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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
1.cattle that are reared for their meat
2.meat from an adult domestic bovine
3.(colloquial)informal terms for objecting"I have a gripe about the service here"
1.complain"What was he hollering about?"
BeefBeef (bēf), n. [OE. boef, befe, beef, OF. boef, buef, F. bœef, fr. L. bos, bovis, ox; akin to Gr. boy^s, Skr. gō cow, and E. cow. See 2d Cow.]
1. An animal of the genus Bos, especially the common species, Bos taurus, including the bull, cow, and ox, in their full grown state; esp., an ox or cow fattened for food. [In this, which is the original sense, the word has a plural, beeves (bēvz).]
A herd of beeves, fair oxen and fair kine. Milton.
2. The flesh of an ox, or cow, or of any adult bovine animal, when slaughtered for food. [In this sense, the word has no plural.] “Great meals of beef.” Shak.
3. Applied colloquially to human flesh.
BeefBeef (bēf), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling, beef.
Beef tea, essence of beef, or strong beef broth.
Beef tapeworm (infection) • Belgian beef stew • Insulin, Isophane, Beef-Pork • Insulin, NPH, Beef • Insulin, NPH, Beef-Pork • Insulin, Protamine Zinc, Beef-Pork • Insulin, Regular, Beef-Pork • Isophane Insulin, Beef • Isophane Insulin, Beef-Pork • NPH Insulin, Beef • Pro Beef Brand of Trenbolone Acetate • Tapeworm, Beef • beef Bourguignonne • beef Stroganoff • beef Stroganov • beef Wellington • beef animal • beef broth • beef burrito • beef cattle • beef chop • beef fondue • beef goulash • beef inside • beef jerky • beef loin • beef man • beef neck • beef patty • beef plant • beef roast • beef stew • beef stock • beef tallow • beef tea • beef tenderloin • beef tongue • beef up • beef-steak mushroom • bully beef • conversion to beef production • corn beef • corned beef • corned beef hash • cut of beef • ground beef • minced beef • roast beef • roast beef plant • side of beef
2006 Argentine restriction of beef exports • Air Beef Scheme • Angus Finely Textured Beef • Argentine beef • BeEF (Browser Exploitation Framework) • Beef (band) • Beef (comics) • Beef (disambiguation) • Beef (documentary) • Beef Box • Beef Consommé • Beef Export Verification Program • Beef II • Beef III • Beef IV • Beef Island • Beef Manhattan • Beef O'Brady's • Beef Patties • Beef Products • Beef Shorthorn • Beef Stroganoff • Beef Tar Tar • Beef Trimmings, Finely Textured • Beef Wellington • Beef Wellington (disambiguation) • Beef aging • Beef and Butt Beer (song) • Beef and bone meal • Beef ball • Beef bourguignon • Beef brain • Beef bun • Beef cake • Beef cakes • Beef cattle • Beef chow fun • Beef chuck • Beef clod • Beef clods • Beef hormone controversy • Beef jerky • Beef mince • Beef noodle soup • Beef on weck sandwich • Beef or Chicken • Beef or Salmon • Beef phanaeng • Beef ring • Beef shank • Beef tea • Beef tenderloin • Beef tendon • Beef tongue • Beef trimmings • Beef, No Chicken • Beef-Eaters • Beef-fat trimmings • Beef. It's What's For Dinner • Boiled Beef and Carrots • Boiled beef • British Beef • Bully Beef and Chips • C. Roast Beef Kazenzakis • Chipped beef • Corned beef • Corned beef and cabbage • Corned beef knot • Corned beef pie • Corned beef row • Corned beef sandwich • Creekstone Farms Premium Beef • Curry beef triangle • Cut of beef • Cuts of beef • Dakota Beef • Devil's Beef Tub • Disputes over US beef imports • English Beef and Lamb Executive • Fillet of Beef Prince Albert • Finely Textured Beef • Ginger beef • Iletin i (beef-pork) • Insulin purified beef • Insulin zinc susp beef • Insulin zinc susp extended beef • Insulin zinc susp extended purified beef • Insulin zinc susp prompt beef • Insulin zinc susp purified beef • Iowa Beef Processors • Italian beef • Jock-O-Rama (Invasion of the Beef Patrol) • Joe Beef • Kelly's Roast Beef • Kobe beef • Korean beef protest • Lang de beef • Lean Beef Burger • Lean Finely Textured Beef • Lean finely textured beef • Matsusaka beef • Mishima beef • Mongolian beef • National Cattlemen's Beef Association • Omaha Beef • Organic beef • Partially Defatted Chopped Beef • Pot roast (beef) • Premium Black Angus Finely Textured Beef • R. Beef Kanzenzakis • R. Beef Kazenzakis • Roast Beef Kanzenzakis • Roast Beef Kazenzakis • Roast beef • Sha cha beef • Shake Hands with Beef • Silverside (beef) • Smoked beef • Spiced beef • Tallgrass Beef Company • Teen Beef • The Baron of Beef • The Power of Beef • The Roast Beef of Old England • US beef imports in Japan • US beef imports in South Korea • United States Army beef scandal • Vienna Beef • Western Beef • Where's the Beef • Where's the beef? • Yonezawa beef
horned ungulate; bovid[ClasseTaxo.]
bovine animal; bovine[Classe]
mammifère d'élevage (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
livestock; cattle; cows; kine; oxen; Bos taurus[ClasseHyper.]
bovine, bovine animal[Hyper.]
cattle boat, cattleship[Dérivé]
bovine animal; bovine[ClasseTaxo.]
animal qui porte une ou des corne(s) ou défense(s) (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
bête élevée (éventuellement pour la boucherie) (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
pack animal; beast of burden; jument[ClasseParExt.]
animal châtré (fr)[Classe]
symbole chrétien (fr)[Symbolise]
réclamer, protester (fr)[Classe]
se plaindre (fr)[Classe]
faire des commérages (fr)[Classe]
nuire en paroles (à qqn) (fr)[Classe]
incisif (esprit ou propos) (fr)[Classe]
qui offense (fr)[Classe]
procédure pénale (fr)[Thème]
procédure judiciaire (fr)[DomaineCollocation]
complaint - beef, bitch, complaint, gripe, kick, squawk - bellyacher, complainer, crybaby, griper, grumbler, moaner, nagger, sniveller, sorehead, squawker, whiner - bitchery - backbiter, defamer, libeler, maligner, slanderer, traducer, vilifier - crab, crabby person[Dérivé]
phase de la procédure pénale (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
complain about, complain of, complain to[Nominalisation]
complain, kick, kvetch, plain, quetch, sound off - backbite, bitch, gossip about - beef, bellyache, crab, gripe, grouse, holler, squawk - bitchy, cattish, catty, grievous, hurtful, nasty, spiteful, vicious, wounding[Dérivé]
beef (n.) [colloquial]
aliment carné (fr)[Classe]
livestock; cattle; cows; kine; oxen; Bos taurus[ClasseHyper.]
(bovine animal; bovine)[Thème]
phase de la procédure pénale (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
complaint - beef, bitch, complaint, gripe, kick, squawk - bellyacher, complainer, crybaby, griper, grumbler, moaner, nagger, sniveller, sorehead, squawker, whiner - complain, kick, kvetch, plain, quetch, sound off - backbite, bitch, gossip about - beef, bellyache, bitch, crab, gripe, grouse, holler, squawk - bitchy, cattish, catty, grievous, hurtful, nasty, spiteful, vicious, wounding - bad-tempered, cantankerous, crabbed, crabby, cross, fussy, grouchy, grumpy, ill-tempered, moody - blub, blubber, sniffle, snivel, snuffle - snivel, snuffle - grizzle, whine, yammer, yawp - croak, gnarl, grumble, murmur, mutter - grouch, grumble, scold - snivel, whine - groan, moan - screak, screech, skreak, skreigh, squawk[Dérivé]
complain about, complain of, complain to[Nominalisation]
beef (v. intr.)
Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle. Beef can be harvested from cows, bulls, heifers or steers. It is one of the principal meats used in the cuisine of the Middle East (including Pakistan and Afghanistan), Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Europe and North America, and is also important in Africa, parts of East Asia, and Southeast Asia. Beef is considered a taboo food in some cultures, especially in Indian culture, and hence is eschewed by Hindus and Jains; however, Hinduism's scriptures indicate a recorded history of beef consumption, with the taboo arising at a later period due to the ascendancy of the cow in terms of importance to the farming communities of the time. it is also discouraged among some Buddhists.
Beef muscle meat can be cut into steak, roasts or short ribs. Some cuts are processed (corned beef or beef jerky), and trimmings, usually mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages. The blood is used in some varieties of blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include the oxtail, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, glands (particularly the pancreas and thymus, referred to as sweetbread), the heart, the brain (although forbidden where there is a danger of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE), the liver, the kidneys, and the tender testicles of the bull (known in the US as calf fries, prairie oysters, or Rocky Mountain oysters). Some intestines are cooked and eaten as-is, but are more often cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The lungs and the udder are considered unfit for human consumption in the US. The bones are used for making beef stock.
Beef from steers and heifers is equivalent, except for steers having slightly less fat and more muscle, all treatments being equal. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies. Older animals are used for beef when they are past their reproductive prime. The meat from older cows and bulls is usually tougher, so it is frequently used for mince (UK)/ground beef (US). Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot (or concentrated animal feeding operation), where they are usually fed a ration of grain, protein, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend.
Beef is the third most widely consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after pork and poultry at 38% and 30% respectively. In absolute numbers, the United States, Brazil, and the People's Republic of China are the world's three largest consumers of beef. On a per capita basis in 2009, Argentines ate the most beef at 64.6 kg per person; people in the US ate 40.2 kg, while those in the EU ate 16.9 kg.
The world's largest exporters of beef are Brazil, Australia, and the United States. Beef production is also important to the economies of Paraguay, Argentina, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Russia, and Uruguay.
The flesh of bovines has been eaten by hunters from prehistoric times; some of the earliest known cave paintings, such as those of Lascaux show aurochs in hunting scenes. Domestication of cattle occurred around 8000 BC, providing ready access to beef, milk and leather. Most cattle originated in the Old World, with the exception of bison hybrids. Examples include the Wagyū from Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, and longhorn Zebu from the Indian subcontinent. It is unknown when exactly cooking beef came into being. Cattle were widely used across the Old World for draft animals (oxen), milk production, or specifically for meat production, depending on local needs and resources. With mechanization of farming, some breeds were specifically bred to increase meat yield, like Chianina and Charolais or to improve texture, such as the Murray Grey, Angus or Wagyū. Some breeds (dual-purpose) have been selected for both meat and milk production, e.g. Brown Swiss (Braunvieh).
The word beef is from the Latin bōs, in contrast to cow, which is from Middle English "cou" (both words have the same Indo-European root *gʷou-). After the Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England naturally used French words to refer to the meats they were served. Thus various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal (such as nēat, or cu for adult females) by the peasants, but the meat was called boef (ox) (Modern French boeuf) by the French nobles —who did not often deal with the live animal— when it was served to them.
This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals (with largely Germanic origins) and their meat (with Romanic origins) that is also found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry.
Beef is first divided into primal cuts. These are basic sections from which steaks and other subdivisions are cut. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest; the meat becomes more tender as distance from hoof and horn increases. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, and sometimes use the same name for a different cut.
The American cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead wrote in the American Anthropological Journal of the American Anthropological Association, "cultures that divide and cut beef specifically to consume are the Koreans and the Bodi tribe in East Africa. The French and English make 35 differentiations to the beef cuts, 51 cuts for the Bodi tribe, while the Koreans differentiate beef cuts into a staggering 120 different parts."
See the external links section below for links to more beef cut charts and diagrams.
The following is a list of the American primal cuts. Beef carcasses are split along the axis of symmetry into "halves", then across into front and back "quarters" (forequarters and hindquarters). Canada uses identical cut names (and numbering) as the U.S. system, except the part designated as "round" is known as "hip" in the Canadian system.
In the United States, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) operates a voluntary beef grading program. The meat processor pays for a trained AMS meat grader to grade whole carcasses at the abattoir. Users are required to comply with Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) grade labeling procedures. The official USDA grade designation can appear in one or any combination of the following ways: container markings, individual bags, legible roller brand appearing on the meat itself, or by a USDA shield stamp that incorporates the quality and/or yield grade.
There are eight beef quality grades. The grades are based on two main criteria: the degree of marbling (intramuscular fat) in the beef, and the maturity (estimated age of the animal at slaughter). Some meat scientists[who?] object to the current scheme of USDA grading since it is not based on direct measurement of tenderness, although marbling and maturity are indicators of tenderness. Most other countries' beef grading systems mirror the US model. Most beef offered for sale in supermarkets is graded US Choice or Select. US Prime beef is sold to hotels and upscale restaurants, and usually marketed as such. Beef that would rate as US Standard or less is almost never offered for grading.
Utility, Cutter, and Canner grade are rarely used in foodservice operations and primarily used by processors and canners.
There are five beef yield grades – 1 to 5, which estimate the yield of saleable product, with YG 1 having the highest and YG 5 the lowest. Although consumers rarely see or are aware of it, yield grade was an important marketing tool for packers and retailers. The conversion from carcass and bone-in primals to boneless, trimmed cuts has reduced the importance.
Traditionally, beef sold in steakhouses and supermarkets has been advertised by its USDA grade; however, many restaurants and retailers have recently begun advertising beef on the strength of brand names and the reputation of a specific breed of cattle, such as black Angus.
To improve tenderness of beef, it often is aged (i.e., stored refrigerated) to allow endogenous proteolytic enzymes to weaken structural and myofibrillar proteins. Wet aging is accomplished using vacuum packaging to reduce spoilage and yield loss. Dry aging involves hanging primals (usually ribs or loins) in humidity-controlled coolers. Outer surfaces dry out and can support growth of molds (and spoilage bacteria, if too humid), resulting in trim and evaporative losses. Evaporation concentrates the remaining proteins and increases flavor intensity; the molds can contribute a nut-like flavor. The majority of the tenderizing effect occurs in the first 10 days, although two to three days allow significant effects. Boxed beef, stored and distributed in vacuum packaging, is, in effect, wet aged during distribution. Premium steakhouses dry age for 21 to 28 days or wet age up to 45 days for maximum effect on flavor and tenderness. Meat from less tender cuts or older cattle can be mechanically tenderized by forcing small, sharp blades through the cuts to disrupt the proteins. Also, solutions of exogenous proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelin or ficin) can be injected to augment the endogenous enzymes. Similarly, solutions of salt and sodium phosphates can be injected to soften and swell the myofibrillar proteins. This improves juiciness and tenderness. Salt can improve the flavor, but phosphate can contribute a soapy flavor.
|Grilling||is cooking the beef over or under a high radiant heat source, generally in excess of 650 °F (343 °C). This leads to searing of the surface of the beef, which creates a flavorful crust. In the U.S.A., Australia, Canada, the UK and Germany, grilling, particularly over charcoal, is sometimes known as barbecuing, often shortened to "BBQ". When cooked over charcoal, this method can also be called charbroiling.|
|Broiling||is similar to grilling, but specifically with the heat source above the meat. Outside North America, this is known as grilling.|
|Roasting||is a way of cooking meat in a hot oven, producing roast beef. Liquid is not usually added; the beef may be basted by fat on the top, or by spooning hot fat from the oven pan over the top. A gravy may be made from the cooking juices, after skimming off excess fat.|
|Stir frying||is typically an Asian way of cooking. Cooking oil with flavourings such as garlic, ginger and onions are put in a very hot wok. Then slices of meat are added, followed by ingredients which cook quicker: mixed vegetables, etc. The dish is ready when the ingredients are 'just cooked'.|
Beef can be cooked to various degrees, from very rare to well done. The degree of cooking corresponds to the temperature in the approximate center of the meat, which can be measured with a meat thermometer. Beef can be cooked using the sous vide method, which cooks the entire steak to the same temperature, but when cooked using a method such as broiling or roasting it is typically cooked such that it has a "bulls eye" of doneness, with the least done (coolest) at the center and the most done (warmest) at the outside. While searing and the Maillard Reaction are important to the final flavor of a piece of beef, the degree of doneness is also important. A chef can judge the degree of doneness of steak using the finger touch test, without a meat thermometer. Temperature ranges can be found at Temperature (meat).
Moist heat cooking methods include braising, pot roasting, stewing and sous vide. These techniques are often used for cuts of beef that are tougher, as these longer, lower temperature cooking techniques have the potential to tenderize the meat better than high-heat, dry techniques.
Meat has usually been cooked in water which is just simmering, such as in stewing; higher temperatures make meat tougher by causing the proteins to contract. Since thermostatic temperature control became available, cooking at temperatures well below boiling, 52 °C (126 °F) to 90 °C (194 °F), for prolonged periods has become possible; this is just hot enough to convert the tough collagen in connective tissue into gelatin through hydrolysis, with minimal toughening. With the adequate combination of temperature and cooking time, pathogens, such as bacteria will be killed, and Pasteurization can be achieved. Because browning (Maillard reactions) can only occur at higher temperatures (above the boiling point of water), these moist techniques do not develop the flavors associated with browning. Meat will often undergo searing in a very hot pan, grilling or browning with a torch before moist cooking (though sometimes after).
Thermostatically controlled methods, such as sous-vide, can also prevent overcooking by bringing the meat to the exact degree of doneness desired, and holding it at that temperature indefinitely. The combination of precise temperature control and long cooking duration makes it possible to be assured that Pasteurization has been achieved, both on the surface and the interior of even very thick cuts of meat, which can not be assured with most other cooking techniques. (Although extremely long-duration cooking can break down the texture of the meat to an undesirable degree.)
Beef can be cooked quickly at the table through several techniques. In hot pot cooking, such as shabu-shabu, very thinly sliced meat is cooked by the diners at the table by immersing it in a heated pot of water or stock with vegetables. In fondue bourguignonne, diners dip small pieces of beef into a pot of hot oil at the table. Both techniques typically feature accompanying flavorful sauces to compliment the meat.
Steak tartare is a French dish made from finely chopped or ground (minced) raw meat (often beef). More accurately, it is scraped so as not to let even the slightest of the sinew fat get into the scraped meat. It is often served with onions, capers, seasonings such as fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce, and sometimes raw egg yolk. The Belgian dish filet américain is also made of finely chopped ground beef, though it is seasoned differently, and either eaten as a main dish or can be used as a dressing for a sandwich. Kibbeh nayyeh is a similar Lebanese dish. And in Ethiopia, a ground raw meat dish called tire siga or kitfo is eaten.
Carpaccio of beef is a thin slice of raw beef dressed with olive oil, lemon juice and seasoning. Often, the beef is partially frozen before slicing to allow very thin slices to be cut.
Yukhoe is a variety of hoe, raw dishes in Korean cuisine which is usually made from raw ground beef seasoned with various spices or sauces. The beef part used for yukhoe is tender rump steak. For the seasoning, soy sauce, sugar, salt, sesame oil, green onion, and ground garlic, sesame seed, black pepper and juice of bae (Korean pear) are used. The beef is mostly topped with the yolk of a raw egg.
Bresaola is an air-dried, salted beef that has been aged about two to three months until it becomes hard and a dark red, almost purple, colour. It is lean, has a sweet, musty smell and is tender. It originated in Valtellina, a valley in the Alps of northern Italy's Lombardy region. Bündnerfleisch is a similar product from neighbouring Switzerland.
Corned beef is a cut of beef cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. The corn in corned beef refers to the grains of coarse salts (known as corns) used to cure it. The term corned beef can denote different styles of brine-cured beef, depending on the region. Some, like American-style corned beef, are highly seasoned and often considered delicatessen fare.
Beef jerky is dried, salted, smoked beef popular in the United States.
Biltong is a cured, salted, air dried beef popular in South Africa.
Spiced beef is a cured and salted joint of round, topside, or silverside, traditionally served at Christmas in Ireland. It is a form of salt beef, cured with spices and saltpetre, intended to be boiled or broiled in Guinness or a similar stout, and then optionally roasted for a period after.
Hindus and Indian Buddhists consider killing cattle and eating beef a taboo, and Jains are forbidden to eat any kind of meat. Bovines have been highly revered as sacred to mankind in Indian culture due to the critical role of cattle, especially cows, as a source of milk, and dairy products, and their relative importance to the pastoral Vedic people allowed this special status; and this rose to prominence with the advent of the Jain tradition and Hindu Golden-age during the Gupta period. The slaughter of cattle has been likened[by whom?] to the matricide in these cultures, due to the idealisation of the cow providing milk and sustenance for society.
During the season of Lent, Catholics traditionally give up all meat and poultry products as a religious act of fasting. Prior to Pope Paul VI's Paenitemini, canonical law strictly stated meat was forbidden on all Fridays, a violation of which could be a mortal sin. Pope Paul VI's revisions relaxed the policy; now, the common interpretation is that meat is only forbidden on Ash Wednesday and Fridays in the season of Lent, although the fact that some form of penance is still asked of Catholics on Fridays leads many to continue the traditional abstention from beef and poultry.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,047 kJ (250 kcal)|
|- Starch||0 g|
|- Dietary fiber||0 g|
|- saturated||5.887 g|
|- monounsaturated||6.662 g|
|- polyunsaturated||0.485 g|
|Thiamine (vit. B1)||0.046 mg (4%)|
|Riboflavin (vit. B2)||0.176 mg (15%)|
|Niacin (vit. B3)||5.378 mg (36%)|
|Vitamin B6||0.383 mg (29%)|
|Folate (vit. B9)||9 μg (2%)|
|Vitamin B12||2.64 μg (110%)|
|Choline||82.4 mg (17%)|
|Vitamin C||0 mg (0%)|
|Vitamin E||0.45 mg (3%)|
|Vitamin K||1.2 μg (1%)|
|Calcium||18 mg (2%)|
|Iron||2.6 mg (20%)|
|Magnesium||21 mg (6%)|
|Manganese||0.012 mg (1%)|
|Phosphorus||198 mg (28%)|
|Potassium||318 mg (7%)|
|Sodium||72 mg (5%)|
|Zinc||6.31 mg (66%)|
|Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Beef is a excellent source of complete protein and minerals such as zinc, selenium, phosphorus and iron, and B vitamins. Red meat is the most significant dietary source of carnitine and, like any other meat (pork, fish, veal, lamb etc.), is a source of creatine.
A study released in 2007 by the World Cancer Research Fund reported “strong evidence that red meat and processed meats are causes of bowel cancer” and recommends people eat less than 500 grams (18 oz) of cooked red meat weekly, and as little processed meat as possible. The report also recommends that average consumption in populations should not exceed 300 grams (11 oz) per week, stating this goal "corresponds to the level of consumption of red meat at which the risk of colorectal cancer can clearly be seen to rise." It should be noted, though, the 2007 report from the World Cancer Research Fund defined red meat as "[B]eef, pork, lamb, and goat from domesticated animals." Lean beef, with its high selenium and vitamin B12 content, may actually lower the risk of colon cancer.
Cardiovascular Disease and Coronary Heart Disease
The Harvard School of Public Health also recommends consumers eat red meat sparingly as it has high levels of undesirable saturated fat. This recommendation is not without controversy, though. Another study from The Harvard School of Public Health appearing in Circulation (journal) found "Consumption of processed meats, but not red meats, is associated with higher incidence of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus." This finding tended to confirm an earlier meta-analysis of the nutritional effects of saturated fat in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition which found "[P]rospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease. More data are needed to elucidate whether cardiovascular disease risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat."
In 2011, U.S. Ground beef was subject to numerous recalls due to ecoli contamination:
Since then, other countries have had outbreaks of BSE:
The EU has decided to relax rules introduced to prevent the transmission of BSE more than 20 years after the emergence of "mad cow disease" and feed meat byproducts back to cattle.
TOP 10 CATTLE AND BEEF PRODUCING COUNTRIES
CATTLE PRODUCTION (1000 Head)
BEEF PRODUCTION (1000 MT CWE)
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