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definition - Baguazhang

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Baguazhang

                   
Bāguàzhăng
(八卦掌)
Sun bagua.jpg
Sun Lu-t'ang performing circle-walking
Also known as Bāguà quăn, Bāguà zhăng, Pakua chang, Pa-kua chang
Hardness Internal (neijia)
Country of origin China
Creator Dong Haichuan 董海川 (attributed)
Olympic sport No
Part of the series on
Chinese martial arts
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Bāguàzhǎng is one of the three main Chinese martial arts of the Wudang school, the other two being Taijiquan and Xingyiquan. It is more broadly grouped as an internal practice (or neijia gong). Bāguà zhǎng literally means "eight trigram palm," referring to the trigrams of the Yijing (I Ching), one of the canons of Taoism.[1]

Contents

  History

The creation of Baguazhang, as a formalised martial art, is attributed to Dong Haichuan (董海川), who is said to have learned from Taoist (and possibly Buddhist) masters in the mountains of rural China during the early 19th century.[2] There is evidence to suggest a synthesis of several pre-existing martial arts taught and practised in the region in which Dong Haichuan lived, combined with Taoist circle walking. Because of his work as a servant in the Imperial Palace he impressed the emperor with his graceful movements and fighting skill, and became an instructor and a bodyguard to the court.[3] Dong Haichuan taught for many years in Beijing, eventually earning patronage by the Imperial court.[4]

Famous disciples of Dong to become teachers were Yin Fu (尹福), Cheng Tinghua (程廷華), Ma Gui (马贵), Song Changrong (宋長榮), Liu Fengchun (劉鳳春), Ma Weiqi (馬維棋), Liu Baozhen(劉寶珍), Liang Zhenpu (梁振蒲) and Liu Dekuan (劉德寛). Although they were all students of the same teacher, their methods of training and expressions of palm techniques differed.[1] The Cheng and Liu styles are said to specialize in "pushing" the palms, Yin style is known for "threading" the palms, Song's followers practice "Plum Flower" (梅花 Mei Hua) palm technique and Ma style palms are known as "hammers." Some of Dong Haichuan's students, including Cheng Tinghua, participated in the Boxer Rebellion. In general, most bagua exponents today practice either the Yin (尹), Cheng (程), or Liang (梁) styles, although Fan (樊), Shi (史), Liu (劉), Fu (傅), and other styles also exist. (The Liu style is a special case, in that it is rarely practiced alone, but as a complement to other styles). In addition, there are sub-styles of the above methods as well, such as the Sun (孫), Gao (高), and Jiang (姜) styles, which are sub-styles of Cheng method.

  Modern styles

  Common aspects

  Internalist Zhang Zhaodong, also known as Zhang Zhankui

The practice of circle walking, or "turning the circle", as it is sometimes called, is Baguazhang's characteristic method of stance and movement training. All forms of Baguazhang utilize circle walking prevalently as an integral part of training. Practitioners walk around the edge of the circle in various low stances, facing the center, and periodically change direction as they execute forms.[5] For a beginner the circle is six to twelve feet in diameter.[3] Students first learn flexibility and proper body alignment through the basic exercises, then move on to more complex forms and internal power mechanics. Although the internal aspects of Baguazhang are similar to those of Xingyiquan and Taijiquan, they are distinct in nature.

  Fu Zhensong with a large bagua saber

Many distinctive styles of weapons are contained within Baguazhang; some use concealment, like the "scholar's pen" or a pair of knives (the most elaborate, which are unique to the style, are the crescent-shaped deer horn knives). Baguazhang is also known for practicing with extremely large weapons, such as the bāguà jian (八卦劍), or bagua sword, and the bāguà dāo (八卦刀), or bagua broadsword. Other, more conventional, weapons are also used, such as the staff (gun), spear (qiang), crutch (guai), hook sword (gou) and the straight, double-edged sword (jian). Baguazhang practitioners are also known for being able to use anything as a weapon using the principles of their art.

Baguazhang contains an extremely wide variety of techniques as well as weapons, including various strikes (with palm, fist, elbow, fingers, etc.), kicks, joint locks, throws, and distinctively evasive circular footwork. As such, Baguazhang is considered neither a purely striking nor a purely grappling martial art. Baguazhang practitioners are known for their ability to "flow" in and out of the way of objects.[citation needed] This is the source of the theory of being able to fight multiple attackers.[citation needed] Baguazhang's evasive nature is also shown by the practice of moving behind an attacker, so that the opponent cannot harm the practitioner.

Although the many branches of Baguazhang are often quite different from each other (some, like Cheng style, specialize in close-in wrestling and joint locks, while others, like some of the Yin styles, specialize in quick, long-range striking), all have circle walking, spiraling methodologies, and certain methods and techniques (piercing palms, crashing palms, etc.) in common.

Baguazhang's movements employ the whole body with smooth coiling and uncoiling actions, utilizing hand techniques, dynamic footwork, and throws. Rapid-fire movements draw energy from the center of the abdomen. The circular stepping pattern also builds up centripetal force, allowing the practitioner to maneuver quickly around an opponent.

  In popular culture

  See also

  • Ba gua—the eight trigrams, used as guiding principles for baguazhang.
  • Yi Jing—the Taoist classic examining the movement of the eight trigrams.
  • Feng shui—the metaphysical system of interior design based on the bagua.

  Notes

  1. ^ a b Lie, Zhang. “Classical Baguazhang Volume V: Yin Style Baguazhang.” Trans. Joseph Crandall. Pinole, California: Smiling Tiger Martial Arts 1995.
  2. ^ Yintao, Fei and Yuliang, Fei. “Classical Baguazhang Volume IV: Wudang Baguazhang.” Trans. Joseph Crandall. Pinole, California: Smiling Tiger Martial Arts 1994.
  3. ^ a b Green, Thomas A. "Martial Arts of the World" 2001
  4. ^ Jingru, Liu and Youqing, Ma. “Classical Baguazhang Volume II: Cheng Shi Baguazhang (Cheng Family Baguazhang).” Trans. Joseph Crandall. Pinole, California: Smiling Tiger Martial Arts 2001.
  5. ^ Lie, Zhang. Classical Baguazhang Volume V: Yin Style Baguazhang. Trans. Joseph Crandall. Pinole, California: Smiling Tiger Martial Arts 1995.
  6. ^ "Nickelodeon's Official Avatar: The Last Airbender Flash Site". Nick.com. Archived from the original on 2007-10-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20071023195043/http://www.nick.com/shows/avatar/index.jhtml. Retrieved 2006-12-02. 

  References

  • Dr. John Painter, "Combat Baguazhang: Nine Dragon System" Vols. 1 & 2
  • Robert W. Smith, Chinese Boxing, ISBN 1-55643-085-X
  • Bok Nam, Park & Dan Miller, The Fundamentals of Pa Kua Chang: The Methods of Lu Shui-T'ien As Taught by Park Bok Nam., ISBN 0-86568-173-2
  • Shou-Yu, Liang, Baguazhang : Emei Baguazhang Theory and Applications, ISBN 0-940871-30-0
  • O'Brien, Jess, Nei Jia Quan: Internal Martial Arts Teachers of Tai Ji Quan, Xing Yi Quan, and Ba Gua Zhang ISBN 1-55643-506-1
  • Frantzis, Bruce Kumar, The Power of Internal Martial Arts: Combat Secrets of Ba Gua, Tai Chi, and Hsing-I ISBN 1-55643-253-4
  • Mason, Tom and Danko,Dan. The Lost Scrolls:Air. New York: Simon & Schuster,2007
  • Lao xie Christopher Lee matsuo 'The heart of bagua8 powers', 'silk reeling palm','kunlun baguazhang 102', 'dragongatesanctuary.com
  • Ray Carbullido 'Foundations of baguazhang mastery' 'the sword within the sword'
  • Lao Xie Christopher Lee Matsuo 'Interviews with lao xie' conducted by hikaru ono in honolulu, Hawaii

  External links


   
               

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