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definitions - Canal

canal (n.)

1.long and narrow strip of water made for boats or for irrigation

2.a bodily passage or tube lined with epithelial cells and conveying a secretion or other substance"the tear duct was obstructed" "the alimentary canal" "poison is released through a channel in the snake's fangs"

3.(astronomy) an indistinct surface feature of Mars once thought to be a system of channels; they are now believed to be an optical illusion

4.a path over which electrical signals can pass"a channel is typically what you rent from a telephone company"

canal (v.)

1.provide (a city) with a canal

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Merriam Webster

CanalCa*nal" (?), n. [F. canal, from L. canalis canal, channel; prob. from a root signifying “to cut”; cf. D. kanaal, fr. the French. Cf. Channel, Kennel gutter.]


1. An artificial channel filled with water and designed for navigation, or for irrigating land, etc.

2. (Anat.) A tube or duct; as, the alimentary canal; the semicircular canals of the ear.

3. A long and relatively narrow arm of the sea, approximately uniform in width; -- used chiefly in proper names; as, Portland Canal; Lynn Canal. [Alaska]

Canal boat, a boat for use on a canal; esp. one of peculiar shape, carrying freight, and drawn by horses walking on the towpath beside the canal. -- Canal lock. See Lock.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Canal

see also - Canal

canal (n.)

ductless

phrases

-Alcock's canal • Alimentary canal or tract NOS • Anal Canal • Anal canal • Anus and anal canal • Arnold's innominate canal • Atrioventricular Canal Cushions • Auditory Canal, External • Auditory canal • Braune's canal • Caledonian Canal • Caloosahatchee Canal • Canal Zone • Cape Cod Canal • Cloquet canal • Collapse of external ear canal • Common atrioventricular canal • Cyst (of) incisive canal • Cyst canal of Nuck, congenital • Ear Canal • Erie Canal • Exostosis of external canal • External Acoustic Canal • External Auditory Canal • External Ear Canal • Gartner's canal • Gota Canal • Grand Canal • Hannover's canal • Haversian canal • Henle's canal • Hunter's canal • Inguinal Canal • Lateral Line Canal • Neural Canal • New York State Barge Canal • Nück canal • Panama Canal • Panama Canal Zone • Petit's canal • Prolapse of anal canal • Pulp Canal • Pyloric canal • Root Canal • Root Canal Apexification • Root Canal Filling Materials • Root Canal Irrigants • Root Canal Medicaments • Root Canal Obturation • Root Canal Preparation • Root Canal Sealants • Root Canal Therapy • Schlemm's canal • Spinal Canal • Suez Canal • Theile's canal • Therapy, Root Canal • Volkmann's canal • alimentary canal • anal canal • auditory canal • auricular canal (external) • birth canal • canal boat • canal of Cuvier • canal of Schlemm • canal of approach • cervical canal • ear canal • external auditory canal • headrace canal • inguinal canal • intake canal • medullary canal • root canal • root canal work • semi circular canal • semicircular canal • ship canal • spinal canal • tail-race canal • tailrace canal • vertebral canal

-17th Street Canal • Aberdeenshire Canal • Agra Canal • Alexandra Canal • Amsterdam–Rhine Canal • Ashby Canal • Augusta Canal • Barge Canal • Basingstoke Canal • Beat Bank Branch Canal • Beauharnois Canal • Black River Canal • Blackstone Canal • Bridgwater and Taunton Canal • Burgundy Canal • Caledonian Canal • Canal (disambiguation) • Canal 11 • Canal 13 • Canal 13 (Argentina) • Canal 2 (Argentina) • Canal 24 Horas • Canal 7 Argentina • Canal 8 de Tucumán • Canal 9 (Argentina) • Canal Building • Canal D • Canal Digital • Canal Dover • Canal Dreams • Canal Flats, British Columbia • Canal Fulton, Ohio • Canal Hotel bombing • Canal Indigo • Canal Once • Canal Park (Duluth) • Canal Point, Florida • Canal Road (Washington, D.C.) • Canal Road Flyover • Canal Road, Hong Kong • Canal Street (BMT Nassau Street Line) • Canal Town • Canal Township, Venango County, Pennsylvania • Canal Vie • Canal Winchester, Ohio • Canal de Isabel II • Canal del Fútbol (Chile) • Canal ring • Canal through Walcheren • Canal through Zuid-Beveland • Cape Cod Canal • Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge • Cape May Canal • Carondelet Canal • Casiquiare canal • Cayuga-Seneca Canal • Central canal of spinal cord • Champlain Canal • Charnwood Forest Canal • Chemung Canal • Chemung Canal Trust Company • Chesapeake and Delaware Canal • Chesapeake and Delaware Canal Bridge • Chesapeake and Ohio Canal • Chesterfield Canal • Coombe Hill Canal • Corinth Canal • Danube–Bucharest Canal • Danube–Oder Canal • Dead Sea canal • Delaware and Chesapeake Canal • Delaware and Hudson Canal • Delaware and Hudson Canal Company • Delaware and Raritan Canal • Delaware and raritan canal • Delta–Mendota Canal • Dnieper–Bug Canal • Dorset and Somerset Canal • Draget Canal • Elbe–Lübeck Canal • Enfield Falls Canal • Erie Canal • Erie Canal Commission • Erie Canal Harbor (Metro Rail) • Erie Canal Soda Pop Festival • Fairbottom Branch Canal • Florida Canal • Forth and Clyde Canal • Forty Arpent Canal • Franklin Canal • Franklin Canal Company • Ganga canal • Gardner Canal • Genesee Valley Canal • Genesee Valley Canal Railroad • Ghent–Terneuzen Canal • Glasgow, Paisley and Johnstone Canal • Gloucester and Sharpness Canal • Grand Canal • Grand Canal (China) • Grand Canal d'Alsace • Grand Union Canal (old) • Grand Union Canal 145 mile Race • Griboyedov Canal • Göta Canal • Harold Parfitt (Panama Canal) • Hawthorne Canal • Hennepin Canal Parkway State Park • Hillsboro Canal • History of the British canal system • History of the Panama Canal • Hollinwood Branch Canal • Huddersfield Narrow Canal Pylon • Hypoglossal canal • Illinois and Michigan Canal • Industrial Canal • Islington Branch Canal • Junction Canal • Karakum Canal • Kawanah Canal • Kiel Canal • Lachine Canal National Historic Site • Lachine Canal Railway Tokens • Lake Washington Ship Canal • Lake Wimico and St. Joseph Canal and Railroad Company • Lancaster Canal • Landsford Canal State Park • Leeds and Liverpool Canal • Leopold Canal • Let Wah Canal • Liskeard and Looe Union Canal • List of Governors of the Panama Canal Zone • London Avenue Canal • Market Weighton Canal • Merritt Island Barge Canal • Metro Canal del Norte • Miami Canal • Miami-Erie Canal • Monkland Canal • Morris Canal and Banking Company • Moscow Canal • Muzza Canal • Neath and Tennant Canal • New Basin Canal • New Junction Canal • New York State Canal Corporation • New York State Canal System • Newry Canal • Nicaragua Canal • Nile Canal • North Sea Canal • Oder–Havel Canal • Orleans Canal • Oswego Canal • Paisley Canal Line • Paisley Canal Railway • Panama Canal Affair • Panama Canal Authority • Panama Canal Locks • Portsmouth and Arundel Canal • Posterior semicircular canal • Qaraqum Canal • Rideau Canal • Rolle Canal • Santee Canal • Sapperton Canal Tunnel • Scheldt–Rhine Canal • Schlemm's canal • Schuylkill Canal • Sheffield Canal • Ship canal • Shrewsbury Canal • Shropshire Union Railways and Canal Company • Shubenacadie Canal • South Canal, Ohio • South Carolina Canal and Railroad Company • St. Peters Canal • Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal • Stockport Branch Canal • Stoke Bruerne Canal Museum • Stratford-upon-Avon Canal • Strömsholm Canal • Studio Canal • Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal • Suez Canal • Suez Canal Stadium • Superior semicircular canal • Suwannee Canal Company • Swansea Canal • Tamiami Canal • Telemark Canal • Thames and Medway Canal • Thames and Severn Canal • Trollhatte canal • Trollhätte Canal • Ulverston Canal • Wardle Canal • Welland Canal • Wyrley and Essington Canal

analogical dictionary










Wikipedia

Canal

                   
  The Alter Strom, in the sea resort of Warnemünde, Germany.
  The Royal Canal in Ireland.

Canals are man-made channels for water. There are two types of canal:

  1. Waterways: navigable transportation canals used for carrying ships and boats shipping goods and conveying people, further subdivided into two kinds:
    1. Those connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Included are inter-basin canals, such as the Suez Canal, Erie Canal, and the Panama Canal.
    2. Those connected in a city network: such as the Canal Grande and others of Venice Italy; the gracht of Amsterdam, and the waterways of Bangkok.
  2. Aqueducts: water supply canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of potable water for human consumption, municipal uses, and agriculture irrigation. Rills and acequias are small versions.

Contents

  Types of artificial waterways

Canals are created in one of three ways, or a combination of the three, depending on available water and available path:

Smaller transportation canals can carry barges or narrowboats, while ship canals allow seagoing ships to travel to an inland port (e.g., Manchester Ship Canal), or from one sea or ocean to another (e.g., Caledonian Canal, Panama Canal).

  Features

A series of approximately 20 black lock gates with white ends to the paddle arms and wooden railings, each slightly higher than the one below. On the right is a path and on both sides grass and vegetation.
  The flight of 16 consecutive locks at Caen Hill on the Kennet and Avon Canal, Wiltshire, England
  A canal boat traverses the longest and highest aqueduct in the UK, at Pontcysyllte in Denbighshire, Wales

At their simplest, canals consist of a trench filled with water. Depending on the stratum the canal passes through, it may be necessary to line the cut with some form of watertight material such as clay or concrete. When this is done with clay it is known as puddling.

Canals need to be level, and, while small irregularities in the lie of the land can be dealt with through cuttings and embankments, for larger deviations, other approaches have been adopted. The most common is the pound lock, which consists of a chamber within which the water level can be raised or lowered connecting either two pieces of canal at a different level or the canal with a river or the sea. When there is a hill to be climbed, flights of many locks in short succession may be used.

Prior to the development of the pound lock in 984AD in China by Chhaio Wei-Yo[1] and later in Europe in the 15th century, either flash locks consisting of a single gate were used or ramps, sometimes equipped with rollers, were used to change level. Flash locks were only practical where there was plenty of water available.

Locks use a lot of water, so builders have adopted other approaches. These include boat lifts, such as the Falkirk wheel, which use a caisson of water in which boats float while being moved between two levels; and inclined planes where a caisson is hauled up a steep railway.

To cross a stream or road, the solution is usually to bridge with an aqueduct. To cross a wide valley (where the journey delay caused by a flight of locks at either side would be unacceptable) the centre of the valley can be spanned by an aqueduct - a famous example in Wales is the Pontcysyllte aqueduct across the valley of the River Dee.

Another option for dealing with hills is to tunnel through them. An example of this approach is the Harecastle Tunnel on the Trent and Mersey Canal. Tunnels are only practical for smaller canals.

Some canals attempted to keep changes in level down to a minimum. These canals known as contour canals would take longer winding routes, along which the land was a uniform altitude. Other generally later canals took more direct routes requiring the use of various methods to deal with the change in level.

Canals have various features to tackle the problem of water supply. In some cases such as the Suez Canal the canal is simply open to the sea. Where the canal is not at sea level a number of approaches have been adopted. Taking water from existing rivers or springs was an option in some cases, sometimes supplemented by other methods to deal with seasonal variations in flow. Where such sources were unavailable, reservoirs - either separate from the canal or built into its course - and back pumping were used to provide the required water. In other cases, water pumped from mines was used to feed the canal. In certain cases, extensive "feeder canals" were built to bring water from sources located far from the canal.

Where large amounts of goods are loaded or unloaded such as at the end of a canal a canal basin may be built. This would normally be a section of water wider than the general canal. In some cases, the canal basins contain wharfs and cranes to assist with movement of goods.

When a section of the canal needs to be sealed off so it can be drained for maintenance stop planks are frequently used. These consist of planks of wood placed across the canal to form a dam. They are generally placed in pre existing grooves in the canal bank. On more modern canals, "guard locks" or gates were sometimes placed to allow a section of canal to be quickly closed off, either for maintenance, or to prevent a major loss of water due to a canal breach.

  History

  Ancient canals

  The Grand Canal of China at Suzhou

The oldest known canals were irrigation canals, built in Mesopotamia circa 4000 BC, in what is now modern day Iraq and Syria. The Indus Valley Civilization, Ancient India, (circa 2600 BC) had sophisticated irrigation and storage systems developed, including the reservoirs built at Girnar in 3000 BC.[2] In Egypt, canals date back at least to the time of Pepi I Meryre (reigned 2332–2283 BC), who ordered a canal built to bypass the cataract on the Nile near Aswan.[3]

In ancient China, large canals for river transport were established as far back as the Warring States (481–221 BC), the longest one of that period being the Hong Gou (Canal of the Wild Geese), which according to the ancient historian Sima Qian connected the old states of Song, Zhang, Chen, Cai, Cao, and Wei.[4] By far the longest canal was the Grand Canal of China, still the longest canal in the world today, and the oldest extant one. It is 1,794 kilometres (1,115 mi) long and was built to carry the Emperor Yang Guang between Beijing and Hangzhou. The project began in 605 and was completed in 609, although much of the work combined older canals, the oldest section of the canal existing since at least 486 BC. Even in its narrowest urban sections it is rarely less than 30 metres (98 ft) wide.

Greek engineers were the first to use canal locks, by which they regulated the water flow in the Ancient Suez Canal as early as the 3rd century BC.[5][6][7]

  Middle Age

  Thal Canal, Punjab, Pakistan.

In the Middle Ages, water transport was cheaper and faster than transport overland. This was because roads were unpaved and in poor condition and greater amounts could be transported by ship. The first artificial canal in Christian Europe was the Fossa Carolina built at the end of the 8th century under personal supervision of Charlemagne.
More lasting and of more economic impact were canals like the Naviglio Grande built between 1127 and 1257 to connect Milan with the Ticino River. The Naviglio Grande is the most important of the lombardnavigli[8] and the oldest functioning canal in Europe.
Later, canals were built in the Netherlands and Flanders to drain the polders and assist the transportation of goods.

Canal building was revived in this age because of commercial expansion from the 12th century. River navigations were improved progressively by the use of single, or flash locks. Taking boats through these used large amounts of water leading to conflicts with watermill owners and to correct this, the pound or chamber lock first appeared, in 10th century in China and in Europe in 1373 in Vreeswijk, Netherlands.[9] Another important development was the mitre gate, which was, it is presumed, introduced in Italy by Bertola da Novate in the 16th century. This allowed wider gates and also removed the height restriction of guillotine locks.

To break out of the limitations caused by river valleys, the first summit level canals were developed with the Grand Canal of China in 581–617 AD whilst in Europe the first, also using single locks, was the Stecknitz Canal in Germany in 1398.

  Early Modern Age

  Dutch canal in Negombo, Sri Lanka

The first to use pound locks was the Briare Canal connecting the Loire and Seine (1642), followed by the more ambitious Canal du Midi (1683) connecting the Atlantic to the Mediterranean. This included a staircase of 8 locks at Béziers, a 157 metres (515 ft) tunnel and three major aqueducts.

Canal building progressed steadily in Germany in the 17th and 18th centuries with three great rivers, the Elbe, Oder and Weser being linked by canals. In post-Roman Britain, the first canal built appears to have been the Exeter Canal, which opened in 1563. The oldest canal built for industrial purposes in North America is Mother Brook in Dedham, MA. It was constructed in 1639 to provide water power for mills.
In Russia, the Volga-Baltic Waterway, a nationwide canal system connecting the Baltic and Caspian seas via the Neva and Volga rivers, was opened in 1718.

  Industrial Revolution

  Lowell's power canal system

Canals were important for industrial development. The greatest stimulus to canal system building came from the Industrial Revolution with its need for cheap transport of unprecedented quantities of raw materials and manufactured items.

In Europe, particularly Britain and Ireland, and then in the young United States and the Canadian colonies, inland canals preceded the development of railroads (1780-1840) during the earliest phase of the Industrial Revolution. The opening of the Sankey Canal in 1757, followed by the Bridgewater Canal in 1761, which halved the price of coal in Liverpool and Manchester England, respectively, triggered a period of "canal mania" in Britain so that between 1760 and 1820 over one hundred canals were built.

As well as industrial uses, the Royal Military Canal on the Romney Marsh was built so as create a barrier against invading troops, and hiding places for British troops during the Napoleonic Wars.[10]

  Aqueduct over the Mohawk River at Rexford, New York, one of 32 aqueducts on the Erie Canal.

Canal companies were initially chartered by individual states in the United States. These early canals were constructed, owned, and operated by private joint-stock companies. Three were completed when the War of 1812 broke out; these were the Santee Canal (opened 1800) in South Carolina, the Middlesex Canal (opened 1802) in Massachusetts and the Dismal Swamp Canal (opened 1805) in Virginia. The Erie Canal (opened 1825) was chartered and owned by the state of New York and financed by bonds bought by private investors. The Erie canal runs about 363 miles (584 km) from Albany, New York, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie. The Hudson River connects Albany to the Atlantic port of New York City and the Erie Canal completed a navigable water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. The canal contains 36 locks and encompasses a total elevation differential of around 565 ft. (169 m). The Erie Canal with its easy connections to most of the U.S. mid-west and New York City soon quickly paid back all its invested capital (USD $7 million) and started turning a profit. By cutting transportation costs in half or more it became a large profit center for Albany, New York and New York City as it allowed the cheap transportation of many of the agricultural products grown in the mid west of the United States to the rest of the world. From New York City these agricultural products could easily be shipped to other U.S. states or to Europe, etc. Assured of a market for their farm products the settlement of the U.S. mid-west was greatly accelerated by the Erie Canal. The profits generated by the Erie Canal project started a canal building boom in the United States that lasted till about 1850 when railroads started becoming seriously competitive in price and convience. The Blackstone Canal (finished in 1828) in Massachusetts and Rhode Island fulfilled a similar role in the early industrial revolution between 1828–48. The Blackstone Valley was a major contributor of the American Industrial Revolution where Samuel Slater built his first textile mill.

In addition to their transportation purposes, parts of the United States, particularly in the Northeast, had enough fast-flowing rivers that water power was the primary means of powering factories (usually textile mills) until after the American Civil War. For example, Lowell, Massachusetts, considered to be "The Cradle of the American Industrial Revolution," has 6 miles (9.7 km) of canals, built from around 1790 to 1850, that provided water power and a means of transportation for the city. The output of the system is estimated at 10,000 horsepower.[11] Other cities with extensive power canal systems include Lawrence, Massachusetts, Holyoke, Massachusetts, Manchester, New Hampshire, and Augusta, Georgia.

  19th century

  US canals circa 1825

Competition from the railway network from the 1830s, and in the 20th century the roads, made the smaller canals obsolete for most commercial transportation, and many of the British canals fell into decay. Only the Manchester Ship Canal and the Aire and Calder Canal bucked this trend. Yet in other countries canals grew in size as construction techniques improved. During the 19th century in the US, the length of canals grew from 100 miles (161 km) to over 4,000, with a complex network making the Great Lakes navigable, in conjunction with Canada, although some canals were later drained and used as railroad rights-of-way.

In the United States, navigable canals reached into isolated areas and brought them in touch with the world beyond. By 1825 the Erie Canal, 363 miles (584 km) long with 82 locks, opened up a connection from the populated Northeast to the Great Lakes. Settlers flooded into regions serviced by such canals, since access to markets was available. The Erie Canal (as well as other canals) was instrumental in lowering the differences in commodity prices between these various markets across America. The canals caused price convergence between different regions because of their reduction in transportation costs, which allowed Americans to ship and buy goods from farther distances for much lower prices compared to before. Ohio built many miles of canal, Indiana had working canals for a few decades, and the Illinois and Michigan Canal connected the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River system until replaced by a channelized river waterway.

Three major canals with very different purposes were built in what is now Canada. The first Welland Canal, which opened in 1829 between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, bypassing Niagara Falls and the Lachine Canal (1825), which allowed ships to skirt the nearly impassable rapids on the St. Lawrence River at Montreal were built for commerce. The Rideau Canal, completed in 1832, connects Ottawa, on the Ottawa River to Kingston, Ontario on Lake Ontario. The Rideau Canal was built as a result of the War of 1812 to provide military transportation between the British colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada as an alternative to part of the St. Lawrence River, which was susceptible to blockade by the United States.

In France, a steady linking of all the river systems — Rhine, Rhône, Saône and Seine — and the North Sea was boosted in 1879 by the establishment of the Freycinet gauge, which specified the minimum size of locks so that canal traffic doubled in the first decades of the 20th century.[12]

Many notable sea canals were completed in this period, starting with the Suez Canal (1869) - which carries tonnage many times that of most other canals - and the Kiel Canal (1897), though the Panama Canal was not opened until 1914.

In the 19th century, a number of canals were built in Japan including the Biwako canal and the Tone canal. These canals were partially built with the help of engineers from the Netherlands and other countries.[13]

  Modern uses

  Canals can disrupt water circulation in marsh systems.

Large-scale ship canals such as the Panama Canal and Suez Canal continue to operate for cargo transportation, as do European barge canals. Due to globalization, they are becoming increasingly important, resulting in expansion projects such as the Panama Canal expansion project.

The narrow early industrial canals, however, have ceased to carry significant amounts of trade and many have been abandoned to navigation, but may still be used as a system for transportation of untreated water. In some cases railways have been built along the canal route, an example being the Croydon Canal.

A movement that began in Britain and France to use the early industrial canals for pleasure boats, such as hotel barges, has spurred rehabilitation of stretches of historic canals. In some cases, abandoned canals such as the Kennet and Avon Canal have been restored and are now used by pleasure boaters. In Britain, canalside housing has also proven popular in recent years.

The Seine-Nord Europe Canal is being developed into a major transportation waterway, linking France with Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands.

Canals have found another use in the 21st century, as easements for the installation of fibre optic telecommunications network cabling, avoiding having them buried in roadways while facilitating access and reducing the hazard of being damaged from digging equipment.

Canals are still used to provide water for agriculture. An extensive canal system exists within the Imperial Valley in the Southern California desert to provide irrigation to agriculture within the area.

  Cities on water

  An intersection of two canals (Grachten) in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Canals are so deeply identified with Venice that many canal cities have been nicknamed "the Venice of…". The city is built on marshy islands, with wooden piles supporting the buildings, so that the land is man-made rather than the waterways. The islands have a long history of settlement; by the 12th century, Venice was a powerful city state.

Amsterdam was built in a similar way, with buildings on wooden piles. It became a city around 1300.

Other cities with extensive canal networks include: Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Bolsward, Brielle, Delft, Den Bosch, Dokkum, Dordrecht, Enkhuizen, Franeker, Gouda, Haarlem, Harlingen, Leeuwarden, Leiden, Sneek and Utrecht in the Netherlands; Brugge and Gent in Flanders, Belgium; Birmingham in England; Saint Petersburg in Russia; Hamburg and Berlin in Germany; Fort Lauderdale and Cape Coral in Florida, United States.

Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City is a UNESCO World Heritage Site near the centre of Liverpool, England, where a system of intertwining waterways and docks is now being developed for mainly residential and leisure use.

Canal Estates (commonly known as bayous) are a form of subdivision popular in cities like Miami, Florida, Texas City, Texas and the Gold Coast, Queensland; the Gold Coast has over 700 km of residential canals. Wetlands are difficult areas upon which to build housing estates, so dredging part of the wetland down to a navigable channel provides fill to build up another part of the wetland above the flood level for houses. Land is built up in a finger pattern that provides a suburban street layout of waterfront housing blocks.

  Boats

  Two Panamax ships in the Miraflores Locks on the Panama Canal, Panama.

Inland canals have often had boats specifically built for them. An example of this is the British narrowboat, which is up to 72 feet (21.95 m) long and 7 feet (2.13 m) wide and was primarily built for British Midland canals. In this case the limiting factor was the size of the locks. This is also the limiting factor on the Panama canal where Panamax ships are limited to a length of 294.1 m (965 ft) and a width of 32.3 m (106 ft). For the lockless Suez Canal the limiting factor for Suezmax ships is generally draft, which is limited to 16 m (52.5 ft). At the other end of the scale, tub-boat canals such as the Bude Canal were limited to boats of under 10 tons for much of their length due to the capacity of their inclined planes or boat lifts. Most canals have a limit on height imposed either by bridges or by tunnels.

  Lists of canals

  Amsterdam gracht

  See also

  References

  Notes

  1. ^ Hadfield 1986, p. 22.
  2. ^ Rodda 2004, p. 161.
  3. ^ Hadfield 1986, p. 16.
  4. ^ Needham 1971, p. 269.
  5. ^ Moore, Frank Gardner (1950): "Three Canal Projects, Roman and Byzantine", American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 97–111 (99–101)
  6. ^ Froriep, Siegfried (1986): "Ein Wasserweg in Bithynien. Bemühungen der Römer, Byzantiner und Osmanen", Antike Welt, 2nd Special Edition, pp. 39–50 (46)
  7. ^ Schörner, Hadwiga (2000): "Künstliche Schiffahrtskanäle in der Antike. Der sogenannte antike Suez-Kanal", Skyllis, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 28–43 (33–35)
  8. ^ Calvert 1963, p. .
  9. ^ (PDF) The International Canal Monuments List, http://www.icomos.org/studies/canals.pdf, retrieved 2008-10-08 
  10. ^ "History". The Royal Military Canal. 1909-12-15. http://www.royalmilitarycanal.com/pages/history.asp. Retrieved 2011-08-05. 
  11. ^ Lowell National Historical Park — Lowell History Prologue, http://www.nps.gov/archive/lowe/loweweb/Lowell%20History/prologue.htm, retrieved 2008-10-08 
  12. ^ Edwards 2002, p. .
  13. ^ Hadfield 1986, p. 191.

  Bibliography

  • Calvert, Roger (1963), Inland Waterways of Europe, George Allen and Unwin 
  • Edwards-May, David (2008), European Waterways - map and concise directory, 3rd edition, Euromapping 
  • Hadfield, Charles (1986), World Canals: Inland Navigation Past and Present, David and Charles, ISBN 0-7153-8555-0 
  • Needham, J (1971), Science and Civilisation in China, C.U.P. Cambridge 
  • Rodda, J. C. (2004), The Basis of Civilization - Water Science?, International Association of Hydrological Sciences 

  External links

   
               

 

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Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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