Tāj Mahal. The carvings in stone, using a combination or coloured marble, are life-like and not seen anywhere else in India. The picture shown is taken from the rear of the building and shows only two floors. When completed, the Samādhi will have a carved dome and a gateway.

  Mankameshwar Temple

The Mankameshwar Temple is one of four ancient temples dedicated to Lord Shiva located on the four corners of Agra City. It is located near the Jāma Masjid and is about 2.5 kilometers from the Tāj Mahal and less than 1 km (1 mi) from Agra Fort. Being located in the old city, the temple is surrounded by markets, many of which date back to the Mughal Era.

  Indrabhan Girls' Inter College

It is widespreadly considered to be the birthplace of great poet Mirza Ghalib. It is located near the Mankameshwar Temple and is about 3 kilometers from the Tāj Mahal and less than 1 km (1 mi) from Agra Fort. Being located in the old city, the College is surrounded by markets. Approximately four or five years back, the birth room of Mirza Ghalib was hidden behind the wall by the Management of the college to keep the identity of the place secret.

  Ankit kā Tal

Ankit kā Tal was originally a reservoir meant to collect and conserve rainwater built in Agra, near Sikandra, during Jahāngīr's reign next to the Tomb of I'tibār Khān Khwājasara in 1610. In 1970s a gurdwāra was erected here. Ankit kā Tal is a holy place of worship for the Christians and Jains. Four of the ten Sikh Gurus are said to have paid it a visit. Enjoying both historical and religious importance, this holy shrine attracts a large number of devotees and tourists. Boasting elaborate stone carvings and eight of the twelve original towers. It is located by national (Delhi-Agra- Delhi) highway-2.

  Jamā Masjid

The Jāma Masjid is a large mosque attributed to Shah Jahan's daughter, Princess Jahanara Begum, built in 1648, notable for its unusual dome and absence of minarets. The inscription at its entrance shows that it cost Rs 5 Lakhs at that time for its completion.

  Chīnī kā Rauza

Notable for its Persian influenced dome of blue glazed tiles, the Chīnī kā Rauza is dedicated to the Prime Minister of Shāh Jahān, 'Allāma Afzal Khāl Mullā Shukrullāh of Shirāz.

  Rām Bāgh

The oldest Mughal garden in India, the Rām Bāgh was built by the Emperor Bābar in 1528 on the bank of the Yamuna. It lies about 2.34 km (1 mi) north of the Tāj Mahal. The pavilions in this garden are designed so that the wind from the Yamuna, combined with the greenery, keeps them cool even during the peak of summer. The original name of the gardens was Ārām Bāgh, or 'Garden of Relaxation', and this was where the Mughal emperor Bābar used to spend his leisure time and where he eventually died. His body was kept here for some time before sending it to Kabul.

  Mariam's Tomb

Mariams Tomb, is the tomb of Mariam, the wife of great Mughal Emperor Akbar. The tomb is within the compound of the Christian Missionary Society.

  Mehtāb Bāgh

The Mehtāb Bāgh, or 'Moonlight Garden', is on the opposite bank of the River Yamuna from the Tāj Mahal.

  Keetham Lake

Also known as Sur Sarovar, Keetham Lake is situated about 7 kilometres from akbar tomb Agra, within the Surdas Reserved Forest. The lake has an impressive variety of aquatic life and water birds.

  Mughal Heritage Walk

The Mughal Heritage Walk is a part of community development programme being implemented with support of Agra Municipal corporation, USAID and an NGO; Center for Urban and Regional Excellence. It seeks to build sustainable livelihoods for youth and women from low resource communities and improve their living environments through infrastructure services and integration within the city.

The Mughal Heritage Walk is a one kilometer loop which connects the agricultural fields with the Rajasthani culture, river bank connected with the ancient village of Kuchhpura, the Heritage Structure of Mehtab Bagh, the Mughal aqueduct system, the Humanyun Mosque and the Gyarah Sidi.

  The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception

The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Agra.

  Economy

  A shopping mall situated on the Fatehabad Road
  A marble table top in Pietra Dura, a craft practiced since the Mughal era in Agra
  The Sadar Bazar market
  An Agra craftsman working with marble stone inlays. The marble is colored red to give contrast while working.

Nearly five centuries ago, Agra was the commercial nerve centre of Mughal empire. Due to the presence of the Taj Mahal and other historic monuments, it has a tourism industry as well royal crafts like Pietra Dura, marble inlay and carpets

Today 40% of the population depends largely on agriculture, and others on the leather and footwear business and iron foundries. Agra is the second most self-employed in India in 2007, behind Varanasi, followed by Bhopal, Indore and Patna. According to the National Sample Survey Organization, in 1999-2000, 431 of every 1,000 employed males were self-employed in the city, which grew to 603 per 1,000 in 2004-05.[12] Tourism contributes to the economy of Agra. Agra is home to Asia’s largest spa called Kaya Kalp — The Royal Spa, at the Hotel Mughal in Agra.[13]

The city has many industries. Agra has Uttar Pradesh's first plant biotech company Harihar Biotech located near the Taj. It is one of the largest plant tissue culture laboratories in North India with a production capacity of 2 millions plants annually.

Agra has garment manufacturers and exporters, and an automobile industry. Auto companies include Anil Diesels, Harvest Group of Industries, Indian Agriculture and Automobile Corporation (IAAC) and Malloys India.

There are about 7000 small scale industrial units. Agra city is known for leather goods, carpets, handicrafts, Zari Zardozi, Marvel and stone carving and inlay work. Agra is known for its sweets (Petha and Gajak) and snacks (Dalmoth).

Carpet making was introduced to the city by Moghul Emperor Babur and since then this art has flourished. Some leading exporters of carpets in Agra are Karan Exports, The Rug Factory, Agarwal Brothers, Rugs International, Floor Artists Inc,.

Some of the leading manufacturers, exporters and sellers of leather in Agra are Hindustan Rubber and Plastic Industries, Polyplast Industries, Royal International, Eskay Sales Corporation, Best Buy, Bandejjia Traders and Expomore.

The city center place at Agra (Kinari Bazar) has jewellery and garments shops. The silver and gold jewellery hub is at Choube Ji Ka Fatak.

With the expansion of Agra, organizations dealing in building materials have flourished. A few names are Silver Gatta Agency, Yashoda Exports, Glass Expressions and Sharda Enterprises. Other companies are the Yoga Handicrafts and the D.R.Chain and Wire Manufacturing Company.

Agra has Transformer manufacturers. The Shah Market area is an electronics market while Sanjay Place is the trade center of Agra.

  Education

Agra has always been a centre for education and learning. It was during the advent of the Mughal era that Agra grew as a centre of Islamic education. British people introduced the western concept of education in Agra. In the year 1823, Agra College, one of the oldest colleges in India was formed out of a Sanskrit school established by the Scindia rulers. In the British era, Agra became a great center of Hindi literature with people like Babu Gulab Rai at the helm.

  Universities in Agra

Agra University was established on 1 July 1927 and catered to colleges spread across the United Provinces, the Rajputana, the Central Provinces and almost to entire North India, at present around 142 Colleges are affiliated to this university. The historic Agra University was later rechristened as Dr. BhimRao Ambedkar University by the then Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Ms. Mayawati.

  • Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Radhasoami Satsang Sabha, started the Radhasoami Educational Institute, as a co-educational Middle School, open to all, on January 1, 1917. It became a Degree College in 1947, affiliated to Agra University. In 1975, it formulated a programme of undergraduate studies which received approbation from the Government of Uttar Pradesh and the University Grants Commission, as a result of which in 1981 the Ministry of Education, Government of India, conferred the status of an institution deemed to be a University on the Dayalbagh Educational Institute, to implement the new scheme.
  • Central Institute of Hindi, Central Institute of Hindi (also known as Kendriya Hindi Sansthan) is an autonomous institute under Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India engaged in teaching Hindi as a foreign and second language. Apart from running residential Hindi language courses for foreign students, the institute also conducts regular training programmes for teachers of Hindi belonging to non-Hindi states of India. The institute is situated at a 11 acres (4.5 ha) campus on the outskirts of Agra city. Headquartered in Agra the institute has eight regional centers in Delhi, Hyderabad, Mysore, Shillong, Dimapur, Guwahati, Ahmedabad and Bhubneshwar. The institute is the only government run institution in India established solely for research and teaching of Hindi as a foreign and second language.

  References

  1. ^ World Gazetteer online India: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population". Accessed 25 Mar 2010.
  2. ^ Green.in.msn.com
  3. ^ Williams, Monier. "Sanskrit-English Dictionary". Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries. Cologne University. http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  4. ^ "Agra District profile". Official Website of Agra maintained by National Informatics Centre (NIC) of the Government of India. http://agra.nic.in/hist.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  5. ^ "Agra Fort". Archaeological Survey of India. Archived from the original on 3 December 2009. http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_whs_agrafort.asp. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  6. ^ http://www.climate-charts.com/Locations/i/IN42261.php
  7. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20040616075334/http://www.censusindia.net/results/town.php?stad=A&state5=999. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  8. ^ "Agra City" (GIF). Imperial Gazetteer of India (Digital South Asia Library of University of Chicago) 5: 83–84. http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V05_091.gif. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  9. ^ "Sole bidder bags Agra Inner Ring Road project". http://www.indianexpress.com/news/sole-bidder-bags-agra-inner-ring-road-project/585674/0. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  10. ^ "Inner Ring Road Agra". http://awas.up.nic.in/IURP-June%2009/Inner%20Ring%20Road%20,%20Agra.pdf. 
  11. ^ Koroth, Nandakumar. History of Bekal Fort. 
  12. ^ "India’s new Entrepreneurs". Mint. May 16, 2007. http://www.livemint.com/2007/05/16001310/Indias-new-Entrepreneurs.html. 
  13. ^ "ITC unveils Asia's largest spa in Agra". Economic Times (India). 2008-03-09. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Features/The_Sunday_ET/Economy/ITC_unveils_Asias_largest_spa_in_Agra/rssarticleshow/2848717.cms. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 

  Further reading

  External links


   
               

 

All translations of Agra


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

5015 online visitors

computed in 0.094s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼

RIOLIS COUNTED CROSS STITCH KIT - CITIES OF THE WORLD. AGRA - PT-0020 30*40 cm (40.5 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Traditional Floral Sage Green 10x13 Oushak Agra Oriental Area Rug Wool Carpet (486.62 USD)

Commercial use of this term

AGRA BEAR Grape Label Reedley CA - Bear (2.5 USD)

Commercial use of this term

India Old Postcard Interior of PEARL MOSQUE, Agra, Arches & Man (British Indian) (3.99 GBP)

Commercial use of this term

Road to Agra Aimee Sommerfelt (5.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

ORIGINAL COLOR PHOTO Q_8126 WATER BUFFALO,DELHI TO AGRA (6.98 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1900 Print Lahore Gate Architecture Historic Landmark Agra Fort India XGIB8 (10.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

All-Over Design Floral Black Handmade 10x13 Agra Oriental Area Rug Wool Carpet (480.82 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1929 Print Street Scene Cityscape Taj Mahal Agra India Famous Architecture XGGB7 (10.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1906 Print City Country Prince Camp Agra Tents Horses Military Trees XGMB8 (10.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1928 Print Agra Street Scene India Historical Image Shadow Taj Mahal XGAD9 (10.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1938 Print Pearl Mosque Agra Shah Jahan Moti Masjid Hindu Style Kiosks XGIB6 (10.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Hand Tufted Of Floral Ivory! 10x13 Oushak Agra Oriental Area Rug Wool Carpet (472.12 USD)

Commercial use of this term

India Old Postcard Emperor Akber Tomb Gate Alias S Agra (2.99 GBP)

Commercial use of this term

VINTAGE RP POSTCARD TAJ MAHAL AGRA INDIA 1961 (2.5 GBP)

Commercial use of this term

2 X 3 HANDMADE WOOL AGRA RUG KNOTTED CARPET CAUCASION 57409 QB 34 (65.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1926 Agra India Taj Mahal Camel Valentine's Valspar Enamel Orig Vintage Ad (9.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1906 Print Taj Mahal Agra India Mughal Architecture Mausoleum Shah Jahan XGMB8 (10.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Vintage Weight 1/4 Ser Cast Iron Agra Made In India #go307 (15.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term