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Amazon Kindle

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Amazon Kindle 2

The Kindle 2
ManufacturerFoxconn for Amazon.com
TypeE-book reader
Release date1st generation: November 19, 2007
2nd generation: February 9, 2009
Operating systemLinux-2.6.10
Power3.7 V, 1530 mAh lithium polymer, BA1001 model
CPUFreescale 532 MHz, ARM-11
Storage capacity(total/user available) 256 MB/180 MB (original) or 2 GB/1.4 GB (Kindle 2) or 4 GB/3.3 GB (Kindle DX) internal flash memory
Displayin diagonal,
3.6 in (91 mm) × 4.8 in (122 mm),
600 × 800 pixels or 0.48 megapixels,
167 ppi density,
4-level grayscale (original)
or 16-level grayscale (Kindle 2)
electronic paper
InputUSB 2.0 port (micro-B connector),
SD card

(original model only),
3.5 mm stereo headphone jack
built-in speaker,
AC power

adapter jack
ConnectivityAmazon Whispernet using EVDO/CDMA AnyDATA wireless modem
Dimensions8.0 × 5.3 × 0.8 in (203 × 135 × 20.3 mm) (original)8.0 × 5.3 × 0.36 in (203 × 135 × 9.14 mm) (Kindle 2)
Weight10.2 oz (290 g)

Amazon Kindle is a software and hardware platform developed by Amazon.com subsidiary Lab126 for rendering and displaying e-books and other digital media.[1] Three hardware devices, known as "Kindle," "Kindle 2," and "Kindle DX" support this platform. Kindle software applications exist for Windows and for iPhone OS, with BlackBerry and Mac OS X versions in development. The first hardware device was released in the United States on November 19, 2007.

The Kindle hardware device uses an E Ink brand electronic paper display, and is able to download content over Amazon Whispernet using the Sprint EVDO in the USA or, for newer Kindle 2 devices, AT&T's network which also works internationally.[2] The Kindle hardware device can be used without a computer, and Whispernet is accessible without any fee in the U.S. (fees apply overseas).[3] These devices also provide free access to the internet. Kindle devices sold prior to October 19, 2009 were sold only in the United States.[4] On October 7, 2009, Amazon announced an international version of the Kindle 2 with a built-in 3G (HSDPA) and EDGE/GSM wireless modem for connectivity in over 100 countries. This international version went on sale October 19, 2009 worldwide.[5]

On March 3, 2009, Amazon.com launched an application called Kindle for iPhone in the App Store, allowing iPhone and iPod Touch owners to read Kindle content on those devices. Through a technology termed "Whispersync," customers can synchronize reading progress, bookmarks, and other information across Kindle hardware devices and other mobile devices.[6][7]

Amazon announced the Kindle DX on May 6, 2009. This device has a larger screen than its predecessors and supports PDF files natively. It is marketed as more suitable for displaying newspaper and textbook content.[8]

Amazon has released Kindle for PC as a free software download, allowing users to read Kindle books on a Windows PC.[9]

Contents

History and stats

Original Kindle

The Kindle 1

Amazon's first offering of Kindle in November 2007 sold out in five and a half hours[10] and the device remained out of stock for five months until late April 2008.[11]

The original Kindle device, featuring a 6 inch (diagonal) 4-level grayscale display, retailed for US$399. Amazon subsequently lowered the price to $359. The 250 MB of internal memory in the Amazon Kindle 1 can hold approximately 200 non-illustrated titles, and the memory is expandable with an SD memory card.[4] This model is no longer available, as it was replaced by the Kindle 2.

On the original Kindle, Whispernet only works in the United States, but content can be downloaded from Amazon over the Internet. Amazon did not sell the original Kindle outside the United States.[4] Plans for a launch in the UK and other European countries were delayed by problems with signing up suitable wireless network operators.[12]

Kindle 2

On February 9, 2009, Amazon announced the Kindle 2 which became available for purchase on February 23, 2009. The Kindle 2 features 16-level grayscale display, improved battery life, 20 percent faster page-refreshing, a text-to-speech option to read the text aloud,[13] and overall thickness reduced from 0.8 to 0.36 inches (9.1 mm).[14]

The Kindle 2 has 2 GB of internal memory of which 1.4 GB is user-accessible. Amazon estimates that the Kindle 2 will hold about 1500 non-illustrated books. Unlike the original Kindle, Kindle 2 does not have a slot for SD memory cards.[13][15] To promote the new Kindle, author Stephen King made UR, his then-new novella, available exclusively through the Kindle Store.[16] This model remains available as an alternative to the newer but considerably larger Kindle DX. On July 8, 2009, Amazon reduced the price of the Kindle 2 to $299. On October 6, 2009 the price was further reduced to $259. On October 22, 2009, Amazon ceased selling the Kindle 2 as originally built in favor of the international version it had introduced earlier in the month.

According to an early review by iFixIt, the Kindle 2 features a Freescale 532 MHz, ARM-11 90 nm processor, 32MB main memory, 2 GB moviNAND flash storage, and a 3.7 V 1530 mAh lithium polymer battery.[17] On November 24, 2009, Amazon released a firmware update for the Kindle 2 that it said increases battery life by 85% and introduces native PDF support.[18]

Kindle 2 International Version

On October 7, 2009, Amazon announced an international version of the Kindle 2 that works in over 100 countries, which became available October 19, 2009. The international Kindle 2 is physically very similar to the U.S.-only model although it uses a different mobile network standard. The original Kindle 2 uses the Sprint network while the international version uses AT&T's U.S. mobile network and roams on 3G, EDGE, and GPRS on GSM networks in other countries.[19] On October 22, Amazon lowered the price on the international version to $259 from $279 and ceased selling the U.S.-only model.

Kindle DX

Amazon Kindle DX

The Kindle DX
ManufacturerFoxconn for Amazon.com
Typee-book reader
Release dateJune 10, 2009
Operating systemLinux-2.6.22.19
PowerLithium polymer, 3.7 V, 1530 mAhr, 5.66 Wh, P/N 170-1012-00[20]
CPUFreescale 532 MHz i.MX31L, ARM-11
Storage capacityGB internal flash memory (82.5% user-accessible)
Display9.7 in diagonal (5.4"x7.9"),
824 × 1200 pixels or 0.99 megapixels,
150 ppi,
16-level grayscale
electronic paper
InputUSB 2.0 port (micro-B connector),
3.5 mm stereo headphone jack,
built-in stereo speakers,
AC power adapter jack
ConnectivityAmazon Whispernet (Sprint)using EVDO/CDMA AnyDATA wireless modem E727NV WN2, with fallback to 1xRTT[20]
Dimensions10.4 × 7.2 × 0.38 in (264 × 183 × 9.7 mm)
Weight18.9 oz (540 g)

On May 6, 2009, Amazon announced the Kindle DX[21] which retails for $489.[22] It is the first Kindle model with an accelerometer, automatically rotating pages between landscape and portrait orientations if the device is turned on its side. It is slightly over 13 inch (about 8.5 mm) thick, has a 4 GB (3.3 GB user-accessible) storage capacity, holding approximately 3500 non-illustrated e-books, a 9.7 inch (24.6 cm) display with 1200 x 824 pixel resolution, and a battery life of up to one week while using wireless or two weeks offline. The DX adds support for PDF files natively, built-in stereo speakers, and 1xRTT wireless technology as fallback option for when EVDO connectivity is not available. Like the Kindle 2, it does not have an SD memory card slot. The model was released on June 10, 2009.[23]

Kindle DX International

Since January 19, 2010, the Kindle DX International ships in 100 countries.[24]

Overall

The exact sales numbers were not released by the company, but according to some estimates based on official statements it is estimated that as of Q4-2009 there were about 1.5 million devices sold.[25]

Amazon e-book sales overtook print for first time on Christmas Day of 2009. [26]


Content

Users can download content from Amazon and some other Kindle content providers in the proprietary Kindle format (AZW), or load content in various formats from a computer. Kindle Terms of Use forbid transferring Amazon e-books to another user or a different type of device.[27] Users can select reading material using the Kindle itself or through a computer at the Amazon Kindle store, and can download content through the Kindle Store, which upon the initial launch of the Kindle had more than 88,000 digital titles available for download, steadily increasing to more than 275,000 as of late 2008. As of July 1, 2009, there were more than 300,000 books available for download.[28][29] As of late 2007, new releases and New York Times bestsellers are being offered for approximately US$10, with first chapters of many books offered as free samples. Many titles, including some classics, are offered free of charge or at a low price, which has been stated to relate to the cost of adapting the book to the Kindle format[citation needed]. Magazines, newspapers, and blogs via RSS such as popular blogs (Amazon Daily, Huffington Post, and Kindle me elmo) are provided by Amazon per a monthly subscription fee or a free trial period. Newspaper subscriptions cost from US$5.99 to $14.99 per month, magazines charge between $1.25 and $10.99 per month, and blogs charge from $0.99 to $1.99 per month.[30]

The device is sold with electronic editions of its owner's manual and the New Oxford American Dictionary. Owners cannot use a dictionary in a language other than English as the "default lookup dictionary." The Kindle also contains several free experimental features, including a basic web browser.[31] Users can also play music from MP3 files in the background in the order in which they were added to the Kindle. Operating system updates are designed to be received wirelessly and install automatically during a period in sleep mode in which wireless is turned on.[32]

File formats

The original Kindle supported only unprotected Mobipocket books (MOBI, PRC), plain text files (TXT), topaz format books (.tpz), and Amazon's proprietary DRM-restricted format (AZW). Version 2.3 firmware upgrade for Kindle 2 (U.S. and International) added native PDF support.[18] Earlier versions did not fully support Portable Document Format (PDF), but Amazon provided "experimental" conversion to the native AZW format,[33] with the caveat that not all PDFs may format correctly.[34] It does not support the EPUB ebook standard. Amazon offers an email-based service that will convert JPEG, GIF, PNG, and BMP graphics to AZW.[35] Amazon will also convert HTML pages and Microsoft Word (DOC) documents through the same email-based mechanism, which will send a Kindle-formatted file to the device directly for $0.15 per MB or to a personal e-mail account for free. These services can be accessed by sending emails to <kindleusername>@kindle.com and to <kindleusername>@free.kindle.com for Whispernet-delivered and free email-delivered file conversion, respectively. The file that the user wants to be converted needs to be attached to these emails. Users could also convert PDF and other files to the first-generation Kindle's supported formats using third-party software. The original Kindle supported audio in the form of MP3s and Audible audiobooks (versions 2, 3 and 4), which had to be transferred to the Kindle via USB or on an SD card.

Initially, Kindle 1 only supported the ISO 8859-1 (Latin 1) character set for its content; Unicode characters and non-Western characters were not supported. A firmware update in February 2009 added support for additional character sets, including ISO 8859-16.

Kindle 2 added support for Audible Enhanced (AAX) format, but dropped support for Audible versions 2 and 3. Using the experimental web browser, it was possible to download books directly on the Kindle (in MOBI, PRC and TXT formats only). Hyperlinks in a Mobipocket file could be used to download e-books[36] but could not be used to reference books stored in the Kindle's memory. Kindle DX added native support for PDF files.

User-created annotations

Users can bookmark, highlight, and look up content. Pages can be dog-eared for reference and notes can be added to relevant content. While a book is open on the display, menu options allow users to search for synonyms and definitions from the built-in dictionary. The device also remembers the last page read for each book. Pages can be saved as a "clipping", or a text file containing the text of the currently displayed page. All clippings are appended to a single file, which can be downloaded over a USB cable.[37]

Content sources

LinkFormats [CS 1]Wireless transferWired transferAvailable titlesNotes
Amazon.comAZWYesYes380,000Amazon.com has over 400,000 titles available.
Project GutenbergTXT, MOBI[CS 2]YesYes30,000Project Gutenberg contains over 30,000 free titles.
FreeKindleBooksMOBI[CS 2]YesYes1,000This is a site that has mostly Gutenberg books automatically formatted for the Kindle.
pdfbooksPDF[CS 3]NoYes7,000This site contains 7,000 Project Gutenberg titles in PDF version. Each title also available in PDF version formatted for mobile devices.
World Public LibraryPDF[CS 3]NoYes400,000Approximately 400,000 titles.
FictionwiseeReader, PDF, LIT, .PDB, RB, FUB, KML, LRF, PRC, MOBI,[CS 2] IMPYesYesFictionwise, E-books in various formats, both encrypted and unencrypted. Only the Multiformat books can be read on Kindle
MobipocketMOBI[CS 2]NoYes120,000Mobipocket has lots of titles but only demos and free books can be read on Kindle.
WebscriptionsPRC,[CS 2] RB, RTF, LRF, LIT, HTMLYesYes1,000Webscriptions sell non-encrypted content.
WOWIOPDF[CS 3]NoYes5,000Books are free if viewed online; otherwise the user must pay for non-DRM PDF downloads.
ManyBooks.netAZWYesYes20,000Over 20,000 titles. Has a Kindle format automatically generated from Gutenberg ASCII texts, without author listings or tables of contents.
FeedbooksPDF, PRC,[CS 2] LRF, EPUBYesYes4,000Share books, self published books and a make-it-yourself newspaper.
Christian Classics Ethereal LibraryPDF, DOC, TXTNoYesChristian Classics Ethereal Library are Christian-centered works.
MunseysPRC,[CS 2] HTM, PDF, LIT, LRF, PDB, RB, IMP, EPUBYesYes28,000Over 28,000 free books, both classic and contemporary.
MobileReadPRC,[CS 2] LRF, EPUBYes*Yes2,500Free out-of-copyright books.
zinepal.comMOBI,[CS 2] PDF, EPUBYesYes3,000Users can collate content from Atom/RSS feeds and other web sources.
LinkFormatsWireless transferWired transferAvailable titlesNotes
  1. ^ Format marked bold are supported by kindle.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Only DRM-free Mobipocket (MOBI, PRC) files can be read by Kindle
  3. ^ a b c PDF is supported for Kindle DX and for Kindle 2 as of software revision 2.3.

Digital Text Platform

File:Kindle2largetext.JPG
The text can also be displayed in larger sizes

Concurrently with the Kindle device, Amazon launched the Digital Text Platform, a system for authors to self-publish directly to the Kindle. In open beta testing as of late 2007, the platform has been promoted to established authors by e-mail[38] and by advertisements at Amazon.com. Authors can upload documents in several formats for delivery via Whispernet and charge between $0.99 and $200.00 per download.[38] The authors receive 35% of revenues based on their list price, regardless of discounts by Amazon.[39]

Criticism

Technical limitations

Hardware

There is concern about the specific hardware choices made for the device.[40] For example, the Kindle 2 lacks the memory expansion slot which was part of the original Kindle, which not only affects the potential number of e-books which can be stored on the device, but also removes potential capabilities to import e-books onto the device via memory card. Another hardware decision which has been questioned is the non-availability of WiFi functionality on the Kindle. Instead, the device relies on Sprint's EVDO, AT&T's 3G network, or 1xRTT data services for Internet access,[41] which, critics argue, does provide a large amount of geographical coverage, but also drives the price of the device up considerably.[42]

File format support

E-books of unencrypted .MOBI files, .TXT files, or .AZW formats can be transferred to the Kindle over a USB connection and read, but any other e-book formats are not supported. The original Kindle and the Kindle 2 firmware before the 2.3 firmware update cannot read e-books or files in the PDF format. However, PDFs and several other file formats can be converted using a number of downloadable applications, free conversion by email, or a similar method that sends the converted content to the owner's Kindle for a fee.[4]

Poor contrast

There are concerns that the Kindle 2's contrast in small text is poor compared to the original Kindle.[43] Side-by-side comparisons show slight differences attributable to factors such as slightly darker background and different fonts on the two devices [44] Some Kindle 2 users have reverted back to the original Kindle due to this issue.[45]

Limited organization ability

The Kindle does not allow the user to organize books into folders.[46] There is an option to select whether documents, subscriptions, books, or everything on the device appear on the home page. Another option orders the items on the home page according to title, author, or download date. Books may also be tagged with one or more keywords by inserting the tags into notes added to the book. Users can then search for books by tag.[47]

No user-serviceable battery

The Kindle 2 does not have a removable battery. If the battery fails on a Kindle 2, the whole unit must be sent to Amazon for repair.[48]

Business model

Other criticisms involve the business model behind Amazon's implementation and distribution of e-books.[40][49] Amazon introduced a software application allowing Kindle books to be read on an iPhone or iPod Touch.[50] Amazon soon followed with an application called "Kindle for PCs" that can be run on a Windows PC. Due to the book publisher's DRM policies, there is no right of first sale with the e-books. Amazon states they are licensed, not purchased.[51][52]

A reviewer from CNET expressed concern with the presentation of the device despite its ergonomic appeal.[53]

File format and DRM

Amazon owns Mobipocket,[54][55] and the Kindle AZW file format and DRM scheme are similar to the Mobipocket file format and DRM scheme,[56] yet Kindle is not able to read DRM-protected Mobipocket books without resorting to third-party conversions tools. This has frustrated some Kindle users.[57]

Limited number of downloads

A book may be downloaded from Amazon to a limited number of devices. The limit ranges from one to six devices, depending on an undisclosed amount of licenses set by the book publisher. When the limit is reached, Amazon Customer Support must be contacted to free up licenses to allow the book to be downloaded to a new device. Kindle owners have complained that this limits the number of times they can download books to new Kindles as they are replaced or updated by owners. However, Amazon does not restrict the number of times a book may be downloaded to the same device.[58]

Pricing

The Kindle 2 was criticized for its high original retail price of US$359, compared to the $185.49 it allegedly costs to manufacture.[59]On July 8, 2009, Amazon reduced the price of the Kindle 2 to $299. On October 7, 2009, Amazon reduced the price of the Kindle 2 further to $259.

Revenue sharing on books

In a December 5, 2009 interview with the New York Times, CEO Jeff Bezos revealed that Amazon.com keeps 65% of the revenue from all ebook sales for the Kindle.[60] The remaining 35% is split between the book author and publisher. After numerous commentators observed that Apple's popular App Store offers 70% of royalties to the publisher, Amazon began a program that offers 70% royalties to Kindle publishers who agree to certain conditions.[61]

Remote content removal

On July 17, 2009, Amazon.com withdrew certain Kindle titles, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) by George Orwell, from sale, refunded the cost to those who had purchased them, and remotely deleted these titles from purchasers' devices after discovering that the publisher lacked rights to publish the titles in question.[62] Notes and annotations for the books made by users on their devices were left in a separate file, but "rendered useless" without the content they were directly linked to.[63][64] The move prompted outcry and comparisons to Nineteen Eighty-Four itself. In the novel, books, magazines and newspapers in public archives that contradict the ruling party are edited or destroyed, long after being published; the removed materials go "down the Memory Hole", nickname for an incinerator chute.[65] (1984 was published in 1949, when books and other documents existed only in paper form: text-editors, word-processors, and digital books were not even mentioned by science fiction authors.)Customers and the press strongly noted the resemblance to the censorship in the novel, and described Amazon's action in Orwellian terms. Some critics also argued that the deletion violated the Kindle's Terms of Service, which states in part:[66]

"Upon your payment of the applicable fees set by Amazon, Amazon grants you the non-exclusive right to keep a permanent copy of the applicable Digital Content and to view, use, and display such Digital Content an unlimited number of times, solely on the Device or as authorized by Amazon as part of the Service and solely for your personal, non-commercial use."

Amazon spokesman Drew Herdener stated that the company is "… changing our systems so that in the future we will not remove books from customers' devices in these circumstances."[67] On July 23, 2009, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos posted an apology about the company's handling of the matter on Amazon's official Kindle forum. Bezos said the action was "stupid", and that Amazon "deserve[d] the criticism [it] received."[68]

On July 30, 2009, Justin Gawronski, a Michigan high-school senior, and Antoine Bruguier, a California engineer, filed suit against Amazon in the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington. Gawronski argued that Amazon had violated their TOS by remotely deleting the copy of Nineteen Eighty-Four he had purchased, in the process preventing him from accessing annotations he had written. Bruguier also had his copy deleted without his consent, and found Amazon "deceit[ful]" in an email exchange. The complaint, which requested class-action status, asked for both monetary and injunctive relief.[64][69] The case was settled on September 25, 2009, with Amazon agreeing to pay $150,000 divided between the two plaintiffs, on the understanding that the law firm representing them, KamberEdelson LLC, "...will donate its portion of that fee to a charitable organization...".[70] The settlement also saw Amazon guaranteeing wider rights to Kindle owners over their eBooks:

For copies of Works purchased pursuant to TOS granting “the non-exclusive right to keep a permanent copy” of each purchased Work and to “view, use and display [such Works] an unlimited number of times, solely on the [Devices]. . . and solely for [the purchasers’] personal, non-commercial use,” Amazon will not remotely delete or modify such Works from Devices purchased and being used in the United States unless (a) the user consents to such deletion or modification; (b) the user requests a refund for the Work or otherwise fails to pay for the Work (e.g., if a credit or debit card issuer declines to remit payment); (c) a judicial or regulatory order requires such deletion or modification; or (d) deletion or modification is reasonably necessary to protect the consumer or the operation of a Device or network through which the Device communicates (e.g., to remove harmful code embedded within a copy of a Work downloaded to a Device).[71]

On September 4, 2009, Amazon offered to restore the deleted ebooks to affected users or offer an Amazon gift certificate or check for $30.[72]

Web browser limitations

The Kindle International Wireless version has restricted access to the experimental web browser. In most countries, Amazon restricts Kindle owners from accessing any web content apart from Amazon's e-book store (to view and purchase books and magazine subscriptions) and the English Wikipedia.[73]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Amazon Grows a Startup in Cupertino". TheAlarmClock.com. http://www.thealarmclock.com/mt/archives/2007/05/amazon_grows_a.html. Retrieved 2008-03-22. [clarification needed]
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "What is the Amazon Whispernet wireless feature and how does it work?". Amazon.com. http://amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200127480&#whispernet. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Amazon Kindle FAQ". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200316870. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  5. ^ Kindle 2 goes to $259, International GSM version coming October 19 – CrunchGear
  6. ^ "Kindle for iPhone home page". http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?docId=1000301301. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  7. ^ Kafka, Peter. "That Was Fast: Kindle, Meet the iPhone.". http://mediamemo.allthingsd.com/20090303/that-was-fast-kindle-meet-the-iphone/?reflink=ATD_yahoo_ticker. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  8. ^ Stone, Brad (May 3, 2009). "Looking to Big-Screen e-Readers to Help Save the Daily Press". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/04/technology/companies/04reader.html?_r=1. 
  9. ^ http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html/ref=amb_link_85648511_5?ie=UTF8&docId=1000426311
  10. ^ Patel, Nilay (November 21, 2007). "Kindle Sells Out in 5.5 Hours". Engadget.com. http://www.engadget.com/2007/11/21/kindle-sells-out-in-two-days/. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  11. ^ Sorrel, Charlie (April 21, 2008). "Amazon's Kindle Back in Stock". Wired.com. pp. "Gaget Lab" blog. http://blog.wired.com/gadgets/2008/04/amazons-kindle.html. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  12. ^ Butler, Sarah (October 17, 2008). "No UK Kindle Launch Before Xmas". http://www.thebookseller.com/news/69174-no-uk-kindle-launch-before-xmas.html. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  13. ^ a b ( as of July 6, 2009 the price became $299) "Kindle 2: Amazon's 6" Wireless Reading Device (Latest Generation)". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00154JDAI ( as of July 6, 2009 the price became $299). Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  14. ^ "Amazon Press Event: Kindle 2 announced". http://www.obsessable.com/news/2009/02/09/amazon-press-event-kindle-2/. [clarification needed]
  15. ^ "Kindle 2 Frequently Asked Questions". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200316870&. Retrieved 2009-02-11. 
  16. ^ "UR, Exclusively on Amazon's Kindle". StephenKing.com. Self-published. http://www.stephenking.com/promo/ur_kindle/. Retrieved 2009-02-10. 
  17. ^ "Kindle 2 First Look". iFixit.com. http://www.ifixit.com/Guide/First-Look/Kindle-2/624/1. Retrieved 2009-02-25. 
  18. ^ a b "Amazon Extends Battery Life of Newest Kindle by 85 Percent and Adds Native PDF Reader". News Release. Amazon. http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1358968&highlight=. Retrieved November 21, 2009. 
  19. ^ "Amazon's Kindle e-reader to go international". http://edition.cnn.com/2009/BUSINESS/10/07/amazon.kindle.international.ft/index.html. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  20. ^ a b "Amazon Kindle DX Disassembly Guide". RapidRepair. http://www.rapidrepair.com/guides/kindle-dx/amazon-kindle-dx-disassembly-repair-guide.html. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  21. ^ Shiels, Maggie. "Amazon unveils Kindle DX e-reader". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/8036436.stm. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  22. ^ "Live from amazon Kindle event in NYC". Engadget.com. http://www.engadget.com/2009/05/06/live-from-amazons-kindle-event-in-nyc/#continued. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  23. ^ "Kindle DX: Amazon's 9.7" Wireless Reading Device (Latest Generation)". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0015TCML0. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  24. ^ Kehe, Marjorie (January 6, 2010). "Kindle DX: Amazon takes on the world". The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/Books/chapter-and-verse/2010/0106/Kindle-DX-Amazon-takes-on-the-world. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  25. ^ "Updating Kindles sold estimate: 1.49 million". http://blogs.zdnet.com/Ratcliffe/?p=486. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  26. ^ "Amazon e-book sales overtake print for first time". http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2009/dec/28/amazon-ebook-kindle-sales-surge. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  27. ^ "Amazon Kindle: License Agreement and Terms of Use". Amazon.com. 2007. http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?ie=UTF8&nodeId=200144530. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  28. ^ Electronic Device Stirs Unease at BookExpo – NYTimes.com
  29. ^ {{citenews|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/70983|title=The Future of Reading|publisher=Newsweek|date=2007-11-26|author=Steven Levy|accessdate=2007-12-02}}
  30. ^ Ricker, Thomas (2007-11-19). "Amazon Kindle available now on Amazon". Engadget.com. http://www.engadget.com/2007/11/19/amazon-kindle-available-now-on-amazon. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  31. ^ "Accessing Basic Web". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?ie=UTF8&nodeId=200137070. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  32. ^ "Kindle Software Updates". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200324680&. Retrieved 2009-11-27. 
  33. ^ "Reading Personal Documents on Your Kindle". Amazon.com. 2007. pp. "How to Use Your Kindle" section. http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200140600. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  34. ^ Amazon (2009). "Amazon.com: Kindle 2: Amazon's New Wireless Reading Device (Latest Generation): Kindle Store". Amazon. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00154JDAI. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  35. ^ "Reading Personal Documents on your Kindle". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=200140600. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  36. ^ "Kindle Download Guide". Feedbooks.com. http://www.feedbooks.com/help/kindle#guide. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  37. ^ "Kindle User Guide" (PDF). Amazon.com. http://g-ecx.images-amazon.com/images/G/01/digital/fiona/general/Kindle_User_Guide.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  38. ^ a b Munarriz, Rick Aristotle (November 27, 2007). "Why Kindle Will Change the World". Motley Fool. http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2007/11/27/why-kindle-will-change-the-world.aspx. Retrieved 2007-11-27. 
  39. ^ "Amazon DTP Support: Terms & Conditions". DigitalTextPlatform.com. pp. online forum section. http://forums.digitaltextplatform.com/dtpforums/entry.jspa?externalID=2&categoryID=12. Retrieved 2007-12-07. [unreliable source?]
  40. ^ a b Perlow, Jason. "Kindle Economics". ZDNet.com. pp. "Tech Broiler" blog. http://blogs.zdnet.com/perlow/?p=9441. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  41. ^ Dignan, Larry. "Amazon's Kindle 2: 5 Burning Questions". ZDNet.com. pp. "Between the Lines" blog. http://blogs.zdnet.com/BTL/?p=12529. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  42. ^ Perlow, Jason. "Kindle Economics 2: Why Amazon Should Not Be Apple, and Jeff Bezos Is Not Steve Jobs". ZDNet.com. pp. "Tech Broiler" blog. http://blogs.zdnet.com/perlow/?p=9292. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  43. ^ Priya Ganapati, Wired: Gadget Lab, (04-13-2009), "Kindle 2's Fuzzy Fonts Have Users Seeing Red" http://blog.wired.com/gadgets/2009/04/kindle-2-displa.html
  44. ^ David Carnoy, CNET News, (03-09-2009), "Kindle 2 flaw: Lighter Text Causing Headaches?" http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-10191483-1.html
  45. ^ Ian Paul, PC World, (4-14-2009), "Users Lament Kindle 2 'Upgrades'" http://www.pcworld.com/article/163089/users_lament_kindle_2_upgrades.html
  46. ^ "Lack of Folders in Kindle 2". ireaderreview.com. February 17, 2009. pp. Kindle review – Kindle 2 review, books. http://ireaderreview.com/2009/02/17/lack-of-folders-in-kindle-2/. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  47. ^ "What is the best Way to Organize books on Kindle? – Yes, Tagging". e-bookvine kindleMag. July 3, 2009. pp. FAQs. http://e-bookvine.com/?p=594. Retrieved 2009-07-26. 
  48. ^ "The Kindle 2". www.linuxjournal.com. http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/10432. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  49. ^ Frommer, Dan. "Bad News for the Kindle: iPhone 3G + Apps (AAPL, AMZN)". BusinessInsider.com. pp. "Silicon Alley Insider" section. http://www.businessinsider.com/2008/7/bad-news-for-the-kindle-iphone-3g-apps-aapl-amzn-. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  50. ^ "Kindlenomics Zero: When e-Texts Have No Entry Cost". ZDNet.com. pp. "Tech Broiler" blog. http://blogs.zdnet.com/perlow/?p=9570. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  51. ^ "Gizmodo – Amazon Kindle and Sony Reader Locked Up: Why Your Books Are No Longer Yours – Amazon:". Gizmodo. Gawker Media. March 21, 2008. http://gizmodo.com/369235/amazon-kindle-and-sony-reader-locked-up-why-your-books-are-no-longer-yours. Retrieved 4 July 2009. 
  52. ^ "Kindle owners find out about DRM's ever-present threat – Ars Technica:". Gear & Gadgets. Ars Technica. April 16, 2009. http://arstechnica.com/gadgets/news/2009/04/amazon-kindle-incidents-highlight-drm-limitations-once-again.ars. Retrieved 4 July 2009. 
  53. ^ Carnoy, David (2007-11-20). "Amazon Kindle". in John P. Falcone. CNET. pp. "CNET Editors' Review" section. http://reviews.cnet.com/e-book-readers/amazon-kindle/4505-3508_7-32751890.html. 
  54. ^ "Amazon buys Booksurge and Mobipocket". http://www.mobileread.com/forums/showthread.php?t=3833. [clarification needed]
  55. ^ "Franklin Sells Interest in Company, Retires Shares". http://philadelphia.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/stories/2005/03/28/daily32.html. [clarification needed]
  56. ^ "Reversing Everything: Mobipocket Books on Kindle". http://igorsk.blogspot.com/2007/12/mobipocket-books-on-kindle.html. [clarification needed]
  57. ^ See for examples user complaints such as these at Mobipocket.com's e-forum: "Unreadable on Amazon Kindle – Request Refund". http://www.mobipocket.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=15064. , "Kindle Compatibility". http://www.mobipocket.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=9455. , "PRC File Not Readable on Kindle 2". http://www.mobipocket.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=15604. , and "Using Mobipocket Files on My Kindle". http://www.mobipocket.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=14328.  Retrieved: 2009-06-10.
  58. ^ "KindleGate: Confusion Abounds Regarding Kindle Download Policy – Dan Cohen". geardiary.com. http://www.geardiary.com/2009/06/21/kindlegate-confusion-abounds-regarding-kindle-download-policy. Retrieved 2009-12-11. 
  59. ^ Slattery, Brennon (April 22, 2009). "Amazon's $359 Kindle 2 Costs $185.49 to Build". PC World. http://www.pcworld.com/article/163609/amazon_kindle_markup_cost_revealed.html. Retrieved 2009-04-22. 
  60. ^ Solomon, Deborah (December 6, 2009). "Questions for Jeffrey P. Bezos - Book Learning - Interview -". NYTimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/06/magazine/06fob-q4-t.html. Retrieved December 22, 2009. 
  61. ^ Amazon Fires Missile At Book Industry, Launches 70% Kindle Royalty Option
  62. ^ Some E-Books Are More Equal Than Others
  63. ^ Stone, Brad (July 18, 2009), "Amazon Erases Orwell Books From Kindle", The New York Times: B1, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/18/technology/companies/18amazon.html?_r=1 
  64. ^ a b "Plaintiff's Complaint in JUSTIN GAWRONSKI and A. BRUGUIER v. AMAZON.COM, INC". PR News Channel. July 30, 2009. http://www.prnewschannel.com/pdf/Amazon_Complaint.pdf. 
  65. ^ George Orwell, 1984, Part One, Chapter 4
  66. ^ "Why Amazon went Big Brother on some Kindle e-books". Ars Technica. 2009-07-17. http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2009/07/amazon-sold-pirated-books-raided-some-kindles.ars. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  67. ^ Amazon says it won't repeat Kindle book recall – CNet News
  68. ^ "Amazon Chief Says Erasing Orwell Books Was ‘Stupid’", New York Times Bits Blog, July 23, 2009
  69. ^ "Lawsuit: Amazon Ate My Homework". The Wall Street Journal. 2009-07-30. http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2009/07/30/lawsuit-amazon-ate-my-homework/. 
  70. ^ http://www.techflash.com/seattle/2009/09/amazon_settles_lawsuit_over_deleted_1984.html
  71. ^ http://assets.bizjournals.com/cms_media/pdf/KindleCase1.pdf
  72. ^ Amazon.com Offers to Replace Copies of Orwell Book – New York Times
  73. ^ Charlie Sorrel (October 12, 2009). "Crippleware Alert! International Kindle Gets No Web Access Outside U.S.". Wired. http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2009/10/international-kindle-crippled-at-launch-no-web-access-outside-us/. Retrieved November 21, 2009. 

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