definition of Wikipedia
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(Single-reeded aerophone with keys)
|Developed||28th June 1846|
In E♭: sounds one octave and a major sixth lower than written. (ie. from concert D♭ to A♭). Many models have a key for a (written) low A (instead of the usual low B♭) and/or a key for high F♯.
Military band family:
The baritone saxophone is one of the largest members of the saxophone family. It is the lowest-pitched saxophone in common use. The tenor, alto, and the soprano saxophone are the other commonly found members of the family.
It is a transposing instrument in the key of E♭, pitched an octave plus a major sixth lower than written. It is one octave lower than the alto saxophone. Modern baritones with a low A key and high F# key have a range from C2 to A4. Adolphe Sax also produced a baritone saxophone in F intended for orchestral use, but these fell into disuse. As with all saxophones, music is written in treble clef.
The baritone saxophone is the only member of the saxophone family which commonly has a "low A" key (sounding concert C). Much less commonly, altos and basses have been manufactured with low A keys. Benedikt Eppelsheim now makes a contrabass saxophone with one.
It has also been occasionally called for in orchestral music. Examples include Richard Strauss' Sinfonia Domestica, which calls for a baritone saxophone in F; Béla Bartók's The Wooden Prince ballet music; Charles Ives' Symphony No. 4, composed in 1910-16; and Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue and An American in Paris.
It has a comparatively small solo repertoire although an increasing number of concertos have appeared.
The baritone sax is also an important part of military bands, jazz bands, and is common in musical theater.
The baritone plays a notable role in many Motown hits of the 60s, and is often in the horn sections of funk, blues, Latin and soul bands. It is sometimes also used in rock music.
Nigerian Afrobeat singer, musician, and bandleader Fela Kuti typically featured two baritone saxophone players in his band.
A number of jazz performers have used the baritone saxophone as their primary instrument. It is part of standard big band instrumentation (the larger bass saxophone was also occasionally used up until the 1940s). One of the instrument's pioneers was Harry Carney, longtime baritone player in the Duke Ellington band.
Since the mid-1950s, baritone saxophone soloists such as Gerry Mulligan, Cecil Payne, and Pepper Adams achieved fame, while Serge Chaloff was the first baritone player to achieve fame as a bebop soloist.
More recent notable performers include Billy Carrion, Ken Ponticelli, Hamiet Bluiett (who has also led a group of baritone players), John Surman, Scott Robinson, James Carter, Stephen "Doc" Kupka of the band Tower of Power, Nick Brignola, Clifton Hyde, Gary Smulyan, Ronnie Cuber, Roger Rosenberg, Chad Makela, Frank Vacin, Claire Daly and Lauren Sevian. In the avant-garde scene, Andy Laster and Tim Berne have doubled on bari. A noted Scottish performer is Joe Temperley, who has appeared with Humphrey Lyttelton as well as with the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra. The Baritone Saxophone Band, a tribute to Gerry Mulligan, featured three baritone saxophonists: Ronnie Cuber, Gary Smulyan, and Nick Brignola.
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