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Merriam Webster

Black RodBlack" Rod` (�). (a) the usher to the Chapter of the Garter, so called from the black rod which he carries. He is of the king's chamber, and also usher to the House of Lords. [Eng.] (b) An usher in the legislature of British colonies. Cowell.

Committed to the custody of the Black Rod. Macaulay.

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Black Rod

                   
  Caricature of Sir Augustus William James Clifford, 1st Baronet as Black Rod.

The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, generally shortened to just Black Rod, is an official in the parliaments of several Commonwealth countries. The position originates in the House of Lords of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. His equivalent in the House of Commons is the Serjeant at Arms.

Contents

  Origin

The office was created in 1350 by royal letters patent, though the current title dates from 1522. The position was adopted by other members of the Commonwealth when they adopted the British Westminster system. The title is derived from the staff of office, an ebony staff topped with a golden lion, which is the main symbol of the office's authority.

  Black Rod in the United Kingdom

  Appointment

Black Rod is formally appointed by the Crown based on a recruitment search performed by the Clerk of the Parliaments, to whom he reports. Prior to 2002 the office rotated among retired senior officers from the British Army, the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force. It is now advertised openly. Black Rod is an officer of the English Order of the Garter, and is usually appointed knight bachelor if not already knighted. His deputy is the Yeoman Usher of the Black Rod.

  Official duties

Black Rod has several official duties: he is the personal attendant of the Sovereign in the Lords; as secretary to the Lord Great Chamberlain he is responsible as the usher and doorkeeper at meetings of the Order of the Garter (stemming from the Garter Statute 1522); and, as the Sergeant-at-Arms and Keeper of the Doors of the House he is concerned in the admission of strangers to the House of Lords.

Black Rod further has the task of arresting any Lord guilty of breach of privilege or other Parliamentary offence, such as contempt or disorder, or the disturbance of the House's proceedings. He is also responsible, as the representative of the Administration and Works Committee, for more important services; the black rod is used to tap the governor's shoulder as a blessing from the Queen and security of the Palace of Westminster. Either Black Rod or his deputy, the Yeoman Usher, is required to be present when the House of Lords, upper house of Parliament, is in session, and plays a role in the induction of all new Lords Temporal into the House (but not of bishops as new Lords Spiritual).

In 2008 the salary for the position was £81,600.

  Ceremonial duties

  The Mace

Black Rod is in theory responsible for carrying the Mace into and out of the chamber for the Speaker of the House of Lords (formerly the Lord Chancellor, now the Lord Speaker), though this role is delegated to the Yeoman Usher and Deputy Serjeant-at-Arms, or on judicial occasions, to the Lord Speaker's deputy, the Assistant Serjeant-at-Arms. The mace was created in 1876.

  State Opening of Parliament

Black Rod is best known for his part in the ceremonies surrounding the State Opening of Parliament and the Throne speech. He summons the Commons to attend the speech and leads them to the Lords. As part of the ritual, as Black Rod approaches the doors to the chamber of the House of Commons to make his summons, they are slammed in his face. This is to symbolise the Commons' independence of the Sovereign. Black Rod then strikes the door three times with his staff, and is then admitted and issues the summons of the monarch to attend. This ritual is derived from the attempt by King Charles I to arrest five members in 1642, in what was seen as a breach of privilege. This and prior actions of the King led to the Civil War.[1] After that incident, the House of Commons has maintained its right to question the right of the monarch's representative to enter their chamber, though they cannot bar him from entering with lawful authority.

In recent years, Black Rod has 'suffered' a friendly jibe on this annual occasion from the outspoken Labour MP Dennis Skinner.[2]

  List of Black Rods in England, Great Britain and the UK from 1361

  Gentlemen Ushers of the Black Rod in Ireland

Before the Act of Union 1800 between the United Kingdom and Ireland, there was also a Black Rod in the Irish House of Lords.

The Senate of Northern Ireland also had a Black Rod throughout its existence.[9]

  Other UK ushers

Before the Acts of Union 1707 united the English and Scottish parliaments, there was a Heritable Usher of the White Rod who had a similar role in the Scottish Parliament.[10] This office is currently held by Rt. Rev. Dr John Armes, Lord Bishop of Edinburgh but the role carries no duties.

Gentleman ushers exist for all the British orders of knighthood, and are coloured as follows:

  Black Rod in other Commonwealth countries

As in the United Kingdom, Black Rod is responsible for arresting any senator or intruder who disrupts the proceedings.

  Canada

See Usher of the Black Rod of the Senate of Canada

  Australia

The Australian Senate has Mr Brien Hallett as Usher of the Black Rod and Mr John Baczynski as Deputy Usher of the Black Rod. One of these is present for the induction of all Senators. Each bicameral Australian state (that is, all but Queensland) also has its own Black Rod.

  New Zealand

In New Zealand, where the Legislative Council was abolished in 1951, the Usher of the Black Rod continues to summon MPs to the chamber for the Throne Speech. It is not a full-time position. Colonel William (Bill) Nathan, OBE ED, was Usher of the Black Rod 1993 to 2005. The position is currently held by David Baguley.[11]

  Counterparts in other countries

  United States

In the United States of America, the Sergeant at Arms of the United States Senate is the law enforcer for the United States Senate. The Sergeant at Arms can also request the attendance of absent Senators. With the Architect of the Capitol and the Sergeant at Arms of the House of Representatives, he serves on the Capitol Police Board, responsible for security in and around the Capitol proper and Congressional office buildings. The Sergeant at Arms of the Senate is empowered to arrest any person upon their violating Senate rules (including the President of the United States). The incumbent is Terrance W. Gainer.

  References

  1. ^ English Civil War
  2. ^ Black Rod - "I shall miss you, Dennis" - BBC News website, 3 December 2008
  3. ^ "New appointment as Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod". http://www.royal.gov.uk/LatestNewsandDiary/Pressreleases/2010/NewappointmentasGentlemanUsheroftheBlackRod.aspx/. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  4. ^ "ELLYS, Thomas (1685-1709), of Mitre Court, Inner Temple". History of Parliament online. http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1690-1715/member/ellys-thomas-1685-1709. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  5. ^ "Peerage and Baronetage of Great Britain and Ireland". http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=h_U8AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA611&lpg=PA611&dq=brinsley+butler+1st+viscount+lanesborough+black+rod&source=bl&ots=NExMirya5o&sig=3t8j3M3i_8-MMj02yG7vqiDAAG4&hl=en&sa=X&ei=eYhcT7ObDuKm0QWr-7n2Ag&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=brinsley%20butler%201st%20viscount%20lanesborough%20black%20rod&f=false. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  6. ^ "MONTAGU, George (c.1713-80), of Windsor, Berks.". History of Parliament online. http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1715-1754/member/montagu-george-1713-80. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  7. ^ "EDMONSTONE, Archibald (1717-1807), of Duntreath, Stirling.". History of Parliament online. http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1754-1790/member/edmonstone-archibald-1717-1807. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  8. ^ "BERNARD (afterwards BERNARD MORLAND), Scrope (1758-1830), of Nether Winchendon, Bucks". History of Parliament online. http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1790-1820/member/bernard-scrope-1758-1830. Retrieved 2012-03-11. 
  9. ^ Morton, Grenfell (1980-01). Home rule and the Irish question. Longman. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-582-35215-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=-LFnAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 27 March 2011. 
  10. ^ Facts about Edinburgh. The Ellen Payne Odom Genealogy Library Family Tree
  11. ^ "State opening of Parliament". The New Zealand Herald. Dec 9, 2008. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/image.cfm?c_id=1&gal_objectid=10547256&gallery_id=103797#6564021. 

  External links

   
               

 

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