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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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1.a Roman building used for public administration
2.an early Christian church designed like a Roman basilica; or a Roman Catholic church or cathedral accorded certain privileges"the church was raised to the rank of basilica"
BasilicaBa*sil"i*ca (�), n.; pl. Basilicas (�); sometimes Basilicæ (-sē). [L. basilica, Gr. basilikh` (sc. o'iki`a or stoa` fr. basiliko`s royal, fr. basiley`s king.]
1. Originally, the palace of a king; but afterward, an apartment provided in the houses of persons of importance, where assemblies were held for dispensing justice; and hence, any large hall used for this purpose.
2. (Arch.) (a) A building used by the Romans as a place of public meeting, with court rooms, etc., attached. (b) A church building of the earlier centuries of Christianity, the plan of which was taken from the basilica of the Romans. The name is still applied to some churches by way of honorary distinction.
BasilicaBa*sil"i*ca, n. A digest of the laws of Justinian, translated from the original Latin into Greek, by order of Basil I., in the ninth century. P. Cyc.
Anchiskhati Basilica • Baltimore Basilica • Basilica (architecture) • Basilica Fulvia • Basilica Menor de San Francisco de Asis • Basilica Nova • Basilica Palladiana • Basilica Ulpia • Basilica and National Shrine of Our Lady of Consolation • Basilica della Ghiara • Basilica della Santissima Annunziata del Vastato • Basilica di Saccargia • Basilica di San Calimero • Basilica di San Clemente • Basilica di San Domenico • Basilica di San Francesco di Assisi • Basilica di San Frediano • Basilica di San Frediano, Lucca • Basilica di San Giorgio Maggiore • Basilica di San Lorenzo • Basilica di San Nicola • Basilica di San Pietro in Vincoli • Basilica di San Saba (Rome) • Basilica di San Zeno • Basilica di San Zeno Maggiore (Verona) • Basilica di San Zeno di Verona • Basilica di San Zeno, Verona • Basilica di Sant'Anastasia al Palatino • Basilica di Sant'Andrea di Mantova • Basilica di Sant'Antonio of Padua • Basilica di Santa Croce (Lecce) • Basilica di Santa Maria Assunta di Torcello • Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore • Basilica di Santa Maria dei Servi • Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere • Basilica maior • Basilica major • Basilica of Begoña • Basilica of Constantine • Basilica of Maxentius • Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine • Basilica of Notre-Dame de Boulogne • Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière • Basilica of Our Lady Help of Christians, Turin • Basilica of Our Lady of Copacabana • Basilica of Our Lady of Dolours • Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health • Basilica of Our Lady of La Salette • Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro • Basilica of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Brooklyn • Basilica of Our Lady of Zapopan • Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar • Basilica of S. Francesco Assisi • Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua • Basilica of Saint John Lateran • Basilica of Saint Lawrence • Basilica of Saint Lawrence, Florence • Basilica of Saint Mary of the Immaculate Conception, Norfolk • Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls • Basilica of Saint Servatius • Basilica of Saint-Ferjeux • Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré • Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul (Lewiston, Maine) • Basilica of San Domenico • Basilica of San Domenico (Siena) • Basilica of San Gaudenzio • Basilica of San Isidoro • Basilica of San Lorenzo • Basilica of San Lorenzo Fuori Le Mura • Basilica of San Lorenzo, Milan • Basilica of San Petronio • Basilica of San Sebastian, Manila • Basilica of San Simpliciano • Basilica of San Vitale • Basilica of San Zeno • Basilica of San Zeno Maggiore • Basilica of Sant' Antonio • Basilica of Sant'Abbondio • Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio • Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo • Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe • Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio • Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence • Basilica of Santa Maria Novella • Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli • Basilica of Santa Maria del Carmine • Basilica of St Denis • Basilica of St John Lateran • Basilica of St. Clotilde, Paris • Basilica of St. Francis Xavier, Dyersville • Basilica of St. Francis, Asissi • Basilica of St. Francis, Assisi • Basilica of St. John in Lateran • Basilica of St. John, Des Moines • Basilica of St. Josaphat • Basilica of St. Lawrence, Asheville • Basilica of St. Lawrence, Florence • Basilica of St. Louis • Basilica of St. Louis de Montfort • Basilica of St. Louis, King • Basilica of St. Louis, King of France • Basilica of St. Mary • Basilica of St. Michael, Bordeaux • Basilica of St. Nazaire and St. Celse, Carcassonne • Basilica of St. Sernin, Toulouse • Basilica of Superga • Basilica of san Zeno Maggiore • Basilica of the Annunciation • Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers • Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida • Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima • Basilica of the National Shrine of St. Ann • Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary • Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception • Basilica of the National Shrine of the Little Flower • Basilica of the Sacred Heart • Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame • Basílica de Nuestra Señora del Pilar • Basílica del Voto Nacional • Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of the Rosary • Cathedral Basilica of Saint Joseph • Cathedral Basilica of Saint Joseph (San Jose) • Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul, Philadelphia • Cathedral Basilica of St. Augustine • Cathedral Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi • Cathedral Basilica of St. James the Apostle, Szczecin • Cathedral Basilica of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, Toruń • Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph • Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph (San Jose) • Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis • Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption, Covington • Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, Denver • Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, Mobile • Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Newark, New Jersey • Caudisona basilica • Congregados Basilica • Constantine's Basilica • Estrela Basilica • Kaunas Cathedral Basilica • Liberian Basilica • Mariatrost Basilica • Mariazell Basilica • Metro La Villa-Basílica • Mission Basilica San Carlos Borromeo • Mission Basilica San Juan Capistrano • Mission Basilica of San Carlos Borromeo • Notre Dame Basilica • Notre-Dame de la Paix Basilica • Notre-Dame-du-Cap Basilica • Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles (Basílica) • Nuestra Señora del Pilar Basilica • Old Basilica of Guadalupe, Monterrey • Old St. Peter's Basilica • Oostakker Basilica • Ostian Basilica • Oudenbosch Basilica • Our Lady of Snows Basilica • Our Lady of Sorrows Basilica • Patriarchal Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi • Patriarchal basilica • Peñafrancia Basilica • Pontifical basilica • Pontifical minor basilica • Poondi Madha Basilica • Queen of All Saints Basilica • Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica • Saint Euphemia's basilica • Saint Patrick's Basilica (Montreal) • San Petronio Basilica • San Thome Basilica • Santa Cruz Basilica • She Shan Basilica • St Mark's Basilica • St Mary of the Angels Basilica • St. Adalbert's Basilica, Buffalo • St. Dunstan's Basilica • St. George's Basilica, Malta • St. George's Basilica, Prague • St. Gereon's Basilica • St. Josaphat Basilica • St. Josaphat's Basilica • St. Joseph Basilica (Webster, Massachusetts) • St. Joseph's Basilica, Edmonton • St. Mark's Basilica, Venice • St. Mary Basilica, Natchez • St. Mary's Basilica, Bangalore • St. Mary's Basilica, Halifax • St. Mary's Basilica, Invercargill • St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków • St. Mary's Basilica, Phoenix • St. Mary's Cathedral Basilica, Ernakulam • St. Mary's Cathedral Basilica, Galveston • St. Patrick's Basilica, Montreal • St. Patrick's Basilica, Ottawa • St. Paul's Basilica (Toronto) • St. Peter's Basilica baldachin • St. Peter's Cathedral Basilica, London • Villa Basilica • Virga Jesse Basilica
édifice religieux chrétien (fr)[Classe]
édifice religieux clos (fr)[Classe]
église (édifice) (fr)[Thème]
The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, βασιλική στοά, Royal Stoa, the tribunal chamber of a king), was originally used to describe a Roman public building, usually located in the forum of a Roman town. Public basilicas began to appear in Hellenistic cities in the 2nd century BC.
The term was also applied to buildings used for religious purposes. The remains of a large subterranean Neopythagorean basilica dating from the 1st century AD were found near the Porta Maggiore in Rome in 1915. The stuccoes on the interior vaulting have survived, though their exact interpretation remains a matter for debate. The ground-plan of Christian basilicas in the 4th century was similar to that of this Neopythagorean basilica, which had three naves and an apse.
After the Roman Empire became officially Christian with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380, the term, by extension, came to refer specifically to a large and important church that has been given special ceremonial rights by the Pope. Thus the word retains two senses today, one architectural and the other ecclesiastical.
Modern basilicas constructed in the 20th century have become major Catholic pilgrimage sites, receiving tens of millions of visitors per year. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe set a new record with 6.1 million pilgrims during Friday and Saturday for the anniversary of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
The Roman basilica was a large roofed hall erected for transacting business and disposing of legal matters. As early as the time of Augustus, a public basilica for transacting business had been part of any settlement that considered itself a city, used in the same way as the late mediaeval covered market houses of northern Europe, where the meeting room, for lack of urban space, was set above the arcades, however. Although their form was variable, basilicas often contained interior colonnades that divided the space, giving aisles or arcaded spaces on one or both sides, with an apse at one end (or less often at each end), where the magistrates sat, often on a slightly raised dais. The central aisle tended to be wide and was higher than the flanking aisles, so that light could penetrate through the clerestory windows.
The oldest known basilica, the Basilica Porcia, was built in Rome in 184 BC by Cato the Elder during the time he was Censor. Other early examples include the basilica at Pompeii (late 2nd century BC).
In the Imperial period, a basilica for large audiences also became a feature in the palaces. In the 3rd century AD, the governing elite appeared less easily in the forums. "They now tended to dominate their cities from opulent palaces and country villas, set a little apart from traditional centers of public life. Rather than retreats from public life, however, these residences were the forum made private." (Peter Brown, in Paul Veyne, 1987). Seated in the tribune of his basilica, the great man would meet his dependent clientes early every morning.
A private basilica excavated at Bulla Regia (Tunisia), in the "House of the Hunt", dates from the first half of the 5th century. Its reception or audience hall is a long rectangular nave-like space, flanked by dependent rooms that mostly also open into one another, ending in a semi-circular apse, with matching transept spaces. The "crossing" of the two axes was emphasised with clustered columns.
In the 4th century, once the Imperial authorities had decriminalised Christianity with the 313 Edict of Milan, and with the activities of Constantine the Great and his mother Helena, Christians were prepared to build larger and more handsome edifices for worship than the furtive meeting-places (such as the Cenacle, Cave-churches, House churches such as that of the roman consuls John and Paul) they had been using. Architectural formulas for temples were unsuitable, for their pagan associations, and because pagan cult ceremonies and sacrifices occurred outdoors under the open sky in the sight of the gods, with the temple, housing the cult figures and the treasury, as a backdrop. The usable model at hand, when Constantine wanted to memorialise his imperial piety, was the familiar conventional architecture of the basilicas. These had a central nave with one aisle at each side and an apse at one end: on this raised platform sat the bishop and priests. Constantine built a basilica of this type in his palace complex at Trier, later very easily adopted for use as a church. It is a long rectangle two storeys high, with ranks of arch-headed windows one above the other, without aisles (there was no mercantile exchange in this imperial basilica) and, at the far end beyond a huge arch, the apse in which Constantine held state. Putting an altar instead of the throne, as was done at Trier, made a church. Basilicas of this type were built in western Europe, Greece, Syria, Egypt, and Palestine, that is, at any early center of Christianity. Good early examples of the architectural basilica include the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem (6th century AD), the church of St Elias at Thessalonica (5th century AD), and the two great basilicas at Ravenna.
Thus, a Christian symbolic theme was applied quite naturally to a form borrowed from civil semi-public precedents. The first and oldest known Christian basilica is that of St John Lateran, which was given to the Bishop of Rome by Constantine right before or around the Edict of Milan in 313 and was consecrated in the year 324. In the later 4th-century, other Christian basilicas were built in Rome: Santa Sabina, and St Paul's Outside the Walls (4th century), and later St Clement (6th century).
A Christian basilica of the 4th or 5th century stood behind its entirely enclosed forecourt ringed with a colonnade or arcade, like the stoa or peristyle that was its ancestor or like the cloister that was its descendant. This forecourt was entered from outside through a range of buildings along the public street. This was the architectural ground-plan of St Peter's Basilica in Rome, until in the 15th century it was demolished to make way for a modern church built to a new plan.
In most basilicas, the central nave is taller than the aisles, forming a row of windows called a clerestory. Some basilicas in the Caucasus, particularly those of Georgia and Armenia, have a central nave only slightly higher than the two aisles and a single pitched roof covering all three. The result is a much darker interior. This plan is known as the "oriental basilica".
In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the basilica is a mere architectural description of churches built in the ancient style. It bears no significance with regard to precedence or importance of the particular building or clerics associated with it. Eastern basilicas may be single-naved, or have the nave flanked by one or two pairs of lower aisles; it may have a dome in the middle: in this case it is called a "domed basilica".
The Early Christian purpose-built basilica was the cathedral basilica of the bishop, on the model of the semi-public secular basilicas, and its growth in size and importance signalled the gradual transfer of civic power into episcopal hands, which was under way in the 5th century. Basilicas in this sense are divided into classes, the major ("greater") basilicas and the minor basilicas; there are three other papal and several pontifical minor basilicas in Italy, and over 1,400 lesser basilicas around the world.
Numerous basilicas are notable shrines, often even receiving significant pilgrimages, especially among the many that were built above a confessio or the burial place of a martyr – although this term now usually designates a space before the high altar that is sunk lower than the main floor level (as in the case in St Peter's and St John Lateran in Rome) and that offer more immediate access to the burial places below.
The papal or major basilicas outrank in precedence all other churches. Other rankings put the cathedral (or co-cathedral) of a bishop ahead of all other churches in the same diocese, even if they have the title of minor basilica. If the cathedral is that of a suffragan diocese, it yields precedence to the cathedral of the metropolitan see. The cathedral of a primate is considered to rank higher than that of other metropolitan(s) in his circonscription (usually a present or historical state). Other classifications of churches include collegiate churches, which may or may not also be minor basilicas.
To this class belong only the four great papal churches of Rome, which among other distinctions have a special "holy door" and to which a visit is always prescribed as one of the conditions for gaining the Roman Jubilee. Upon relinquishing in 2006 the title of Patriarch of the West, Pope Benedict XVI renamed these basilicas from "Patriarchal Basilicas" to "Papal Basilicas".
The four papal or major basilicas were formerly known as "patriarchal basilicas". Together with the minor basilica of St Lawrence outside the Walls, they were associated with the five ancient patriarchal sees of Christendom (see Pentarchy): St John Lateran was associated with Rome, St Peter's with Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), St Paul's with Alexandria (in Egypt), St Mary Major with Antioch (the Levant) and St Lawrence with Jerusalem.
The privileges attached to the status of minor basilica, which is conferred by papal brief, include a certain precedence before other churches, the right of the conopaeum (a baldachin resembling an umbrella; also called umbraculum, ombrellino, papilio, sinicchio, etc.) and the bell (tintinnabulum), which are carried side by side in procession at the head of the clergy on state occasions, and the cappa magna which is worn by the canons or secular members of the collegiate chapter when assisting at the Divine Office. In the case of major basilicas these umbraculae are made of cloth of gold and red velvet, while those of minor basilicas are made of yellow and red silk—the colours traditionally associated with both the Papal See and the city of Rome.
There are four "pontifical" minor basilicas in the world (the word "pontifical" meaning "papal", referring to the title pontifex maximus): Pontifical Basilica of Our Lady of the Rosary of Pompeii, the Pontifical Basilica of Saint Nicholas in Bari, the Pontifical Basilica of Saint Anthony in Padua, the Pontifical Basilica of the Holy House at Loreto, the Pontifical Basilica of St Michael in Madrid, Spain.
The description "patriarchal" still applies to two minor basilicas associated with archbishops who have the title of patriarch: the Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of St Mark in Venice and the Patriarchal Basilica of Aquileia.
In recent times, the title of minor basilicas have been traditionally attributed to important pilgrimage Roman Catholic churches. In 1999 Bishop Francesco Giogia stated that the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City (constructed in the 20th century) was the most visited Catholic shrine in the world, followed by San Giovanni Rotondo and Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida in Brazil. Millions of pilgrims visit the shrines of Our Lady of Lourdes and Our Lady of Fatima. Pilgrimage basilicas continue to attract well over 30 million pilgrims per year.
Every year, on May 13 and October 13, the significant dates of the Fatima apparitions, pilgrims fill the country road that leads to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima with crowds that approach one million on each day. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe set a new record with 6.1 million pilgrims during Friday and Saturday for the anniversary of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
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