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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
|Andrew James Viterbi|
March 9, 1935|
|Education||Massachusetts Institute of Technology (BS, MS)
University of Southern California (PhD)
|Institution memberships||University of Southern California Board of Trustees
The Scripps Research Institute Board of Trustees, Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute
UC Los Angeles
UC San Diego
|Significant projects||Viterbi algorithm|
|Significant advance||Code Division Multiple Access standard for cell phone networks|
|Significant awards||National Medal of Science
IEEE/RSE Wolfson James Clerk Maxwell Award
IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal
IEEE Medal of Honor
Viterbi was born in Bergamo, Italy to Jewish parents and emigrated with them in 1939 to the United States as a refugee. His original name was Andrea, but when he was naturalized in the US, his parents changed it to Andrew, since Andrea is a female name in many English-speaking countries.
He worked at Raytheon and later at Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, where he started working on telemetry for guided missiles, also helping to develop the phase-locked loop. Simultaneously, he was carrying out a PhD study at the University of Southern California, where he graduated in 1963 in digital communications.
After receiving his Ph.D., he applied successfully for an academic position at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
Viterbi was later a professor of electrical engineering at UCLA and UCSD. In 1967 he invented the Viterbi algorithm, which he used for decoding convolutionally encoded data. It is still used widely in cellular phones for error correcting codes, as well as for speech recognition, DNA analysis, and many other applications of Hidden Markov models. On advice of a lawyer, Viterbi did not patent the algorithm. Viterbi also helped to develop the CDMA standard for cell phone networks.
Viterbi was the cofounder of Linkabit Corporation, with Irwin Jacobs in 1968, a small military contractor. He was also the co-founder of Qualcomm Inc. with Dr. Jacobs in 1985. As of 2003[update], he is the president of the venture capital company The Viterbi Group.
In 1998 he was one of the few receiving a Golden Jubilee Award for Technological Innovation from the IEEE Information Theory Society. Viterbi earned it for "the invention of the Viterbi algorithm". In 2002, Viterbi dedicated the Andrew Viterbi '52 Computer Center at his alma mater, Boston Latin School. On March 2, 2004, the University of Southern California School of Engineering was renamed the Viterbi School of Engineering in his honor, following his $52 million donation to the school. He is a member of the USC Board of Trustees.
He is also on the Board of Trustees at The Scripps Research Institute.
He is also founding member of ISSNAF (The Italian Scientists and Scholars in North America Foundation).
In 2005, he was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Electrical Engineering.
Viterbi and Irwin M. Jacobs received the 2007 IEEE/RSE Wolfson James Clerk Maxwell Award, for "fundamental contributions, innovation, and leadership that enabled the growth of wireless telecommunications".
In September 2008, he was awarded the National Medal of Science for developing "the 'Viterbi algorithm', and for his contributions to Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) wireless technology that transformed the theory and practice of digital communications".
In 2010, he received the IEEE Medal of Honor and in the same year he also received the IIC Lifetime Achievement Award by the Italian Cultural Institute of Los Angeles.
Viterbi is married to Erna Finci, with whom he has three children.
|Awards and achievements|
Stephen O. Rice
|IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal
Charles K. Kao
|IEEE/RSE Wolfson James Clerk Maxwell Award