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definition - Blood_alcohol_content

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Blood alcohol content

                   
Blood alcohol content
Diagnostics

Ethanol
LOINC 5639-0, 5640-8, 15120-9, 56478-1

Blood alcohol content (BAC), also called blood alcohol concentration, blood ethanol concentration, or blood alcohol level is most commonly used as a metric of alcohol intoxication for legal or medical purposes.

Blood alcohol content is usually expressed as a percentage of alcohol (generally in the sense of ethanol) in the blood. For instance, a BAC of 0.10 means that 0.10% (one tenth of one percent) of a person's blood, by volume (usually, but in some countries by mass), is alcohol.

Contents

  Blood Alcohol Level Chart

Progressive effects of alcohol[1]
BAC (% by vol.) Behavior Impairment
0.010–0.029
  • Average individual appears
    normal
  • Subtle effects that can be
    detected with special tests
0.030–0.059
  • Mild euphoria
  • Relaxation
  • Joyousness
  • Talkativeness
  • Decreased inhibition
  • Concentration
0.06–0.09
  • Reasoning
  • Depth perception
  • Peripheral vision
  • Glare recovery
0.10–0.19
  • Over-expression
  • Emotional swings
  • Anger or sadness
  • Boisterousness
  • Decreased libido
  • Reflexes
  • Reaction time
  • Gross motor control
  • Staggering
  • Slurred speech
  • Temporary erectile dysfunction
0.20–0.29
  • Stupor
  • Loss of understanding
  • Impaired sensations
  • Severe motor impairment
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Memory blackout
0.30–0.39
0.40–0.50
  • General lack of behavior
  • Unconsciousness
  • Death is possible
  • Breathing
  • Heart rate
>0.50
  • Death
Standard drink chart (U.S.)[2]
Alcohol Amount (ml) Amount (fl oz) Serving size Alcohol (% by vol.) Alcohol
80 proof liquor 44 1.5 One shot 40 0.6 US fl oz (18 ml)
Table wine 148 5 One glass 12 0.6 US fl oz (18 ml)
Beer 355 12 One can 5 0.6 US fl oz (18 ml)
Male
Female
Approximate blood alcohol percentage (by vol.)[3]
One drink has 0.5 US fl oz (15 ml) alcohol by volume
Drinks Body weight
40 kg 45 kg 55 kg 64 kg 73 kg 82 kg 91 kg 100 kg 109 kg
90 lb 100 lb 120 lb 140 lb 160 lb 180 lb 200 lb 220 lb 240 lb
1
0.05
0.04
0.05
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
2
0.10
0.08
0.09
0.06
0.08
0.05
0.07
0.05
0.06
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.05
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.04
3
0.15
0.11
0.14
0.09
0.11
0.08
0.10
0.07
0.09
0.06
0.08
0.06
0.07
0.05
0.06
0.05
0.06
4
0.20
0.15
0.18
0.12
0.15
0.11
0.13
0.09
0.11
0.08
0.10
0.08
0.09
0.07
0.08
0.06
0.08
5
0.25
0.19
0.23
0.16
0.19
0.13
0.16
0.12
0.14
0.11
0.13
0.09
0.11
0.09
0.10
0.08
0.09
6
0.30
0.23
0.27
0.19
0.23
0.16
0.19
0.14
0.17
0.13
0.15
0.11
0.14
0.10
0.12
0.09
0.11
7
0.35
0.26
0.32
0.22
0.27
0.19
0.23
0.16
0.20
0.15
0.18
0.13
0.16
0.12
0.14
0.11
0.13
8
0.40
0.30
0.36
0.25
0.30
0.21
0.26
0.19
0.23
0.17
0.20
0.15
0.18
0.14
0.17
0.13
0.15
9
0.45
0.34
0.41
0.28
0.34
0.24
0.29
0.21
0.26
0.19
0.23
0.17
0.20
0.15
0.19
0.14
0.17
10
0.51
0.38
0.45
0.31
0.38
0.27
0.32
0.23
0.28
0.21
0.25
0.19
0.23
0.17
0.21
0.16
0.19
Subtract approximately 0.01 every 40 minutes after drinking.

  Units of measurement

There are several different units in use around the world for defining blood alcohol concentration. Each is defined as either a mass of alcohol per volume of blood or a mass of alcohol per mass of blood (never a volume per volume). 1 milliliter of blood is approximately equivalent to 1.06 grams of blood. Because of this, units by volume are similar but not identical to units by mass. In the U.S. the concentration unit 1% w/v (percent weight/volume, equivalent to 10g/l or 1 g per 100 ml) is in use.[4] This is not to be confused with the amount of alcohol measured on the breath, as with a breathalyzer. The amount of alcohol measured on the breath is generally accepted to be proportional to the amount of alcohol present in the blood at a rate of 1:2100. Therefore, a breathalyzer measurement of 0.10 mg/L of breath alcohol converts to 0.021 g/210L of breath alcohol, or 0.021 g/dL of blood alcohol (the units of the BAC in the United States). While a variety of units (or sometimes lack thereof) is used throughout the world, many countries use the g/L unit, which do not create confusion as percentages do. Usual units are highlighted in the table below.

Reference Unit Dimensions Equivalent to Used in
BAC by volume 1 percent (%) 1/100 g/mL = 1 g/dL 9.43 mg/g, 217.4 mmol/L United States, Australia, Canada
1 permille (‰) 1/1000 g/mL = 1 g/L 0.943 mg/g, 21.7 mmol/L Austria, France, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey
1 basis point (‱) 1/10,000 g/mL = 10 mg/100 mL 94.3 ppm, 2.17 mmol/L Great Britain
BAC by mass 1 percent (%) 1/100 g/g = 1 cg/g 1.06 cg/mL, 230 mmol/L
1 permille (‰) 1/1000 g/g = 1 mg/g 1.06 mg/mL, 23 mmol/L Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany
1 part per million (ppm) 1/1,000,000 g/g = 1 μg/g 1.06 μg/mL, 23 μmol/L

  Legal limits

  Map of Europe showing countries' blood alcohol limits as defined in g/dl for the general population.

For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content is used to define intoxication and provides a rough measure of impairment. Although the degree of impairment may vary among individuals with the same blood alcohol content, it can be measured objectively and is therefore legally useful and difficult to contest in court. Most countries disallow operation of motor vehicles and heavy machinery above prescribed levels of blood alcohol content. Operation of boats and aircraft are also regulated.

The alcohol level at which a person is considered to be legally impaired varies by country. The list below gives limits by country. These are typically blood alcohol content limits for the operation of a vehicle. In the United States, the legal limit can vary by state but for all states as of 2011 is 0.08% blood alcohol content as measured by a breath device, urinalysis or blood test. This legal limit is down from 0.15% just a few decades previously.[5]

Zero tolerance
It is illegal to have any alcohol in the blood while driving in these countries

Since there is always some amount of alcohol even in non-drinkers' bodies, they have to have some legal guidelines for determining what behavior is illegal. Often that guideline is something like impairment in driving to any degree that can be shown to be probably caused by recent alcohol consumption.

0.02%
0.03%
0.04%
  • Lithuania (0.02% for drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license)
0.05%
  • Argentina (0.02% for motorbikes, 0.00% for truck/taxi/bus drivers)
  • Australia (0.00% for Australian Capital Territory learner, probationary and convicted DUI drivers (changed down from 0.02% on December 1, 2010), 0.02% for truck/bus/taxi, 0.00% for learner drivers, provisional/probationary drivers (regardless of age), truck and bus drivers, driving instructors and DUI drivers in all other states)
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Canada: British Columbia, Ontario, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick—provincial offence
  • Costa Rica[16]
  • Denmark
  • Finland
  • France (0.025% for bus drivers)[17]
  • Germany (0.00% for learner drivers, all drivers 18–21 and newly licensed drivers of any age for first two years of licence; also, if the BAC exceeds 0.03%, driving is illegal if the driver is showing changes in behavior ("Relative Fahruntüchtigkeit"))
  • Greece
  • Hong Kong
  • Iceland
  • Ireland (0.02% for learner drivers and professional drivers)[18]
  • Israel (240μg/L of air. 50μg/L of air for drivers under 24 and professional drivers)
  • Italy (0.00% for drivers in their first three years after gaining a driving license)
  • Latvia (0.02% for drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license)
  • Luxembourg
  • Macedonia (0.00% for drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license)
  • Netherlands (0.02% for drivers in their first five years after gaining a driving license)[9]
  • Peru
  • Philippines[19]
  • Portugal
  • Slovenia (0.00% for drivers in their first two years after gaining a drivers licence, drivers under 21 and common drivers, such as buses, trucks...)
  • South Africa
  • Spain (0.03% for drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license and common carriers, such as buses, trucks...)
  • Switzerland
  • Thailand
  • Taiwan
  • Turkey
0.06%
0.08%
Drivers under 21 (the most common U.S. legal drinking age), however, are held to stricter standards under zero tolerance laws. Adopted in varying forms in all states, these laws hold the driver to much lower blood alcohol content levels for criminal and/or license suspension purposes, commonly 0.01% to 0.05%. Many states have statutory regulations regarding driving while "under the influence" of an intoxicant and a different law for driving beyond the legal blood alcohol concentration.
A large number of laws apply from Federal regulatory bodies, states, counties, and cities. For further information on U.S. laws restrictions on alcohol sales, see Alcohol laws of the United States by state. Federal Aviation Administration: 0.01% for operators of common carriers, such as buses, for pilots 0.019% to fly, .039 without loss of medical (no fly until .019 or below), .04 permanent revocation of license for pilots, no alcohol within 8 hours per Federal Aviation Regulations[25] Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration: 0.04% for drivers driving a commercial vehicle which requires a commercial driver's license, otherwise 0.08%.[26]
Blood alcohol content measures and proxies (such as breath PPM and blood alcohol content measured as mass/volume) are commonly coded into the law to provide prima facie cases (much like speed limits). A driver measured to be over the allowed blood alcohol content limit has automatic penalties. But even below those levels, drivers can have civil liability and other criminal guilt. For example, in some state statutes (for example Arizona), any driving impairment to any degree caused by alcohol consumption can be a civil or criminal offense in addition to other offenses at higher blood alcohol content levels.
0.1%

  Limits by country (BrAC: Breath Alcohol Content)

In certain countries, alcohol limits are determined by the Breath Alcohol Content (BrAC), not to be confused with blood alcohol content (BAC).

  • In Greece, the BrAC limit is 25 microgrammes of alcohol per 100 millilitres of breath. The limit in blood is 0.50 g/l.
    • BrAC 25–40 = 200 fine.
    • BrAC 40–60 = €700 fine, plus suspension of driving license for 90 days(introduced in 2007)[27]
    • BrAC >60 = 2 months imprisonment, plus suspension of driving license for 180 days, plus €1,200 fine
  • In Hong Kong, the BrAC limit is 220 microgrammes per litre of breath (as well as other defined limits)
  • In The Netherlands and Finland, the BrAC limit is 220 microgrammes of alcohol per litre of breath (μg/l, colloquially known as "Ugl").
  • In Singapore, the BrAC limit is 350 microgrammes of alcohol per litre of breath.[23]
  • In Spain the BrAC limit is 250 microgrammes of alcohol per litre of breath and 150 microgrammes per litre of breath for drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license and common carriers.
  • In the United Kingdom the BrAC limit is 350 microgrammes of alcohol per litre of breath (as well as the above defined blood alcohol content).

  Other limitation schemes

  • For South Korea, the penalties for different blood alcohol content levels include
    • 0.01–0.049 = No Penalty
    • 0.05–0.09 = 100 days license suspension
    • >0.10 = Cancellation of car license.

  Scientific definitions

"0.01" Blood alcohol content is the hundredth decimal part of the one thousandth part of a liter. (Please note that this "0.01" is measured in permille and not percentage as the "0.1" example in introduction and numbers in 1 Effects at different levels.)

In digesting these numbers it must be remembered that one milliliter is the thousandth part of a liter. Therefore 1% of a milliliter is 0.00001-Liter. Expressing blood-alcohol concentration as "0.01" is naming the hundredth part of a thousandth part.

As final example, a blood-alcohol concentration of 0.08, being the 0.08 "part" of a milliliter (ITSELF the thousandth part of a Liter) therefore names an absolute blood-alcohol volume of 0.00008-Liter (within every liter of blood).

Each country or state may define BAC differently. For example, the state of California in the United States legally defines BAC as a ratio of grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood,[28] which is equal to grams of alcohol per deciliter of blood.

Since measurement must be accurate and inexpensive, several measurement techniques are used as proxies to approximate the true parts per million measure. Some of the most common are listed here: (1) Mass of alcohol per volume of exhaled breath (for example, 0.38 mg/L; see also breath gas analysis), (2) Mass per volume of blood in the body (for example, 0.08 g/dL), and (3) Mass of alcohol per mass of the body (for example, 0.0013 g/Kg).

The number of alcoholic beverages (drinks) consumed is often a poor measure of blood alcohol content because of variations in sex, body weight, and body fat.

An ethanol level of 0.10% is equal to 22 mmol/l or 100 mg/dl of blood alcohol.[29][30] This same 0.10% BAC also equates to 0.10 g/dL of blood alcohol or 0.10 g/210L of exhaled breath alcohol or 0.476 mg/L of exhaled breath alcohol. Likewise, 0.10 mg/L of exhaled breath alcohol converts to 0.02% BAC, 0.022 g/dL of blood alcohol or 0.022 g/210L of exhaled breath alcohol.

  Test assumptions

Blood alcohol tests assume the individual being tested is average in various ways. For example, on average the ratio of blood alcohol content to breath alcohol content (the partition ratio) is 2100 to 1. In other words, there are 2100 parts of alcohol in the blood for every part in the breath. However, the actual ratio in any given individual can vary from 1300:1 to 3100:1, or even more widely. This ratio varies not only from person to person, but within one person from moment to moment. Thus a person with a true blood alcohol level of .08% but a partition ratio of 1700:1 at the time of testing would have a .10 reading on a Breathalyzer calibrated for the average 2100:1 ratio. A similar assumption is made in urinalysis. When urine is analyzed for alcohol, the assumption is that there are 1.3 parts of alcohol in the urine for every 1 part in the blood, even though the actual ratio can vary greatly.

Breath alcohol testing further assumes that the test is post-absorptive—that is, that the absorption of alcohol in the subject's body is complete. If the subject is still actively absorbing alcohol, their body has not reached a state of equilibrium where the concentration of alcohol is uniform throughout the body. Most forensic alcohol experts reject test results during this period as the amounts of alcohol in the breath will not accurately reflect a true concentration in the blood.

  Metabolism and excretion

Alcohol is removed from the bloodstream by a combination of metabolism, excretion, and evaporation. The relative proportion disposed of in each way varies from person to person, but typically about 95% is metabolised by the liver. The remainder of the alcohol is eliminated through excretion in breath, urine, sweat, feces, milk and saliva.[31] Excretion into urine typically begins after about 40 minutes, whereas metabolisation commences as soon as the alcohol is absorbed, and even before alcohol levels have risen in the brain.

Alcohol is metabolised mainly by the group of six enzymes collectively called alcohol dehydrogenase. These convert the ethanol into acetaldehyde (an intermediate that is actually more toxic than ethanol). The enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase then converts the acetaldehyde into non-toxic Acetic acid.

Many physiologically active materials are removed from the bloodstream (whether by metabolism or excretion) at a rate proportional to the current concentration, so that they exhibit exponential decay with a characteristic halflife (see pharmacokinetics). This is not true for alcohol, however. Typical doses of alcohol actually saturate the enzymes' capacity, so that alcohol is removed from the bloodstream at an approximately constant rate. This rate varies considerably between individuals; Another sex based difference is in the elimination of alcohol. Persons below the age of 25[citation needed], women[32] persons of certain ethnicities, and persons with liver disease may process alcohol more slowly. Many East Asians (for example, about half of Japanese) have impaired acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; this causes acetaldehyde levels to peak higher, producing more severe hangovers and other effects such as flushing and tachycardia. Conversely, members of certain ethnicities that traditionally did not use alcoholic beverages have lower levels of alcohol dehydrogenases and thus "sober up" very slowly, but reach lower aldehyde concentrations and have milder hangovers. Rate of detoxification of alcohol can also be slowed by certain drugs which interfere with the action of alcohol dehydrogenases, notably aspirin, furfural (which may be found in fusel alcohol), fumes of certain solvents, many heavy metals, and some pyrazole compounds. Also suspected of having this effect are cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), and acetaminophen (Tylenol) (paracetamol).

Currently, the only known substance that can increase the rate of metabolism of alcohol is fructose. The effect can vary significantly from person to person, but a 100g dose of fructose has been shown to increase alcohol metabolism by an average of 80%.[33]

Alcohol absorption can be slowed by ingesting alcohol on a full stomach. Spreading the total absorption of alcohol over a greater period of time decreases the maximum alcohol level, decreasing the hangover effect. Thus, drinking on a full stomach or drinking while ingesting drugs which slow the breakdown of ethanol into acetaldehyde, will reduce the maximum blood levels of this substance, and decrease the hangover. Alcohol in non-carbonated beverages is absorbed more slowly than alcohol in carbonated drinks.[34]

  Retrograde extrapolation

Retrograde extrapolation is the mathematical process by which someone's blood alcohol concentration at the time of driving is estimated by projecting backwards from a later chemical test. This involves estimating the absorption and elimination of alcohol in the interim between driving and testing. The rate of elimination in the average person is commonly estimated at .015 to .020 grams per deciliter per hour (g/dl/h)Template:Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1507264, although again this can vary from person to person and in a given person from one moment to another. Metabolism can be affected by numerous factors, including such things as body temperature, the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, and the amount and type of food consumed.

In an increasing number of states, laws have been enacted to facilitate this speculative task: the blood alcohol content at the time of driving is legally presumed to be the same as when later tested. There are usually time limits put on this presumption, commonly two or three hours, and the defendant is permitted to offer evidence to rebut this presumption.

Forward extrapolation can also be attempted. If the amount of alcohol consumed is known, along with such variables as the weight and sex of the subject and period and rate of consumption, the blood alcohol level can be estimated by extrapolating forward. Although subject to the same infirmities as retrograde extrapolation—guessing based upon averages and unknown variables—this can be relevant in estimating BAC when driving and/or corroborating or contradicting the results of a later chemical test.

  Blood alcohol content calculation

Blood alcohol content can be roughly estimated using a mathematical approach. Mathematical estimations can be useful for calculating a blood alcohol content level that is not currently testable, or a level that may be present in the future. While there are several ways to calculate it, one of the most effective ways is to simply measure the total amount of alcohol consumed divided by the total amount of water in the body—effectively giving the percent alcohol per volume water in the blood.

Gender plays an important role in the total amount of water that a person has. In general, men have a higher percent of water (58%) than women (49%). This fact alone strongly contributes to the generalization that men require more alcohol than women to achieve the same blood alcohol content level. Additionally, men are, on average, heavier than women. The more water a person has, the more alcohol is required to achieve the same alcohol:blood ratio, or blood alcohol content level. Further, studies have shown that women's alcohol metabolism varies from that of men due to such biochemical factors as different levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (the enzyme which breaks down alcohol) and the effects of oral contraceptives.[35]

It is not strictly accurate to say that the water content of a person alone is responsible for the dissolution of alcohol within the body, because alcohol does dissolve in fatty tissue as well. When it does, a certain amount of alcohol is temporarily taken out of the blood and briefly stored in the fat. For this reason, most calculations of alcohol to body mass simply use the weight of the individual, and not specifically his water content.

  Cases of high blood alcohol levels

On Monday March 26, 2012 a man was found in a ditch with a BAC of 0.552%.[36]

In November 2007, a driver was found passed out in her car in Oregon in the United States. A blood test showed her blood alcohol level was 0.550%. She was charged with several offenses, including two counts of driving under the influence of an intoxicant, reckless endangerment of a person, criminal mischief and driving with a suspended license. Her bail was later set at USD 50,000, since she had several previous convictions for similar offenses.[37][38][39]

In December 2007, a driver was arrested in Klamath County, Oregon, after she was found unconscious in her car which was stuck in a snow bank with its engine running. Police were forced to break a car window to remove her. After realizing she was in alcohol-induced coma, they rushed her to the hospital where a blood test showed her blood alcohol level was 0.720%. She reportedly was released from the hospital the next day.[37][40] She was subsequently charged with drunk driving.[41]

In July 2008, a driver was arrested after he ran into a highway message board on Interstate 95 in Providence, Rhode Island. A breath test showed his blood alcohol level was at 0.491% and he was raced to the hospital where he was sedated and placed in a detoxification unit. He was subsequently charged with driving while intoxicated and resisting arrest.[42][43] He was later sentenced to one year probation, a $500 fine, 40 hours of community service and a one-year loss of his driver's license. The police later stated that his blood alcohol level was the highest they had ever seen for someone who hadn't died of alcohol poisoning.[44] It was later estimated that the driver had consumed 10–14 drinks over the course of 1–2 hours,[37] based on the standard levels of elimination which as documented previously can vary by up to 300%.

In December 2009, a South Dakota woman was found behind the wheel of a stolen car with a measured blood alcohol content of .708%, almost nine times the state's limit of .08%, thus becoming the highest recorded level of alcohol toxicity for the state. After she was hospitalized, she was released on bond and subsequently found in another stolen automobile while under the influence.[45]

  Highest recorded blood alcohol level/content

In 1995, a man in Wrocław, Poland, had a car accident. At the hospital, his BAC was determined to be 1.48%. Concerned that their equipment was malfunctioning, doctors also performed five separate lab tests, all of which confirmed the man's blood alcohol content. He died a few days later from wounds from the car accident. Police were baffled as to how an individual could attain such a high blood alcohol. Later, police discussions with his brother in-law revealed that he had "beer bonged" pure grain alcohol allegedly stolen from his place of work, a chemical plant.[46]

In December 2004, a man was admitted to the hospital in Plovdiv, Bulgaria, after being struck by a car. After detecting a strong alcohol odor, doctors at a hospital conducted a breath test which displayed the man's blood alcohol content at 0.914.[47] The man was treated for serious injuries sustained in the crash and survived.[48]

In February 2005, French gendarmes from Bourg-en-Bresse, France, conducted a breath test on a man who had lost control of his car. He had an alcohol content of 0.976.[49] He was not injured in the accident but was charged with a €150 fine and his driving license was canceled.

There have been reported cases of blood alcohol content higher than 1.00. In March 2009, a 45-year-old man was admitted to the hospital in Skierniewice, Poland, after being struck by a car. The blood test showed blood alcohol content at 1.23. The man survived but did not remember either the accident or the circumstances of his alcohol consumption.[50] One such case was reported by O'Neil, and others in 1984. They report on a 30-year-old man who survived a blood alcohol concentration of 1,500 mg/100 ml blood after vigorous medical intervention.[51]

In 1982, a 24-year-old woman was admitted to the UCLA emergency room with a serum alcohol concentration of 1.5 (1510 mg/dL). She was alert and oriented to person and place.[52] Serum Alcohol Concentration is not equal to nor calculated in the same way as Blood Alcohol Content.[53] (By conversion using BAC=SAC/1.14, this would correspond to a BAC of 1.33.[54])

In South Africa, a man driving a Mercedes-Benz Vito van containing 15 sheep, allegedly stolen from nearby farms was arrested on December 22, 2010, near Queenstown in Eastern Cape. His blood had an alcohol content of 1.6 g/100 ml. Also in the vehicle were five boys and a woman who were also arrested.[55]

In Poland, a homeless man was found sleeping half-naked on January 28, 2011, in Cieszyn. His blood had an alcohol level of 1.024%. Despite the temperature of −10 °C and extremely high blood alcohol content the man survived.[56]

  See also

  References

  Notes

  1. ^ A hybridizing of effects as described at Alcohol's Effects from Virginia Tech and Federal Aviation Regulation (CFR) 91.17: Alcohol and Flying (hosted on FlightPhysical.com)
  2. ^ Based on the CDC standard of 0.6 fl oz alcohol per drink. CDC alcohol FAQ
  3. ^ BAC Charts from Virginia Tech
  4. ^ http://www.bookrags.com/research/blood-alcohol-concentration-dat-01/
  5. ^ [1][U.S. BAC Levels]
  6. ^ http://www.news.ontario.ca/mto/en/2010/07/keeping-drivers-safe.html
  7. ^ http://www.cyberpresse.ca/actualites/quebec-canada/national/201202/17/01-4497213-tolerance-zero-pour-les-conducteurs-de-moins-de-21-ans.php
  8. ^ Driving law (hr)
  9. ^ a b http://www.alcohollimiet.nl/
  10. ^ [2]
  11. ^ a b http://www.inform.com/article/Puerto%20Rico%20OKs%20one%20lowest%20drunk-driving%20limits Puerto Rico OKs one lowest drunk-driving limits
  12. ^ according to Section 185 of Motor Vehicles Act 1988. On first offence, the punishment is imprisonment of 6 months and/or fine of 2000 Indian Rupees (INR). If the second offence is committed within three years, the punishment is 2 years and/or fine of 3000 Indian Rupees (INR). The clause of 30 mg/dL was added by an amendment in 1994. It came into effect beginning 14 November 1994.
  13. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17729137 In June 2002, a revision to part of the Road Traffic Act drastically increased the penalties for drinking and driving offences in Japan. Most notably, the legal blood alcohol concentration limit for driving was lowered from 0.05 mg/ml to 0.03 mg/ml.
  14. ^ http://www.presidencia.gub.uy/unasev/news/2009/2009030401.htm Desde el 16 de marzo, la concentración de alcohol en sangre permitida será de 0,3 gr/l
  15. ^ http://www.presidencia.gub.uy/_web/leyes/2007/11/TO393_19%2010%202007_00001.PDF Ley 18.191, art. 47
  16. ^ Carros de ebrios 'saturan' los planteles del MOPT (in Spanish). La Nacion
  17. ^ Between 0.05% and 0.08%, drivers can be fined €135 and have six points removed from their licence. Above 0.08%, the punishment is more severe with possible imprisonment of up to two years, heavy fines and licence suspension. http://www2.securiteroutiere.gouv.fr/ressources/conseils/l-alcool-au-volant.html (in French)
  18. ^ [3]
  19. ^ http://www.icap.org/Table/BACLimitsWorldwide
  20. ^ [4]
  21. ^ Criminal Code of Canada
  22. ^ [5]
  23. ^ a b Driving In Singapore - Home
  24. ^ Directgov
  25. ^ FindLaw for Legal Professionals - Case Law, Federal and State Resources, Forms, and Code
  26. ^ http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/registration-licensing/cdl/cdl.htm
  27. ^ http://www.sefeaa.gr/downloads/2009/KOK.pdf
  28. ^ California's legal definition of BAC
  29. ^ Wilson E, Waring WS (February 2007). "Severe hypotension and hypothermia caused by acute ethanol toxicity". Emerg Med J 24 (2): e7. DOI:10.1136/emj.2006.041590. PMC 2658221. PMID 17251602. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2658221. 
  30. ^ "Blood Alcohol - Health & Wellness - Blue Shield of California, Health & Wellness - Blue Shield of California". https://www.blueshieldca.com/hw/articles/hw_article.jsp?articleId=HWHW3564&fromCategoryId=6&_requestid=210377. 
  31. ^ http://www.intox.com/t-Physiology.aspx
  32. ^ Thomasson, Holly (2002). "Gender Differences in Alcohol Metabolism". Recent Developments in Alcoholism 12 (II): 169–172. DOI:10.1007/0-306-47138-8_9. http://www.springerlink.com/content/u500637566204213/fulltext.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-24. 
  33. ^ http://alcalc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/26/1/53
  34. ^ Roberts, C.; S. P. Robinson (2007-10). "Alcohol concentration and carbonation of drinks: The effect on blood alcohol levels". Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 14 (7): 398–405. DOI:10.1016/j.jflm.2006.12.010. ISSN 1752-928X. PMID 17720590. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B8CY1-4NRMDG8-1/2/b5ac5c9b9395018c3ba6cb32605de09d. Retrieved 2008-12-24. 
  35. ^ Biological Effects of Alcohol Use, Michaele Dunlap, Psy.D
  36. ^ http://www.nwitimes.com/news/local/porter/valparaiso/report-center-township-man-s-alcohol-level-nearly-times-legal/article_4d702a27-4720-5eb7-93d6-4d42a91c3ad9.html
  37. ^ a b c Extreme Drunk Driving by Russell Goldman, ABC News, July 24, 2008.
  38. ^ DUI Suspect's 'Lethal Dose' Earns $50K Bail by David Schoetz, ABC News, December 28, 2007.
  39. ^ Deputies: Woman Had 0.55% Blood Alcohol Level, KPTV News, December 27, 2007.
  40. ^ Drunkest Driver Ever?, The Smoking Gun, January 10, 2008.
  41. ^ Oregon Woman's Blood Alcohol Level Nine Times Legal Limit, Associated Press (reprinted by Fox News), January 10, 2008.
  42. ^ R.I. Police Arrest Man With Record .491 Blood Alcohol Level, Associated Press (reprinted by Fox News), July 23, 2008.
  43. ^ DUI suspect had highest alcohol level recorded By Richard C. Dujardin, The Providence Journal, July 23, 2008.
  44. ^ Police: Driver's Blood Alcohol Level Highest Registered for Someone Not Dead, Fox News, October 07, 2008.
  45. ^ [6], Rapid City Journal, December 29, 2009
  46. ^ [7], Wprost (polish)
  47. ^ Bulgarian's blood-alcohol level astounds doctors, CBC News, January 4, 2005 (retrieved on March 16, 2009).
  48. ^ Bulgarian Sets World Record for Highest Blood Alcohol Level, Sofia News Agency (Novinte.com), January 4, 2005 (retrieved on March 31, 2009).
  49. ^ Absolute record for a breath test (fr)
  50. ^ "The Drunkest Drinking Driver in Sweden: Blood Alcohol Concentration 0.545 W/v", an article by A. W. Jones published in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol, volume 60, 1999 (link). Jones cites O'Neill et al., 1984, as the source of the information about the 30-year-old.
  51. ^ O'Neil, S., Tipton, K. F., Prichard, J. S. and Quinlan, A., (1984) Survival after high blood alcohol levels: Association with first order elimination kinetics. Archives of Internal Medicine, 144, 641–642. [8]
  52. ^ The Lancet, Dec 18, 1982, p. 1394.
  53. ^ [9]
  54. ^ [10]
  55. ^ Drunkest driver in SA arrested Sowetan
  56. ^ [11] Sowetan

  Bibliography

  • Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Science and Technology Department. The Handy Science Answer Book. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Library, 1997. ISBN 978-0-7876-1013-5.
  • Perham, N. R., Moore, S. C., Shepherd, J. P. and Cusens, B. (2007). "Identifying drunkenness in the night time economy". Addiction 102 (3): 377–380. DOI:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01699.x. PMID 17298644. 
  • Taylor, L., and S. Oberman. Drunk Driving Defense, 6th edition. New York: Aspen Law and Business, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7355-5429-0.

  External links

   
               

 

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