» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - Aix-en-Provence

definition of Wikipedia

   Advertizing ▼

Wikipedia

Aix-en-Provence

                   

Aix-en-Provence

Aix-en-Provence-Fountain-Oct-2001.jpeg
The coat of arms of Aix-en-Provence
Coat of arms of Aix-en-Provence
Aix-en-Provence is located in France
Aix-en-Provence
Administration
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Bouches-du-Rhône
Arrondissement Aix-en-Provence
Intercommunality Pays d'Aix
Mayor Maryse Joissains-Masini (UMP)
(2008–2014)
Statistics
Elevation 173 m (568 ft) avg.
Land area1 186.08 km2 (71.85 sq mi)
Population2 142,743  (2008)
 - Density 767 /km2 (1,990 /sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 13001/ 13100 or 13090
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Coordinates: 43°31′35″N 5°26′44″E / 43.526304°N 5.445429°E / 43.526304; 5.445429

Aix-en-Provence (French pronunciation: [ɛksɑ̃pʀovɑ̃s]; Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm, or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm, pronounced [ˈajz de pʀuˈvɛⁿsɔ]),[1] or simply Aix (pronounced: [ɛks]; "Ex", medieval Occitan Aics), is a city-commune in southern France, some 30 km (19 mi) north of Marseille. It is in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, in the département of Bouches-du-Rhône, of which it is a subprefecture. The population of Aix is approximately 143,000. Its inhabitants are called Aixois or, less commonly, Aquisextains.

Contents

  History

  Rue Espariat in Aix-en-Provence.

Aix (Aquae Sextiae) was founded in 123 BC by the Roman consul Sextius Calvinus, who gave his name to its springs, following the destruction of the nearby Gallic oppidum at Entremont.[2][3] In 102 BC its neighbourhood was the scene of the Battle of Aquae Sextiae when Romans under Gaius Marius defeated the Cimbri and Teutones, with mass suicides among the captured women, which passed into Roman legends of Germanic heroism.[4]

In the 4th century AD it became the metropolis of Narbonensis Secunda. It was occupied by the Visigoths in 477. In the succeeding century, the town was repeatedly plundered by the Franks and Lombards, and was occupied by the Saracens in 731 and by Charles Martel in 737. Aix, which during the Middle Ages was the capital of Provence, did not reach its zenith until after the 12th century, when, under the houses of Aragon and Anjou, it became an artistic centre and seat of learning.

Aix passed to the crown of France with the rest of Provence in 1487, and in 1501 Louis XII established there the parliament of Provence, which existed until 1789. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the town was the seat of the Intendance of Provence.

Current archeological excavations in the Ville des Tours, a medieval suburb of Aix, have unearthed the remains of a roman amphitheatre.[5]

  Geography and climate

Aix-en-Provence is situated in a plain overlooking the Arc, about a mile from the right bank of the river. The city slopes gently from north to south and the Montagne Sainte-Victoire can easily be seen to the east. Aix's position in the south of France gives it a warm climate. It has an average January temperature of 5 °C (41 °F) and a July average of 22 °C (72 °F). It has an average of 300 days of sunshine and only 91 days of rain.[6] While it is partially protected from the Mistral, Aix does occasionally suffer from the cold gusty conditions it brings.

Unlike most of France which has an oceanic climate, Aix-en-Provence has a Mediterranean climate.

Climate data for Aix-en-Provence
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 11
(51)
12
(53)
14
(58)
17
(63)
21
(70)
26
(78)
29
(84)
28
(83)
25
(77)
20
(68)
14
(58)
12
(53)
19
(66)
Average low °C (°F) 3
(37)
3
(38)
6
(42)
8
(47)
12
(54)
16
(61)
19
(66)
18
(65)
16
(60)
11
(52)
7
(44)
3
(38)
10
(50)
Precipitation mm (inches) 48
(1.9)
41
(1.6)
46
(1.8)
46
(1.8)
46
(1.8)
25
(1.0)
15
(.6)
25
(1.0)
64
(2.5)
94
(3.7)
76
(3.0)
58
(2.3)
587
(23.1)
Source: [7]

  Population

Historical population of Aix-en-Provence
Year 1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851 1856
Population 27,000 21,009 21,960 22,412 22,575 24,660 26,698 27,280 27,255 26,136
Year 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896 1901 1906
Population 27,659 28,152 29,020 28,693 29,257 29,057 28,357 28,913 29,418 29,829
Year 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954 1962 1968 1975
Population 29,836 29,983 35,106 38,332 42,615 46,053 54,217 67,943 89,566 110,659
Year 1982 1990 1999 2008
Population 121,327 123,842 133,018 142,743

  Main sights

  Les Deux Garçons
  Place de l'Hotel de Ville
  The Cathedral Cloisters
  La Rotonde
  Saint-Jean-de-Malte

The Cours Mirabeau is a wide thoroughfare, planted with double rows of plane-trees, bordered by fine houses and decorated by fountains. It follows the line of the old city wall and divides the town into two sections. The new town extends to the south and west; the old town, with its wide but irregular streets and its old mansions dating from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, lies to the north. Along this avenue, which is lined on one side with banks and on the other with cafés, is the Deux Garçons, the most famous brasserie in Aix. Built in 1792, it has been frequented by the likes of Paul Cézanne, Émile Zola and Ernest Hemingway.[8]

The Cathedral of the Holy Saviour (Cathédrale Saint Sauveur) is situated to the north in the medieval part of Aix. Built on the site of a former Roman forum and an adjacent basilica, it contains a mixture of all styles from the 5th to the 17th century, including a richly decorated portal in the Gothic style with doors elaborately carved in walnut. The interior contains 16th century tapestries, a 15th century triptych, depicting King René and his wife on the side panels, as well as a Merovingian baptistery, its Renaissance dome supported by original Roman columns. The archbishop's palace (Palais de l'Archêveché) and a Romanesque cloister adjoin the cathedral on its south side.[9] The Archbishopric of Aix is now shared with Arles.

Among its other public institutions, Aix also has the second most important Appeal Court (Palais de Justice) outside of Paris, located near the site of the former Palace of the Counts (Palais des Comtes) of Provence.

The Hôtel de Ville, a building in the classical style of the middle of the 17th century, looks onto a picturesque square (place de l'Hôtel de Ville). It contains some fine woodwork and tapestries. At its side rises a handsome clock-tower erected in 1510.[10] Also on the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville is the former Corn Exchange (1759–1761) (Halle de Grains). This ornately decorated 18th century building was designed by the Vallon brothers. Nearby are the remarkable thermal springs, containing lime and carbonic acid, that first drew the Romans to Aix and gave it the name Aquae Sextiae. A spa was built in 1705 near the remains of the ancient Roman baths of Sextius.[11]

South of the Cours Mirabeau is the Quartier Mazarin. This residential district was constructed for the gentry of Aix by the brother of Cardinal Mazarin in the last half of the 17th century and contains several notable hôtels particuliers. The thirteenth century church of Saint-Jean-de-Malte contains valuable pictures and a recently restored organ. Next to it is the Musée Granet, devoted to European painting and sculpture.

Aix is often referred to as the city of a thousand fountains.[12] Among the most notable are the 17th century Fontaine des Quatre Dauphins (Fountain of the Four Dolphins) in the Quartier Mazarin, designed by Jean-Claude Rambot,[13] and three of the fountains down the central Cours Mirabeau: At the top, a 19th century fountain depicts the "good king" René holding the Muscat grapes that he introduced to Provence in the 15th century; half-way down is a natural hot water fountain (34 °C), covered in moss, dating back to the Romans; and at the bottom at la Rotonde, the hub of modern Aix, stands a monumental fountain from 1860 beneath three giant statues representing art, justice and agriculture. In the older part of Aix, there are also fountains of note in the Place d'Albertas and the Place des Trois-Ormeaux.

  Education

  The Institute of Political Studies

Aix has long been a university town: Louis II of Anjou granted a royal charter for a university in 1409. Today Aix remains an important educational centre, with many teaching and research institutes:

Aix also has several training collèges, lycées, and a college of art and design. It has also become a centre for many international study programmes. Several lycées offer CPGE

  Culture

  Sir Simon Rattle conducting the Rheingold in 2006

  Music

Aix holds two significant musical events each year. These are:

  Festival d'Aix-en-Provence

An important opera festival, the 'Festival international d'Art Lyrique' founded in 1948 which now ranks with those in Bayreuth, Salzburg and Glyndebourne. The current director is Bernard Foccroulle, director of la Monnaie in Brussels. The festival takes place in late June and July each year. The main venues in Aix itself are the outdoor Théâtre de l'Archévêché in the former garden of the archbishop's palace, the recently restored 18th century Théâtre du Jeu de Paume, and the newly built Grand Théâtre de Provence; operas are also staged in the outdoor Théâtre du Grand Saint-Jean outside Aix. Linked to the festival is the Académie européenne de musique, a summer school for young musicians with master classes by celebrated artists. Over the four year period from 2006 until 2009, Sir Simon Rattle's version of Wagner's Ring Cycle with the Berlin Philharmonic is being premiered at the Aix festival.

  Musique dans la Rue

This takes place each year in June to coincide with the national 'Fête de la Musique.' There is a week of classical, jazz and popular concerts held in different street venues and courtyards in the city. Some of these events are held in the Conservatoire Darius Milhaud, named in honour of the French composer, a native of Aix.

  Dance

The dance company Ballet Preljocaj of the French dancer and choreographer Angelin Preljocaj has been located in Aix since 1996. In 2007 it took up residence in the "Pavillon Noir"[dead link], a centre for dance performance, designed in 1999 by the architect Rudy Ricciotti. The centre is one of nineteen of its kind in France, designated Centre chorégraphique national.

  Museums and Libraries

  Granet's "Pumpkin Harvest" at the Musée Granet

Aix has several museums and galleries:

  • Le Musée du Vieil Aix (Museum of Old Aix), housed in two period "hôtels particuliers" and devoted to the history and provencal heritage of Aix.
  • Le Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle (Natural History Museum).
  • Le Musée de Tapisseries (Tapestry Museum), housed in the Archbishop's Palace and with a collection of tapestries and furniture from the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • Le Musée Paul Arbaud (Faïence/Pottery).
  • Le Musée Granet, a museum devoted to painting, sculpture and the archeology of Aix.[14] It recently underwent significant restoration and reorganization, prior to the international exhibition in 2006 marking the centenary of Cézanne's death.[15] Due to lack of space, the large archeological collection, including many recent discoveries, will be displayed in a new museum, still in the planning stages. The museum contains major paintings by Jean-Dominique Ingres (among which the monumental "Jupiter and Thetis"), an authentic self-portrait by Rembrandt and works by Anthony van Dyck, Paul Cézanne, Alberto Giacometti and Nicolas de Staël. In June 2011, the first part of the collection of the Fondation Jean et Suzanne Planque opened at the Musée Granet, containing over 180 artworks. This legacy of the Swiss painter, dealer and art collector Jean Planque, a personal friend of Pablo Picasso, has been donated to the city for an initial period of 15 years. The collection contains over 300 works of art, including paintings and drawings by Degas, Renoir. Gaugin, Monet, Cézanne, Van Gogh, Picasso, Pierre Bonnard, Paul Klee, Fernand Léger, Giacometti and Dubuffet. The full collection will be housed in a specially constructed annex in the Chapelle des Pénitents Blancs, situated nearby: the expected opening is in 2013.
  the Vendôme Pavilion in Aix-en-Provence
  • Le Pavillon de Vendôme, a 17th century mansion housing permanent and touring art exhibitions.
  • The Vasarely Foundation a gallery dedicated to the works of the Hungarian-born French abstract painter Victor Vasarely.
  • L'atelier Cézanne, a museum on the northern outskirts of Aix, constructed around the studio of Paul Cézanne, which can be viewed as it was at the painter's death.
  • Jas de Bouffan, the house and grounds of Cézanne's father, now partially open to the public.

Prior to 1989 Aix had several libraries, for example in the Parc Jourdan and the Town Hall. In 1989, many of these were moved to the Méjanes, an old match factory.

In 1993, the "Cité du Livre" was opened around the library. This has media spaces for dance, cinema and music, and a training facility for librarians. Adjacent to the Cité du Livre are the Grand Théâtre de Provence and the Pavillon Noir (see above).

  Montagne Sainte-Victoire

  Mont Sainte-Victoire, Paul Cézanne 1882-5
  Mont Sainte-Victoire, Paul Cézanne 1904-6

To the east of Aix rises the Montagne Sainte-Victoire (1011 m), one of the landmarks of the Pays d'Aix. It is accessible from the centre of Aix by road or on foot, taking the wooded footpath of Escrachou Pevou to the plateau of Bibemus.[16] It dramatically overshadows the small dam built by Emile Zola's father and was a favourite subject and haunt of Paul Cézanne throughout his lifetime. In the village of le Tholonet on the precipitous southern side of Mont Sainte-Victoire, there is a windmill that he used and beyond that a mountain hut, the refuge Cézanne, where he liked to paint.

To the north, the mountain slopes gently down through woodland to the village of Vauvenargues. The Château of Vauvenargues overlooking the village was formerly occupied the by the Counts of Provence (including René of Anjou) and the Archbishops of Aix before it became the family home of the marquis de Vauvenargues.[17] It was acquired by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso in 1958, who was resident there from 1959 until 1962, when he moved to Mougins. He and his wife wife Jacqueline are buried in its grounds,[18] [19][20] which are not usually open to the public. From 2009 onwards, the chateau, which now belongs to Jacqueline's daughter Catherine Hutin, has been open to the public from June to September.[21]

Mont Sainte-Victoire has a complex network of paths, leading to the priory and Croix de Provence at the summit, to the large man-made reservoir of Bimont and to the roman viaduct above le Tholonet.

  Economy

  Calissons, a specialty of Aix

Industries formerly included flour-milling, the manufacture of confectionery, iron-ware, hats, matches and the extraction of olive oil.[22]

Current economic activities include:

The airline Twin Jet has its head office in Aix-en-Provence.[27]

  Transport

  TGV viaduct over the river Arc at Roquefavour

A set of ancient roads radiate out from Aix to the surrounding countryside, the Pays d'Aix. There are also a large number of modern autoroutes connecting Aix to nearby towns. There are autoroutes northwards to Avignon and to the Luberon; southwards to Marseille; and eastwards to Aubagne and the Mediterranean coast of Provence; and to Nice and other towns on the French Riviera. Aix and Marseille are equidistant from the international airport of Marseille-Provence (MRS) at Marignane on the Etang de Berre. There is another airport at Les Milles, which is mostly used by general aviation. There is a frequent bus shuttle service from the main bus station in Aix which also serves the nearby TGV station at l'Arbois, in the middle of the countryside about 10 miles (16 km) from Aix.

At Aix, the line from Paris branches to Marseille and Nice; it takes about 3 hours to get from Paris to Aix by TGV. Aix also has a railway station near the centre, Gare d'Aix-en-Provence, with connections to Marseille, Pertuis and Briançon in the French Alps. A frequent and rapid shuttle bus service for commuters operates between the bus station in Aix and Marseille. There are many other long distance and local buses from the bus station.

In the town itself, there is an inexpensive municipal bus service, including a dial-a-bus service ("proxibus"), a park-and-ride service and tiny electrified buses for those with mobility problems. Those are six seater vehicles that circulate at a speed of 10 mph (16.09 km/h).[28] The central old town of Aix is for the most part pedestrianised. There are large underground and overground parking structures placed at regular intervals on the "boulevard exterieur", the predominantly one-way ring road that encircles the old town. Access to the old town is by a series of often narrow one-way streets that can be confusing to navigate for the uninitiated.[29][30]

As in many other French cities, a short-term bicycle hire scheme nicknamed V'Hello, free for trips of less than half an hour, has recently been put in place by the town council: and has been popular with tourists.[31] As well as overland routes, two "rivers" flow through Aix, the Arc and the Torse, but neither of which can remotely be described as navigable.

  Miscellaneous

The local Aix dialect, rarely used and spoken by a rapidly decreasing number of people, is part of the provencal dialect of Occitan language. The provencal for "Aix-en-Provence" is "Ais de Prouvènço" [ˈaj de pʀuˈvɛ̃sɔ]. Most of the older streets in Aix have names in both Provençal and French.

Aix hosted the ninth International Congress of Modern Architecture in 1953.

Aix is the home town of the rugby union team Pays d'Aix RC. It played host to the All Blacks during the early stages of the 2007 Rugby World Cup.[32][33]

Ysabel, the tenth novel of the best-selling Canadian author Guy Gavriel Kay, was set and written in Aix.

  International relations

Aix-en-Provence is officially twinned[34][35] with the following seven cities (in alphabetical order):

In addition, Aix has international cooperations, partnerships and exchanges with the following cities from all over the world:

  People from Aix

  Births

  François Marius Granet
  Paul Cézanne (1861)
  Hélène Grimaud

Aix-en-Provence was the birthplace of:

  Famous residents

  Édouard Manet, Portrait of Émile Zola, 1868, Musée d'Orsay

  Gallery

  See also

  References

  1. ^ However, with the preposition a ~ à 'to', the forms are as Ais ~ à-z-Ais [aˈzaj]
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, article Aix.
  3. ^ « Histoire d'Aix », site de l'office du tourisme d'Aix-en-Provence.
  4. ^ cf Jerome, letter cxxiii, To Ageruchia, 8, 409 A.D.
  5. ^ Théâtre antique d’Aquae Sextiae (French)
  6. ^ "Tourist office; the climate of Aix". Aixenprovencetourism.com. http://www.aixenprovencetourism.com/uk/aix-en-provence.htm. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  7. ^ "Aix-en-Provence monthly weather". http://www.weather.com/weather/climatology/monthly/FRXX0001?x=0&y=0. 
  8. ^ Sarre, Claude-Alain (2007). Les Deux Garçons. Quatre Siècles d'Histoire au Coeur d'Aix-en-Provence.. Université Aix. ISBN 2-903449-92-9 
  9. ^ Michelin Guide to Provence, ISBN 2-06-137503-0, pages 67–68.
  10. ^ "Tourist office: Old Aix". Aixenprovencetourism.com. http://www.aixenprovencetourism.com/aix-vieilleville.htm. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  11. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911.
  12. ^ Laurence Labrouche, "Ariane Mnouchkine: un parcours théâtral: le terrassier, l'enfant et le voyageur", L'Harmattan (1999), ISBN 2-7384-8022-5, page 66, "la ville aux mille fontaines"
  13. ^ Provence. Michelin Green Guide. Michelin. 1999. ISBN 0-320-03732-0 , page 69. The fountain was built in 1667.
  14. ^ "Website of the Musée Granet". Museegranet-aixenprovence.fr. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. http://www.museegranet-aixenprovence.fr/www/index5.html. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  15. ^ "Reopening of the Musée Granet in Aix-en-Provence – The Art Tribune". The Art Tribune<!. 20 August 2007. http://www.thearttribune.com/Reopening-of-the-Musee-Granet-in.html. Retrieved 22 May 2009. 
  16. ^ Montagne Ste-Victoire, Aix-en-Provence, Gardanne, Trets. La Carte de Randonnée, 1;25,000. 3244 ET. Institut Géographique National 
  17. ^ Mairie of Vauvenargues, History and heritage (French)
  18. ^ O'Brian, Patrick (1976). Picasso: Pablo Ruiz Picasso : a Biography. Putnam. ISBN 88-304-0863-8 
  19. ^ Monday, 23 Apr. 1973 (23 April 1973). "Pablo Picasso's Last Days and Final Journey – TIME". TIME<!. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,945265-2,00.html. Retrieved 22 May 2009. 
  20. ^ Bruno Ely (2009). Château de Vauvenargues. ImageArt. ISBN 978-2-9534525-0-1 
  21. ^ Chateau of Vauvenargues, official web site
  22. ^ Histoire d'Aix-en-Provence. Edisud. 1977. ISBN 2-85744-237-8 
  23. ^ Parker, Robert (1996). The Wine Buyer's Guide. Dorling Kindersley. p. 488. ISBN 0-7513-0342-9 
  24. ^ "Official website for Château Simone". Chateau-simone.fr. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. http://www.chateau-simone.fr/. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  25. ^ "Guide des Vins – Château Crémade" (in (French)). Guidevins.com. http://www.guidevins.com/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=320. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  26. ^ "The Chocolaterie of Puyricard". Puyricard.fr. Archived from the original on 21 April 2010. http://www.puyricard.fr/. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  27. ^ "The company > Company information." Twin Jet. Retrieved on 8 July 2010. "Address : TWIN JET 1070 rue du lieutenant Parayre BP 30370 13799 AIX EN PROVENCE CEDEX 3 "
  28. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2008-02-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20080227040600/http://www.mairie-aixenprovence.fr/IMG/aed/27.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  29. ^ Aix-en-Provence, Plan Guide Blay-Foldex.
  30. ^ "Map of central Aix". http://www.aixenprovencetourism.com/pdf/plan-centre-a-imprimer.gif. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  31. ^ Ville d'Aix-en-Provence: V'Hello...Bougez dans Aix en toute liberté ![dead link]
  32. ^ "Just Sport – New Zealand's Sports Network – What's Up : RWC 2007 Commentators Blog". Radio Sport. 21 October 2007. http://www.radiosport.co.nz/WhatsUp/Detail.aspx?id=1432. Retrieved 22 May 2009. 
  33. ^ "All Blacks dazzled by haka ballet – rugbyheaven07.com.au". Rugbyheaven.com.au. 28 September 2007. http://www.rugbyheaven.com.au/news/news/all-blacks-dazzled-by-haka-ballet/2007/09/28/1190486520975.html. Retrieved 22 May 2009. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Association of twinnings and international relations of Aix-en-Provence". Aix-jumelages.com. http://www.aix-jumelages.com/. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  35. ^ Mairie of Aix-en-Provence – Twinnings and partnerships[dead link]
  36. ^ "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). © 2009 Câmara Municipal de Coimbra – Praça 8 de Maio – 3000-300 Coimbra. http://www.cm-coimbra.pt/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=62&Itemid=128. Retrieved 25 June 2009. 
  37. ^ Perugia Official site – Relazioni Internazionali(Italian)
  38. ^ Jessula, Georges (2003). "Darius Milhaud, Compositeur de Musique". Revue Juive: 140–144. http://www.cairn.info/article.php?ID_REVUE=AJ&ID_NUMPUBLIE=AJ_361&ID_ARTICLE=AJ_361_0140#  Since their marriage in 1892, Milhaud's parents lived in the Bras d'Or in Aix-en-Provence, where their son grew up; however he was delivered at the home of his maternal grandparents in Marseille.
  39. ^ Milhaud, Darius (1998). Ma Vie heureuse. Zurfluh. ISBN 2-87750-083-7 
  40. ^ FullSIX (22 December 1972). "Franck Cammas – Profile". Cammas-groupama.com. Archived from the original on 21 May 2009. http://www.cammas-groupama.com/en/franck_cammas/cammas/portrait/index.jsp. Retrieved 22 May 2009. 
  • Busquet, Raoul (1954). Histoire de la Provençade des origines à la révolution française. Editions Jeanne Lafitte. ISBN 2-86276-319-5 
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • INSEE

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of Aix-en-Provence


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

4862 online visitors

computed in 0.078s

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼