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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||325.82 g/mol|
610 °C (decomp.)
|Solubility in water||2605 g/L (15 °C)|
|Solubility in ethanol||110 g/L|
|Solubility in DMF||119.6 g/L|
|Solubility in DMSO||361.7 g/L|
|Solubility in Sulfolane||394.2 g/L|
|Solubility in NMP||723.3 g/L|
|EU Index||not listed|
|Other anions||Caesium bicarbonate|
|Other cations||Lithium carbonate
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Caesium carbonate (or cesium carbonate in the US) is a white crystalline solid compound. Caesium carbonate has a high solubility in polar solvents such as water, alcohol, Et2O, and DMF. Its solubility is higher in organic solvents compared to other carbonates like potassium carbonate. It is important base for organic chemistry to synthesize various compounds. Caesium carbonate is insoluble in most other organic solvents such as toluene, p-xylene, and chlorobenzene.
 There is a huge growing desire in caesium and its compounds for energy conversion devices such as magneto-hydrodynamic generators, thermionic emitters, and fuel cells. Relatively effective polymer solar cells are built by thermal annealing of caesium carbonate. Caesium carbonate increases the energy effectiveness of the power conversion of solar cells and enhances the life times of the equipment. The studies done on UPS and XPS reveal that the system will do less work due to the thermal annealing of the Cs2CO3 layer. Caesium carbonate breaks down into Cs2O and Cs2O2 by thermal evaporation. It was suggested that, when Cs2O combines with Cs2O2 they produce n-type dopes that supplies additional conducting electrons to the host devices. This produces a highly efficient inverted cell that can be used to further improve the efficiency of polymer solar cells or to design adequate multijunction photovoltaic cells. The nanostructure layers of Cs2CO3 can be used as cathodes for organic electronic materials due to its capacity to increase the kinetic energy of the electrons. The nanostructure layers of caesium carbonate had been probed for various fields using different techniques. The fields include such as photovoltaic studies, current-voltage measurements,UV photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. The n-type semiconductor produced by thermal evaporation of Cs2CO3 reacts intensively with metals like Al, and Ca in the cathode. This reaction will cut down the work the cathode metals. Polymer solar cells based on solution process are under extensive studies due to their advantage in producing low cost solar cells. Lithium fluoride has been used to raise the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells. However, it requires high temperatures (> 500 degree), and high vacuum states raise the cost of production. The devices with Cs2CO3 layers have produced equivalent power conversion efficiency compared with the devices that use lithium fluoride. Placing a Cs2CO3 layer in between the cathode and the light-releasing polymer improvers the efficiency of the white light emission emitting diode.
 Caesium carbonate can be prepared by thermal decomposition of caesium oxalate. Upon heating caesium oxalate is converted to caesium carbonate and carbon monoxide is released: Cs2C2O4 -> Cs2CO3 + CO It can also be synthesized by reacting Caesium hydroxide with carbon dioxide. 2CsOH + CO2 -> Cs2CO3 + H2O
 Caesium carbonate is very important for the N-alkylation compounds such as sulfonamides, amines, b-lactams, indoles, heterocyclic compounds, 14N-Substituted aromatic imides, phthalimides, and several similar other compounds. A research on these compounds has focused on their synthesis and biological activity. In the presence of gold sodium chloride (NaAuCl4) caesium carbonate is very efficient mechanism for aerobic oxidation of different kinds of alcohols into ketones and aldehydes at room temperature without additional polymeric compounds. There is no acid formation produced when primary alcohols are used. The process of selective oxidation of alcohols to carbonyls had been quite difficult due to the nucleophilic character of the carbonyl intermediate. In the past Cr(VI) and Mn(VII) reagents have been used to oxidize alcohols, however, these reagents are thought to be toxic to the environment, and are pricy. Caesium carbonate can also be used in Suzuki, Heck, and Sonogashira synthesis reactions. Caesium carbonate produces carbonylation of alcohols and carbamination of amines more efficiently than some of the mechanisms that have been introduced in the past. Caesium carbonate can be used for sensitive synthesis when a balanced strong base is needed.
 Weak caesium salts are important to the synthesis of important compounds such as phenol, sulfonamide, thiol, carboxylic acids and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. Caesium carbonate produces carbon dioxide whenever it comes in contact with stomach acids. The reaction produces caesium chloride, carbon dioxide and water. Cs2CO3 + 2HCl -> 2CsCl + CO2 + H2O
Stability: stable under standard pressure and temperature.
Causes eye, skin and digestive tract irritations.
 Many of the caesium carbonates properties comes form the caesium element. Caesium is a soft, ductile, alkali and liquid metal at 28.4°C. It is one of the most electropositive and the best reactive alkali metal. It forms various compounds with different anions and alloys as well as with other alkali metals and gold. The element ignites easily in the presence of air and produces explosive reactions in water. Caesium can be used for several purposes such as for television image devices, night-vision equipment, solar photovoltaic cells, and various types of other photoelectric cells.