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definitions - Blue

blue (adj.)

1.characterized by or causing or expressing sadness"growing more melancholy every hour" "her melancholic smile" "we acquainted him with the melancholy truth"

2.causing dejection"a blue day" "the dark days of the war" "a week of rainy depressing weather" "a disconsolate winter landscape" "the first dismal dispiriting days of November" "a dark gloomy day" "grim rainy weather"

3.of the color intermediate between green and violet; having a color similar to that of a clear unclouded sky"October's bright blue weather" - Helen Hunt Jackson"a blue flame" "blue haze of tobacco smoke"

4.characterized by profanity or cursing"foul-mouthed and blasphemous" "blue language" "profane words"

5.morally rigorous and strict"the puritan work ethic" "puritanic distaste for alcohol" "she was anything but puritanical in her behavior"

6.belonging to or characteristic of the nobility or aristocracy"an aristocratic family" "aristocratic Bostonians" "aristocratic government" "a blue family" "blue blood" "the blue-blooded aristocracy" "of gentle blood" "patrician landholders of..."

7.used to signify the Union forces in the American Civil War (who wore blue uniforms)"a ragged blue line"

8.suggestive of sexual impropriety"a blue movie" "blue jokes" "he skips asterisks and gives you the gamy details" "a juicy scandal" "a naughty wink" "naughty words" "racy anecdotes" "a risque story" "spicy gossip"

9.(colloquial)filled with melancholy and despondency "gloomy at the thought of what he had to face" "gloomy predictions" "a gloomy silence" "took a grim view of the economy" "the darkening mood" "lonely and blue in a strange city" "depressed by the loss of..."

blue (n.)

1.any of numerous small butterflies of the family Lycaenidae

2.the sodium salt of amobarbital that is used as a barbiturate; used as a sedative and a hypnotic

3.blue clothing"she was wearing blue"

4.blue color or pigment; resembling the color of the clear sky in the daytime"he had eyes of bright blue"

5.any organization or party whose uniforms or badges are blue"the Union army was a vast blue"

6.the sky as viewed during daylight"he shot an arrow into the blue"

7.used to whiten laundry or hair or give it a bluish tinge

blue (v.)

1.turn blue

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Merriam Webster

BlueBlue (blū), a. [Compar. Bluer (blū"ẽr); superl. Bluest.] [OE. bla, blo, blew, blue, livid, black, fr. Icel.blār livid; akin to Dan. blaa blue, Sw. blå, D. blauw, OHG. blāo, G. blau; but influenced in form by F. bleu, from OHG. blāo.]
1. Having the color of the clear sky, or a hue resembling it, whether lighter or darker; as, the deep, blue sea; as blue as a sapphire; blue violets. “The blue firmament.” Milton.

2. Pale, without redness or glare, -- said of a flame; hence, of the color of burning brimstone, betokening the presence of ghosts or devils; as, the candle burns blue; the air was blue with oaths.

3. Low in spirits; melancholy; as, to feel blue.

4. Suited to produce low spirits; gloomy in prospect; as, thongs looked blue. [Colloq.]

5. Severe or over strict in morals; gloom; as, blue and sour religionists; suiting one who is over strict in morals; inculcating an impracticable, severe, or gloomy mortality; as, blue laws.

6. Literary; -- applied to women; -- an abbreviation of bluestocking. [Colloq.]

The ladies were very blue and well informed. Thackeray.

Blue asbestus. See Crocidolite. -- Blue black, of, or having, a very dark blue color, almost black. -- Blue blood. See under Blood. -- Blue buck (Zoöl.), a small South African antelope (Cephalophus pygmæus); also applied to a larger species (Ægoceras leucophæus); the blaubok. -- Blue cod (Zoöl.), the buffalo cod. -- Blue crab (Zoöl.), the common edible crab of the Atlantic coast of the United States (Callinectes hastatus). -- Blue curls (Bot.), a common plant (Trichostema dichotomum), resembling pennyroyal, and hence called also bastard pennyroyal. -- Blue devils, apparitions supposed to be seen by persons suffering with delirium tremens; hence, very low spirits. “Can Gumbo shut the hall door upon blue devils, or lay them all in a red sea of claret?” Thackeray. -- Blue gage. See under Gage, a plum. -- Blue gum, an Australian myrtaceous tree (Eucalyptus globulus), of the loftiest proportions, now cultivated in tropical and warm temperate regions for its timber, and as a protection against malaria. The essential oil is beginning to be used in medicine. The timber is very useful. See Eucalyptus. -- Blue jack, Blue stone, blue vitriol; sulphate of copper. -- Blue jacket, a man-of war's man; a sailor wearing a naval uniform. -- Blue jaundice. See under Jaundice. -- Blue laws, a name first used in the eighteenth century to describe certain supposititious laws of extreme rigor reported to have been enacted in New Haven; hence, any puritanical laws. [U. S.] -- Blue light, a composition which burns with a brilliant blue flame; -- used in pyrotechnics and as a night signal at sea, and in military operations. -- Blue mantle (Her.), one of the four pursuivants of the English college of arms; -- so called from the color of his official robes. -- Blue mass, a preparation of mercury from which is formed the blue pill. McElrath. -- Blue mold or Blue mould, the blue fungus (Aspergillus glaucus) which grows on cheese. Brande & C. -- Blue Monday, (a) a Monday following a Sunday of dissipation, or itself given to dissipation (as the Monday before Lent). (b) a Monday considered as depressing because it is a workday in contrast to the relaxation of the weekend. -- Blue ointment (Med.), mercurial ointment. -- Blue Peter (British Marine), a blue flag with a white square in the center, used as a signal for sailing, to recall boats, etc. It is a corruption of blue repeater, one of the British signal flags. -- Blue pill. (Med.) (a) A pill of prepared mercury, used as an aperient, etc. (b) Blue mass. -- Blue ribbon. (a) The ribbon worn by members of the order of the Garter; -- hence, a member of that order. (b) Anything the attainment of which is an object of great ambition; a distinction; a prize. “These [scholarships] were the blue ribbon of the college.” Farrar. (c) The distinctive badge of certain temperance or total abstinence organizations, as of the Blue ribbon Army. -- Blue ruin, utter ruin; also, gin. [Eng. Slang] Carlyle. -- Blue spar (Min.), azure spar; lazulite. See Lazulite. -- Blue thrush (Zoöl.), a European and Asiatic thrush (Petrocossyphus cyaneas). -- Blue verditer. See Verditer. -- Blue vitriol (Chem.), sulphate of copper, a violet blue crystallized salt, used in electric batteries, calico printing, etc. -- Blue water, the open ocean. -- Big Blue, the International Business Machines corporation. [Wall Street slang.] -- To look blue, to look disheartened or dejected. -- True blue, genuine and thorough; not modified, nor mixed; not spurious; specifically, of uncompromising Presbyterianism, blue being the color adopted by the Covenanters.

For his religion . . .
'T was Presbyterian, true blue.
Hudibras.

BlueBlue (blū), n.
1. One of the seven colors into which the rays of light divide themselves, when refracted through a glass prism; the color of the clear sky, or a color resembling that, whether lighter or darker; a pigment having such color. Sometimes, poetically, the sky; as, to fly off into the blue.

2. A pedantic woman; a bluestocking. [Colloq.]

3. pl. [Short for blue devils.] Low spirits; a fit of despondency; melancholy. [Colloq.]

Berlin blue, Prussian blue. -- Mineral blue. See under Mineral. -- Prussian blue. See under Prussian.

BlueBlue, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blued (�); p. pr. & vb. n. Bluing.] To make blue; to dye of a blue color; to make blue by heating, as metals, etc.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Blue

see also - Blue

phrases

-Big Blue • Blue Asbestos • Blue Cohosh • Blue Crab • Blue Cross • Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans • Blue Green Algae • Blue Green Bacteria • Blue Mountain tea • Blue Nevi • Blue Nevus • Blue Nevus, Cellular • Blue Nile • Blue Ridge • Blue Ridge Mountains • Blue Shield • Blue Toe Syndrome • Blue Tongue • Blue Tongue Virus • Blue Vitriol • Blue Whale • Blue asphyxia • Blue sclera • Blue-Eared Pig Disease • Blue-Green Algae • Blue-Green Bacteria • French blue • beat black and blue • black and blue • black-and-blue • blue African lily • blue air • blue angel • blue ash • blue baby • blue baby syndrome • blue blindness • blue blood • blue book • blue bugle • blue bull • blue cardinal flower • blue cat • blue catfish • blue channel cat • blue channel catfish • blue cheese • blue cheese dressing • blue chip • blue cohosh • blue collar • blue collar worker • blue columbine • blue copperas • blue crab • blue crowned pigeon • blue curls • blue daisy • blue darter • blue devil • blue devils • blue elder • blue elderberry • blue false indigo • blue fig • blue flag • blue fleabane • blue fox • blue funk • blue giant • blue goose • blue grama • blue grass • blue green • blue gum • blue iris • blue jack • blue jasmine • blue jay • blue jean • blue jeans • blue jessamine • blue jet • blue joke • blue law • blue light • blue line • blue lotus • blue mahoe • blue marguerite • blue marlin • blue mockingbird • blue mold fungus • blue moon • blue movie • blue murder • blue note • blue or pigmented naevus • blue orchid • blue pea • blue peafowl • blue peter • blue pickerel • blue pike • blue pike perch • blue pikeperch • blue pimpernel • blue point • blue point Siamese • blue pointed • blue poppy • blue print • blue print paper • blue racer • blue ribbon • blue ribbon commission • blue ribbon committee • blue ribbon jury • blue ribbon of the Atlantic • blue runner • blue sage • blue shark • blue sheep • blue skullcap • blue sky • blue sky law • blue star • blue stem • blue stone • blue story • blue succory • blue supergiant • blue thistle • blue tit • blue toadflax • blue tulip • blue vitriol • blue wall • blue wall of silence • blue walleye • blue water gas • blue whale • blue wildebeest • blue-belly • blue-billed weaver • blue-black • blue-blind • blue-blindness • blue-blooded • blue-bottle fly • blue-chip • blue-chip stock • blue-collar • blue-collar worker • blue-eyed • blue-eyed African daisy • blue-eyed Mary • blue-eyed boy • blue-eyed girl • blue-eyed grass • blue-flowered • blue-fruited • blue-gray • blue-green • blue-green alga • blue-green algae • blue-grey • blue-headed vireo • blue-lilac • blue-pencil • blue-purple • blue-ribbon • blue-sky • blue-veined cheese • blue-violet • blue-white • blue-white dolphin • blue-winged teal • dark blue • dark-blue • deep blue • great blue shark • iron blue • light blue • light-blue • mountain blue berry • out of the blue

-A Patch of Blue • Adonis Blue • Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog • Arrow in the Blue • Baby blue (disambiguation) • Belgian Blue • Betty Blue • Big Blue Bus • Big Blue Disk • Big Blue Machine (Ontario) • Blue (1993 film) • Blue (2001 film) • Blue (disambiguation) • Blue (film) • Blue Afternoon • Blue Ajah • Blue Amberol Records • Blue Angels • Blue Army of Our Lady of Fatima • Blue Barn Theatre • Blue Bell Creameries • Blue Berry Hill, Texas • Blue Bird Aviation • Blue Bird Corporation • Blue Bland • Blue Chaffinch • Blue Cheer • Blue Cliff Record • Blue Code of Silence • Blue Corpse • Blue Crane • Blue Diamond Growers • Blue Eyed Six • Blue Fin • Blue Gene • Blue Gum • Blue Haven, Gauteng • Blue Hills, Gauteng • Blue Hussars • Blue Is the Colour • Blue Jam • Blue Jay • Blue Jay, California • Blue Jean Magazine • Blue Lake Township, Michigan • Blue Line (airline) • Blue Lines • Blue Magic (band) • Blue Martini Software • Blue Max • Blue Max (board game) • Blue Meanie • Blue Meanies (Illinois band) • Blue Mercedes • Blue Mitchell • Blue Monday • Blue Monday (Fats Domino song) • Blue Monday (comics) • Blue Monday (opera) • Blue Moon Aviation • Blue Moon of Kentucky • Blue Mound, Texas • Blue Mounds (town), Wisconsin • Blue Mounds, Wisconsin • Blue Mountain College • Blue Network • Blue Nile • Blue Note Festival • Blue Pearl • Blue Peter • Blue Peter (disambiguation) • Blue Ranger • Blue Raspberry (singer) • Blue Ribbon campaign (Fiji) • Blue Ridge • Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania • Blue Ridge, Texas • Blue Ridge, Virginia • Blue River (Missouri) • Blue River, Wisconsin • Blue Room • Blue Room (song) • Blue Sky Mausoleum • Blue Sky Mining • Blue Springs State Park • Blue Star Highway • Blue State Digital • Blue Steel missile • Blue Swede • Blue Thunder (truck) • Blue Tit • Blue Tongue Entertainment • Blue Triangle • Blue Velvet (film) • Blue World Order • Blue ant • Blue bag • Blue belt • Blue box • Blue collar (disambiguation) • Blue dolphin • Blue giant • Blue laser • Blue laser (disambiguation) • Blue law • Blue lotus • Blue note • Blue riband • Blue rose • Blue scale • Blue shark • Blue straggler • Blue supergiant • Blue Öyster Cult • Blue-Books • Blue-ant • Blue-cheeked Bee-eater • Blue-chinned Sapphire • Blue-collar worker • Blue-headed Parrot • Blue-ringed octopus • Blue-tailed Bee-eater • Blue-tailed Emerald • Blue-winged Kookaburra • Blue-winged Teal • Bob B. Soxx and the Blue Jeans • Bobby 'Blue' Bland • Bobby Blue Bland • Bonnie Blue Flag • Chalkhill Blue • City of Blue Mountains • Cornflower blue • Deep Blue – Kasparov, 1996, Game 1 • Deepest Blue • Elijah Blue Allman • Engineer's blue • Extreme Blue • Fade (Blue Angel song) • Faint blue galaxy • Formosan Blue Magpie • Gene Vincent and the Blue Caps • Great Blue Heron • Great Blue Heron Casino • Great Blue Hole • Holly Blue • Into the Blue • Jimmy James and the Blue Flames • Karner Blue • Kelley Blue Book • Large Blue • Lavender Blue • Little Blue River (Missouri) • Living in a Moon So Blue • Long-tailed Blue • Marking blue • Mazarine Blue • Methylene blue • Metro Blue Line (LACMTA) • NYPD Blue • Out of the Blue (1979 TV series) • Pale cornflower blue • Perfect Blue • Pink Turns Blue • Porterhouse Blue • Prussian blue • Red-billed Blue Magpie • Rhapsody in Blue • Royal blue • Ruby Blue • Russian Blue • Salvia 'Celestial Blue' • Scream in Blue • Short-tailed Blue • Silver-studded Blue • Small Blue • Steel blue • Taiwan blue magpie • Tasmanian Blue Gum • The Blue Album • The Blue Bird • The Blue Bird (film) • The Blue Bloods • The Blue Caps • The Blue Dahlia • The Blue Hearts • The Blue Lagoon (novel) • The Blue Lotus • The Blue Ox Babes • The Blue Room (EP) • The Blue Veil • The Blue-Belles • The Deep Blue Good-by • The Deep Blue Good-bye • The Moon Is Blue • The Screaming Blue Messiahs • Toledo Blue Stockings • True Blue (TV series) • West Vancouver Blue Bus • Winnipeg Blue Bombers

analogical dictionary

 

MESH root[Thème]

blue [MeSH]







blue (adj.)



 

southern[Ant.]

North, Union - North[Dérivé]

northern[Similaire]

blue (adj.)








astronomy[Domaine]

Region[Domaine]

heaven, sky[Hyper.]

blue (n.)


blue (n.)



Wikipedia - see also

Wikipedia

Blue

                   
Blue
Color icon blue.svg
 — Spectral coordinates —
Wavelength 450–490 nm
Frequency ~670–610 THz
 — Common connotations —
Ice, water, sky, sadness, winter, police, royalty, Hanukkah, boys, cold, calm, magic, trueness, conservatism (universally), liberalism (US), and capitalism
About these coordinates

— Colour coordinates —

Hex triplet #0000FF
sRGBB (r, g, b) (0, 0, 255)
HSV (h, s, v) (240°, 100%, 100%)
Source HTML/CSS[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
Image of a pier extending out in to a lake, with a clear sky above and mountains in the distance.
  The sky and water often appear blue.

Blue is the colour of the clear sky and the deep sea.[2] It is one of the seven colours of light in the visible spectrum, located between violet (purple) and cyan. Along with with red and yellow, It is also one of the additive primary colours, which can be be combined to make all other colours.

There are many shades of blue, ranging from dark blues, such as ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, and Prussian blue; to lighter blues; sky blue, azure, cerulean blue, and Egyptian blue. Some blues exist in nature, while others, like Prussian blue, cobalt blue and Egyptian blue, have been created by chemists.

Contents

Etymology and linguistic questions

The modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French blou, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. [3]

In Russian and some other languages, there is no single word for blue, but rather different words for light blue (голубой, goluboy) and dark blue (синий, siniy).

Several languages, including Japanese, Thai, Korean and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. In Japanese, the word for blue (青 ao) is often used for colours that English speakers would refer to as green, such as the colour of a traffic signal meaning "go". (For more on this subject, see Distinguishing blue from green in language)

History of blue

Blue in the Ancient World

Blue was a latecomer among colours used in art and decoration. Reds, blacks, browns, and ochers are found in cave paintings from the Upper Paleolithic period, but not blue. Blue was also not used for dyeing fabric until long after red, ocher, pink and purple. This is probably due to the perennial difficulty of making good blue dyes and pigments. [4] The earliest known blue dyes were made from plants - woad in Europe, indigo in Asia and Africa, while blue pigments were made from minerals, usually either lapis lazuli or azurite. Lapis lazuli has been mined in Afghanistan for more than three thousand years, and was exported to all parts of the ancient world.[5]

The Egyptians imported lapis lazuli from Afghanistan and used it for jewelry and to make pigments for painting. Beginning in the 3rd millenium BC, the ancient Egyptians produced their own blue pigment known as Egyptian blue, made by grinding silica, lime, copper and alkalai, and heating it. This is considered the first synthetic pigment.[6] The colour was used to paint stone, plaster, wood, papyrus and canvas, and in the manufacture of objects, such as beads, inlays, and pots. it was particularly used in funeral statuary and figurines and in tomb paintings. Blue was a considered a beneficial colour which would protect the dead against evil in the afterlife. Blue dye was also used to colour the cloth in which mummies were wrapped.[7]

In about 1500 BC the ancient Chinese also invented a blue pigment, now called Han blue or Chinese blue, which was almost identical in chemical composition and colour to Egyptian blue, except that it also included the mineral barium. The Chinese also used azurite to produce a blue pigment; the trousers of the famous Terracotta army of the first Chinese Emperor (3rd century BC) were coloured with blue paint made from azurite.[8][9]

The Ancient Greeks made little use of the colour blue, except as as a background for the white figures of the friezes of the Parthenon and other temples. Their palate of primary colours was composed of red, yellow, black and white. They also had no clear definition of what blue was; The Greek word for dark blue, kyaneos, could mean any dark colour; not just blue, but also violet, black, or brown. The ancient Greek word for a light blue, glaukos, also could mean green, grey, yellow, or light brown.[10]

The Ancient Romans also made very little use of the colour blue, preferring white, black, red or violet for ceremonial clothing and decoration. Blue was considered the colour of barbarians. Julius Caesar reported that the Germans and Celts coloured themselves blue to frighten enemies, and tinted their hair blue.[11] Dark blue was also considered a colour for mourning. The Romans had many different words for varieties of blue, including caeruleus, caesius, glaucus, cyaneus, lividus, venetus, aerius, and ferreus, but two words, both of foreign origin, became the most enduring; blavus, from the Germanic word blau, which eventually became bleu or blue; and azureus, from the Arabic word lazaward, which became azure.[12]

Blue in the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic World

While blue had a minor role in Greek and Roman art, it was an important element in the art of the Byzantine Empire, Persia and the rest of the Islamic World, where it was used as a background, in clothing, and featured in magnificent mosaics and tile-covered facades.[13] Very vivid blues also appeared in the art of Persian miniatures.

Blue during the Middle Ages

In the art and life of Europe during the early Middle Ages, blue played a minor role. The nobility wore red, blue or purple, while only the poor wore blue clothing, coloured with poor-quality dyes made from the woad plant. Blue played no part in the rich costumes of the clergy or the architecture or decoration of churches. This changed dramatically between 1130 and 1140 in Paris, when the Abbe Suger rebuilt the Saint Denis Basilica. He installed stained glass windows coloured with cobalt blue pigment, which, along with the red glass in the windows, filled the church with a bluish violet light. The church became the marvel of the Christian world, and the colour became known as the "bleu de Saint-Denis". In the years that followed even more elegant blue stained glass windows were installed in other churches, including at Chartres Cathedral and Sainte-Chapelle in Paris.[14]

Another important promotion for the colour blue in the 12th century was the increase of attention in the Catholic Church to the veneration of the Virgin Mary, and a change in the colours used to depict her clothing. In earlier centuries her robes had usually been painted in somber black, grey, violet, dark green or dark blue. In the 12th century they began to be painted a rich lighter blue, usually made with pigments made from from lapis lazuli. Blue became associated with holiness and virtue.

The use of a light blue for the robe of the Virgin Mary was followed by a change in the fashion of the nobility, King Louis IX (Saint Louis) became the first King of France to regularly dress in blue. This was copied by other nobles. Paintings of the mythical King Arthur began to show him dressed in blue. The coat of arms of the Kings of France became an azure or light blue shield, sprinkled with golden fleur-de-lis or lilies. Blue had come from obscurity to become the royal colour.[15]

The War of the Blues - Indigo vs. Pastel

The rise of the colour blue in fashion in the 12th and 13th centuries had led to the creation of a major blue dye industry in several European cities, notably Amiens, Toulouse and Erfurt. They made a dye called Pastel from woad, a plant common in Europe, which had been used to make blue dye by the Celts and German tribes. This industry was threatened by the arrival of indigo, a dye made from a bush grown in India and elsewhere in Asia, which produced a richer and more stable blue than pastel. The indigo leaves were dried, powdered, and made into small bricks and brought by Italian merchants to London, Marseille, Genoa and Bruges in the 13th century. Beginning in the 17th century, Indigo plantations were established in the West Indies, Mexico, and South America by the British, Spanish and Dutch, who brought the indigo to Europe. The French and German royal governments tried block the trade, forbidding, sometimes on pain of death, the use of indigo, but in vain; the quality of indigo was too high and the price too low for pastel to compete. In 1737 both the French and German governments finally allowed the use of indigo. This ruined the dye industries in Toulouse and the other cities that produced pastel, but created a thriving new indigo commerce to seaports such as Bordeaux, Nantes and Marseille.[16]

The search for the perfect blue

During the 17th and 18th centuries, chemists in Europe tried to discover a way to create synthetic blue pigments, avoiding the expense of importing and grinding lapis lazuli, azurite and other minerals. The Egyptians had created a synthetic colour, Egyptian blue, three thousand years BC, but the formula had been lost. The Chinese had also created synthetic pigments, but the formula was not known in the west.

In 1709, a German druggist and pigment maker named Diesbach accidentally discovered a new blue while experimenting with potassium and iron sulfides. The new colour was first called Berlin blue, but later became known as Prussian blue. By 1710 it was being used by the French painter Antoine Watteau, and later his successor Nicolas Lancret. In the 19th century it was even exported to Japan, where it was used by woodblock painters such as Hiroshige, who used the colour in his famous wave paintings. and It became immensely popular for the manufacture of wallpaper, and in the 19th century was widely used by French impressionist painters.[17]

In 1824, the Societé pour l'Encouragement d'Industrie in France offered a prize for the invention of an artificial ultramarine which could rival the natural color made from lapis lazuli. The prize was won in 1826 by a chemist named Jean Baptiste Guimet, but he refused to reveal the formula of his colour. In 1828, another scientist, Christian Gmelin then a professor of chemistry in Tübingen, found the process and published his formula. This was the beginning of new industry to manufacture artificial ultramarine, which eventually almost completely replaced the natural product.[18]

In 1878, a German chemist named a. Von Baeyer discovered a synthetic substitute for indigotine, the active ingredient of indigo. This product gradually replaced natural indigo, and after the end of the First World War, it brought an end to the trade of indigo from the East and West Indies.

Blue and the Impressionist painters

Blue was a favorite colour of the impressionist painters, who used it not just to depict nature but to create moods, feelings and astmospheres. Cobalt blue, a pigment of cobalt oxide-aluminum oxide, was a favorite of Auguste Renoir and Vincent van Gogh. It was similar to smalt, a pigment used for centuries to make blue glass, but it was much improved by the French chemist Louis Jacques Thénard, who introduced it in 1802. It was very stable and extremely expensive Van Gogh wrote to his brother Theo, "‘Cobalt [blue] is a divine colour and there is nothing so beautiful for putting atmosphere around things…"[19]

Blue in the 20th and 21st century

In the mid-20th century, blue passed black as the most common colour of men's business suits, the costume usually worn by political and business leaders. It also passed black as the most common colour for the uniforms of policemen, firemen, and other public servants. Public opinion polls in the United States and Europe showed that blue was the favorite colour of over fifty percent of respondents. Green was far behind with twenty percent, while white and red received about eight percent each.[20]

Following the Second World War, blue was adopted as the colour of important international organizations, including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, UNESCO, the European Union); and NATO. United Nations peacekeepers wore blue helmets to stress their peacekeeping role.

In 1873 a German immigrant in San Francisco, Levi Strauss, invented a sturdy kind of work trousers, made of denim fabric and colored with indigo dye, called blue jeans. In 1935, they were raised to the level of high fashion by Vogue magazine. Beginning in the 1950s, they became an essential part of uniform of young people in the United States, Europe, and around the world.

Blue in science and industry

Blue pigments and dyes

Blue pigments were made from minerals, especially lapis lazuli and azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2). These minerals were crushed, ground into powder, and then mixed with a quick-drying binding agent, such as egg yolk (tempera painting); or with a slow-drying oil, such as linseed oil, for oil painting. To make blue stained glass, cobalt blue (cobalt(II) aluminate: CoAl2O4)pigment was mixed with the glass. Other common blue pigments made from minerals are ultramarine (Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4), cerulean blue (primarily cobalt (II) stanate: Co2SnO4), and Prussian blue (milori blue: primarily Fe7(CN)18).

Natural dyes to colour cloth and tapestries were made from plants. Woad and true indigo were used to produce indigo dye used to colour fabrics blue or indigo. Since the 18th century, natural blue dyes have largely been replaced by synthetic dyes.

The Optics of Blue - Spectral colours

sRGB rendering of the spectrum of visible light
Colour Frequency Wavelength
violet 668–789 THz 380–450 nm
blue 631–668 THz 450–475 nm
cyan 606–630 THz 476–495 nm
green 526–606 THz 495–570 nm
yellow 508–526 THz 570–590 nm
orange 484–508 THz 590–620 nm
red 400–484 THz 620–750 nm

Scientifically, blue is light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a wavelength of roughly 450–475 nm. It is one of the seven colours of the spectrum, located between violet (purple) and cyan. Along with with red and yellow, It is one of the additive primary colours, which can be be combined to make all other colours.

On the HSV Colour Wheel, the complement of blue is yellow; that is, a colour corresponding to an equal mixture of red and green light. On a colour wheel based on traditional colour theory (RYB) where blue was considered a primary colour, its complementary colour is considered to be orange (based on the Munsell colour wheel).[21]

Scientific natural standards for blue

  • Emission spectrum of Cu2+
  • Electronic spectrum of aqua-ions Cu(H2O)2+
    6

Lasers

Lasers emitting in the blue region of the spectrum became widely available to the public in 2010 with the release of inexpensive high-powered 445-447 nm Laser diode technology.[22] Previously the blue wavelengths were accessible only through DPSS which are comparatively expensive and inefficient, however these technologies are still widely used by the scientific community for applications including Optogenetics, Raman spectroscopy, and Particle image velocimetry, due to their superior beam quality.[23] Blue Gas lasers are also still commonly used for Holography, DNA sequencing, Optical pumping, and other scientific and medical applications.

Blue in nature

Animals

  • When an animal's coat is described as "blue", it usually refers to a shade of grey that takes on a bluish tint, a diluted variant of a pure black coat.[citation needed] This designation is used for a variety of animals, including dog coats, some rat coats, cat coats, some chicken breeds, some horse coat colours and rabbit coat colours. Some animals, such as giraffes and lizards, also have blue tongues.

In culture

  • In the English language, blue often represents the human emotion of sadness, for example, "He was feeling blue". In German, on the other hand, to be "blue" (blau sein) is to be drunk. This derives from the ancient use of urine (which is produced copiously by the human body after drinking alcohol) in dyeing cloth blue with woad or indigo.[24] It may also be in relation to rain, which is usually regarded as a trigger of depressive emotions.[25]
  • Conversely blue, a very popular colour[26] can represent happiness and optimism[27] as days with clearer, blue skies tend to be considered times where these emotions are more easily expressed. Many artistic contributions have been made referencing clear days with blue skies as part of the happiness or as a symbolism of the happiness the artist felt, such as Tony Bennett's Put on a Happy Face.[28]
  • Blue is commonly used in the Western hemisphere to symbolize the male gender in contrast to pink used for females, although in the early 1900s, blue was the colour for girls (as it had traditionally been the colour of the Virgin Mary in Western Art) and pink was for boys (as it was akin to the colour red, considered a masculine colour).[29]

National colours

A white menorah on a blue field. It is surrounded by white laurels, and at the bottom is the word "Israel" written in Hebrew.
  Coat of Arms symbol of Israel

Mysticism

Politics

Religion

  Blue coloured Lapis lazuli semi-precious stones are prized among Muslim Cultures in the Caucasus, Central Asia and Mehrgarh.
A man wearing a white robe with blue stripes stands in front of a stone wall.
  Blue stripes on a traditional Jewish tallit.
  • Blue is associated in Christianity generally and Catholicism in particular, with the Virgin Mary.[34][35][36]
  • Blue in Hinduism: Many of the gods are depicted as having blue-coloured skin, particularly those associated with Vishnu, who is said to be the Preserver of the world and thus intimately connected to water. Krishna and Ram, Vishnu's avatars, are usually blue. Shiva, the Destroyer, is also depicted in light blue tones and is called neela kantha, or blue-throated, for having swallowed poison in an attempt to turn the tide of a battle between the gods and demons in the gods' favour.
  • Blue in Judaism: In the Torah,[37] the Israelites were commanded to put fringes, tzitzit, on the corners of their garments, and to weave within these fringes a "twisted thread of blue (tekhelet)".[38] In ancient days, this blue thread was made from a dye extracted from a Mediterranean snail called the hilazon. Maimonides claimed that this blue was the colour of "the clear noonday sky"; Rashi, the colour of the evening sky.[39] According to several rabbinic sages, blue is the colour of God's Glory.[40] Staring at this colour aids in mediation, bringing us a glimpse of the "pavement of sapphire, like the very sky for purity", which is a likeness of the Throne of God.[41] (The Hebrew word for glory.) Many items in the Mishkan, the portable sanctuary in the wilderness, such as the menorah, many of the vessels, and the Ark of the Covenant, were covered with blue cloth when transported from place to place.[42]
  • Blue in Islam: the colour blue is mentioned in the Quran: In verse 20:102 and is represented by the word: ??? zurq (plural of azraq, "blue"). Blue amulets made of lapis lazuli are commonly utilised to symbolise luck in some Muslim cultures. The colour blue also represents the values of liberty among Bosniaks.

Symbolism

  • In Thailand, blue is associated with Friday on the Thai solar calendar. Anyone may wear blue on Fridays and anyone born on a Friday may adopt blue as their colour. The Thai language, however, is one that has had trouble distinguishing blue from green. The default word for Blue was recently ????????? literally, the colour of silver, a poetical reference to the silvery sheen of the deep blue sea. It now means navy blue, and the default word is now ????? literally, the colour of the sky.[43]

Sports

Many sporting teams make blue their official colour, or use it as detail on kit of a different colour. In addition, the colour is present on the logos of many sports associations.

Association football

In international association football, blue is a common colour on kits, as a majority of nations wear the colours of their national flag. A notable exception is four-time FIFA World Cup winners Italy, who wear a blue kit based on the Azzuro Savoia (Savoy blue) of the royal House of Savoy which unified the Italian states.[44] The team themselves are known as Gli Azzurri (the Blues). Another World Cup winning nation with a blue shirt is France, who are known as Les Bleus (the Blues). Two neighbouring countries with two World Cup victories each, Argentina and Uruguay wear a light blue shirt, the former with white stripes. Uruguay are known as the La Celeste, Spanish for 'the sky blue one', while Argentina are known as Los Albicelestes, Spanish for 'the sky blue and whites'.[45]

Football clubs which have won the European Cup or Champions League and wear blue include FC Barcelona of Spain (red and blue stripes), FC Internazionale Milano of Italy (blue and black stripes) and FC Porto of Portugal (blue and white stripes). Another European Cup-winning club, Aston Villa of England, wear light blue detailing on a mostly claret shirt, often as the colour of the sleeves.[46] Clubs which have won the Copa Libertadores, a tournament for South American clubs, and wear blue include six-time winners Boca Juniors of Buenos Aires, Argentina. They wear a blue shirt with a yellow band across.

Blue features on the logo of football's governing body FIFA, as well as featuring highly in the design of their website.[47] The European governing body of football, UEFA, uses two tones of blue to create a map of Europe in the centre of their logo. The Asian Football Confederation, Oceania Football Confederation and CONCACAF (the governing body of football in North and Central America and the Caribbean) use blue text on their logos.

North American sporting leagues

In Major League Baseball, the premier baseball league in the United States of America and Canada, blue is one of the three colours, along with white and red, on the league's official logo. A team from Toronto, Ontario, are the Blue Jays. The Los Angeles Dodgers use blue prominently on their uniforms and the phrase "Dodger Blue" is may be said to describe Dodger fans' "blood". The Texas Rangers also use Blue prominently on their uniforms and logo.

The National Basketball Association, the premier basketball league in the United States and Canada, also has blue as one of the colours on their logo, along with red and white also, as does its female equivalent, the WNBA. The Sacramento Monarchs of the WNBA wear blue. Former NBA player Theodore Edwards was nicknamed "Blue". The only NBA team to wear blue as first choice are the Charlotte Bobcats, however blue is a common away colour for many other franchises.

The National Football League, the premier American football league in the United States, also uses blue as one of three colours, along with white and red, on their official logo. The Seattle Seahawks, New York Giants, Buffalo Bills, and Detroit Lions feature blue prominently on their uniforms.

The National Hockey League, the premier Ice hockey league in Canada and the United States, does not use blue on its official logo. However, a club in the league from St. Louis, Missouri is named the Blues.

Variations

See also

Bibliography

  • Pastoureau, Michel, Bleu- Histoire d'une couleur, (2000), Editions du Seuil, Paris, (ISBN 978-2-02-086991-1)
    • Balfour-Paul, Jenny (1998). Indigo. London: British Museum Press. pp. 264 pages. ISBN 0-7141-1776-5. 

References

  1. ^ W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords
  2. ^ See Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, College Edition, 1962. See also Le Petit LaRousse, 1997: "De la couleur du ciel sans nuages, de l'azur".
  3. ^ Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary, (1970).
  4. ^ See Michel Pastoureau, Blue- Histoire d'une couleur, pg. 13-17.
  5. ^ Moorey, Peter Roger (1999). Ancient mesopotamian materials and industries: the archaeological evidence. Eisenbrauns. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-1-57506-042-2. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=P_Ixuott4doC&pg=PA86&dq=Lapis+lazuli+++mines+in+the+Badakhshan&hl=en&ei=sW6_TvWKBIKr8AOTn623BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&sqi=2&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Lapis%20lazuli%20%20%20mines%20in%20the%20Badakhshan&f=false. 
  6. ^ Chase, W.T. 1971, Egyptian blue as a pigment and ceramic material. In: R. Brill (ed.) Science and Archaeology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-02061-0
  7. ^ J. Baines, "Color Terminology and Color Classification in Ancient Egyptian Color Terminology and Polychromy", in The American Anthropologist, volume LXXXVII, 1985, pg. 282-297).
  8. ^ Berke, Heinz (2007). "The Invention of Blue and Purple Pigments in Ancient Times". ChemInform 38 (19). DOI:10.1002/chin.200719227.
  9. ^ Thieme, C. 2001. (translated by M. Will) Paint Layers and Pigments on the Terracotta Army: A Comparison with Other Cultures of Antiquity. In: W. Yongqi, Z. Tinghao, M. Petzet, E. Emmerling and C. Blänsdorf (eds.) The Polychromy of Antique Sculptures and the Terracotta Army of the First Chinese Emperor: Studies on Materials, Painting Techniques and Conservation. Monuments and Sites III. Paris: ICOMOS, 52-57.
  10. ^ Michel Pastourou, Bleu- Histoire d'une couleur, pg. 24
  11. ^ Caesar, The Gallic Wars, V., 14, 2. Cited by Miche Pastourou, pg. 178.
  12. ^ Michel Pastoureau, Bleu- Histoire d'une couleur, pg. 26.
  13. ^ L. Brehier, Les mosaiques a fond d'azur, in Etudes byzantines, volume III, Paris, 1945. Pg. 46 and the following pages.
  14. ^ Michel Pastoureau, Bleu- Histoire d'une couleur, pg. 44-47
  15. ^ Michel Pastoureau, Blue- Histoire d'une couleur, pg. 51-52.
  16. ^ F. Lauterbach, Der Kampf des Waides mit dem Indigo, Leipzig, pg. 25. Cited by Michel Pastoureau, Bleu - Histoire d'une couleur, pg. 108-113.
  17. ^ Michel Pastoureau, Bleu - HIstoire d'une couleur, pg. 114-116
  18. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930--McGraw Hill Page 206
  19. ^ * {{cite web |url=http://webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/coblue.html
  20. ^ Michel Pastoureau, Bleu - Histoire d'une couleur, pg. 149-153.
  21. ^ "Glossary Term: Color wheel". Sanford-artedventures.com. http://www.sanford-artedventures.com/study/g_color_wheel.html. Retrieved 2009-04-14. [dead link]
  22. ^ "Laserglow - Blue, Red, Yellow, Green Lasers". Laserglow.com. http://www.laserglow.com/GPO. Retrieved 2011-09-20. 
  23. ^ "Laserglow - Optogenetics". Laserglow.com. http://www.laserglow.com/page/optogenetics. Retrieved 2011-09-20. 
  24. ^ Heller, Eva. Wie Farben wirken: Farbpsychologie, Farbsymbolik, kreative Farbgestaltung. Berlin: Rowohlt, 2004.
  25. ^ Top 10 weather complaints
  26. ^ Preferences - Favorite Color
  27. ^ Psychology of Color
  28. ^ "Put on a Happy Face" lyrics
  29. ^ "Should we not dress girls in pink?". BBC Magazine (BBC). 8 January 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7817496.stm. Retrieved 28 April 2011. 
  30. ^ "Estonia in brief: National Symbols" at Estonica website Estonica.org
  31. ^ Stevens, Samantha. The Seven Rays: a Universal Guide to the Archangels. Toronto: Insomniac Press, 2004. ISBN 1-894663-49-7. pg. 24.
  32. ^ Cheong Wa Dae / The Blue House, http://english.president.go.kr/tours/place_buildings/main_office.php, "The Main Building and its two annexes are covered with a total of 150,000 traditional Korean blue roof tiles (hence, the name "Blue House" is also commonly used when referring to Cheongwadae)." 
  33. ^ Brooks, David (December 2001). "One Nation, Slightly Divisible". The Atlantic Monthly. http://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/2001/12/brooks.htm. Retrieved 2 November 2010. 
  34. ^ Your question answered
  35. ^ "The Spirit of Notre Dame". Nd.edu. http://www.nd.edu/~wcawley/corson/schoolcolors.htm. Retrieved 2011-12-31. 
  36. ^ "Board Question #31244 | The 100 Hour Board". Theboard.byu.edu. http://theboard.byu.edu/questions/31244/. Retrieved 2011-12-31. 
  37. ^ Numbers 15:38.
  38. ^ Tekhelet.com, the Ptil Tekhelet Organization
  39. ^ Mishneh Torah, Tzitzit 2:1; Commentary on Numbers 15:38.
  40. ^ Numbers Rabbah 14:3; Hullin 89a.
  41. ^ Exodus 24:10; Ezekiel 1:26; Hullin 89a.
  42. ^ Numbers 4:6–12.
  43. ^ Glenn Slayden. "Thai language". thai-language.com. http://www.thai-language.com/dict/. Retrieved 2009-04-14. 
  44. ^ "Euro 2008 Team Kits - Historical Football Kits". Historicalkits.co.uk. 2008-06-29. http://historicalkits.co.uk/international/tournaments/euro-2008.html. Retrieved 2011-12-31. 
  45. ^ "FIFA World Cup 2010 - Historical Football Kits". Historicalkits.co.uk. http://historicalkits.co.uk/international/tournaments/fifa_world_cup_2010/fifa-world-cup-2010.html. Retrieved 2011-12-31. 
  46. ^ "Aston Villa - Historical Football Kits". Historicalkits.co.uk. http://historicalkits.co.uk/Aston_Villa/Aston_Villa.htm. Retrieved 2011-12-31. 
  47. ^ "FIFA.com - Fédération Internationale de Football Association". FIFA. 2011-12-27. http://www.fifa.com/. Retrieved 2011-12-31. 

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