» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - Carbon_sequestration

definition of Wikipedia

   Advertizing ▼

Wikipedia

Carbon sequestration

                   

Carbon sequestration is the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and may refer specifically to :

  • "The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir."[1] When carried out deliberately, this may also be referred to as carbon dioxide removal, which is a form of geoengineering.

Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid dangerous climate change. It has been proposed as a way to slow the atmospheric and marine accumulation of greenhouse gases, which are released by burning fossil fuels.[2]

Carbon dioxide is naturally captured from the atmosphere through biological, chemical or physical processes. Some anthropogenic sequestration techniques exploit these natural processes,[3] while some use entirely artificial processes.

Carbon dioxide may be captured as a pure by-product in processes related to petroleum refining or from flue gases from power generation.[4] CO2 sequestration includes the storage part of carbon capture and storage, which refers to large-scale, permanent artificial capture and sequestration of industrially produced CO2 using subsurface saline aquifers, reservoirs, ocean water, aging oil fields, or other carbon sinks.

Contents

  Biological processes

  An oceanic phytoplankton bloom in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Argentina. Encouraging such blooms with iron fertilization could lock up carbon on the seabed.

Biosequestration or carbon sequestration through biological processes affects the global carbon cycle. Examples include major climatic fluctuations, such as the Azolla event, which created the current Arctic climate. Such processes created fossil fuels, as well as clathrate or limestone. By manipulating such processes, geoengineers seek to enhance sequestration.

  Peat production

Peat bogs are a very important carbon store. By creating new bogs, or enhancing existing ones, carbon can be sequestered.[5]

  Reforestation

Reforestation is the replanting of trees on marginal crop and pasture lands to incorporate carbon from atmospheric CO2 into biomass.[6] For this process to succeed the carbon must not return to the atmosphere from burning or rotting when the trees die.[7] To this end, the trees must grow in perpetuity or the wood from them must itself be sequestered, e.g., via biochar, bio-energy with carbon storage (BECS) or landfill. Short of growth in perpetuity, however, reforestation with long-lived trees (>100 years) will sequester carbon for a more graduated release, minimizing impact during the "carbon crisis" of the 21st century.

  Agriculture

Globally, soils are estimated to contain approximately 1,500 gigatons of organic carbon, more than the amount in vegetation and the atmosphere.[8][9]

Modification of agricultural practices is a recognized method of carbon sequestration as soil can act as an effective carbon sink offsetting as much as 20% of 2010 carbon dioxide emissions annually.[citation needed] (See No-till)

Carbon emission reduction methods in agriculture can be grouped into two categories: reducing and/or displacing emissions and enhancing carbon removal. Some of these reductions involve increasing the efficiency of farm operations (i.e. more fuel-efficient equipment) while some involve interruptions in the natural carbon cycle. Also, some effective techniques (such as the elimination of stubble burning) can negatively impact other environmental concerns (increased herbicide use to control weeds not destroyed by burning).

  Reducing emissions

Increasing yields and efficiency generally reduces emissions as well, since more food results from the same or less effort. Techniques include more accurate use of fertilizers, less soil disturbance, better irrigation, and crop strains bred for locally beneficial traits and increased yields.

Replacing more energy intensive farming operations can also reduce emissions. Reduced or no-till farming requires less machine use and burns correspondingly less fuel per acre. However, no-till usually increases use of weed-control chemicals and the residue now left on the soil surface is more likely to release its CO2 to the atmosphere as it decays, reducing the net carbon reduction.[citation needed]

In practice, most farming operations that incorporate post-harvest crop residues, wastes and byproducts back into the soil provide a carbon storage benefit.[citation needed] This is particularly the case for practices such as field burning of stubble - rather than releasing almost all of the stored CO2 to the atmosphere, tillage incorporates the biomass back into the soil where it can be absorbed and a portion of it stored permanently.[citation needed]

  Enhancing carbon removal

All crops absorb CO2 during growth and release it after harvest. The goal of agricultural carbon removal is to use the crop and its relation to the carbon cycle to permanently sequester carbon within the soil. This is done by selecting farming methods that return biomass to the soil and enhance the conditions in which the carbon within the plants will be reduced to its elemental nature and stored in a stable state. Methods for accomplishing this include:

  • Use cover crops such as grasses and weeds as temporary cover between planting seasons
  • Concentrate livestock in small paddocks for days at a time so they graze lightly but evenly. This encourages roots to grow deeper into the soil. Stock also till the soil with their hooves, grinding old grass and manures into the soil.[10]
  • Cover bare paddocks with hay or dead vegetation. This protects soil from the sun and allows the soil to hold more water and be more attractive to carbon-capturing microbes.[10]
  • Restore degraded land, which slows carbon release while returning the land to agriculture or other use.

Agricultural sequestration practices may have positive effects on soil, air, and water quality, be beneficial to wildlife, and expand food production. On degraded croplands, an increase of 1 ton of soil carbon pool may increase crop yield by 20 to 40 kilograms per hectare of wheat, 10 to 20 kg/ ha for maize, and 0.5 to 1 kg/ha for cowpeas.[citation needed]

The effects of soil sequestration can be reversed. If the soil is disrupted or tillage practices are abandoned, the soil becomes a net source of greenhouse gases. Typically after 15 to 30 years of sequestration, soil becomes saturated and ceases to absorb carbon. This implies that there is a global limit to the amount of carbon that soil can hold.[11]

Many factors affect the costs of carbon sequestration including soil quality, transaction costs and various externalities such as leakage and unforeseen environmental damage. Because reduction of atmosperic CO2 is a long-term concern, farmers can be reluctant to adopt more expensive agricultural techniques when there is not a clear crop, soil, or economic benefit. Governments such as Australia and New Zealand are considering allowing farmers to sell carbon credits once they document that they have sufficiently increased soil carbon content.[10][12][13][14][15]

  Ocean-related

  Iron fertilization

Ocean iron fertilization is an example of such a geoengineering technique.[16] Iron fertilization[17] attempts to encourage phytoplankton growth, which removes carbon from the atmosphere for at least a period of time.[18][19] This technique is controversial due to limited understanding its complete effects on the marine ecosystem,[20] including side effects and possibly large deviations from expected behavior. Such effects potentially include release of nitrogen oxides,[21] and disruption of the ocean's nutrient balance.[16]

  Urea fertilisation

Ian Jones proposes to fertilize the ocean with urea, a nitrogen rich substance, to encourage phytoplankton growth.[citation needed]

Australian company Ocean Nourishment Corporation (ONC) plans to sink hundreds of tonnes of urea into the ocean to boost CO2-absorbing phytoplankton growth as a way to combat climate change. In 2007, Sydney-based ONC completed an experiment involving 1 tonne of nitrogen in the Sulu Sea off the Philippines.[22]

  Mixing layers

Encouraging various ocean layers to mix can move nutrients and dissolved gases around, offering avenues for geoengineering.[23] Mixing may be achieved by placing large vertical pipes in the oceans to pump nutrient rich water to the surface, triggering blooms of algae, which store carbon when they grow and export carbon when they die.[23][24][25] This produces results somewhat similar to iron fertilization. One side-effect is a short-term rise in CO2, which limits its attractiveness.[26]

  Physical processes

  Biochar can be landfilled, used as a soil improver or burned using carbon capture and storage

  Biomass-related

  Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)

BECCS refers to biomass in power stations and boilers that use carbon capture and storage.[27][28] The carbon sequestered by the biomass would be captured and stored, thus removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.[29]

This technology is sometimes referred to as bio-energy with carbon storage, BECS, though this term can also refer to the carbon sequestration potential in other technologies, such as biochar.[citation needed]

  Burial

Burying biomass (such as trees[30]) directly, mimics the natural processes that created fossil fuels.[31] Landfills also represents a physical method of sequestration.

  Biochar burial

Biochar is charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass waste. The resulting material is added to a landfill or used as a soil improver to create terra preta.[32][33] Biogenic carbon is recycled naturally in the carbon cycle. Pyrolysing it to biochar renders the carbon inert so that it remains sequestered in soil. Further, the soil encourages bulking with new organic matter, which gives additional sequestration benefit.[clarification needed]

In the soil, the carbon is unavailable for oxidation to CO2 and consequential atmospheric release. This is one technique advocated by prominent scientist James Lovelock, creator of the Gaia hypothesis.[34] According to Simon Shackley, "people are talking more about something in the range of one to two billion tonnes a year."[35]

The mechanisms related to biochar are referred to as bio-energy with carbon storage, BECS.

  Ocean storage

River mouths bring large quantities of nutrients and dead material from upriver into the ocean as part of the process that eventually produces fossil fuels. Transporting material such as crop waste out to sea and allowing it to sink exploits this idea to increase carbon storage.[36] International regulations on marine dumping may restrict or prevent use of this technique.

  Subterranean injection

Carbon dioxide can be injected into depleted oil and gas reservoirs and other geological features, or can be injected into the deep ocean.[37]

The first large-scale CO2 sequestration project which began in 1996 is called Sleipner, and is located in the North Sea where Norway's StatoilHydro strips carbon dioxide from natural gas with amine solvents and disposed of this carbon dioxide in a deep saline aquifer. In 2000, a coal-fueled synthetic natural gas plant in Beulah, North Dakota, became the world's first coal using plant to capture and store carbon dioxide, at the Weyburn-Midale Carbon Dioxide Project.[38]

CO2 has been used extensively in enhanced crude oil recovery operations in the United States beginning in 1972.[39] There are in excess of 10,000 wells that inject CO2 in the state of Texas alone. The gas comes in part from anthropogenic sources, but is principally from large naturally occurring geologic formations of CO2. It is transported to the oil-producing fields through a large network of over 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) of CO2 pipelines. The use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods in heavy oil reservoirs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) has also been proposed.[40] However, transport cost remains an important hurdle. An extensive CO2 pipeline system does not yet exist in the WCSB. Athabasca oil sands mining that produces CO2 is hundreds of kilometers north of the subsurface Heavy crude oil reservoirs that could most benefit from CO2 injection.

  Chemical processes

Carbon, in the form of CO2 can be removed from the atmosphere by chemical processes, and stored in stable carbonate mineral forms. This process is known as 'carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation' or mineral sequestration. The process involves reacting carbon dioxide with abundantly available metal oxides–either magnesium oxide (MgO) or calcium oxide (CaO)–to form stable carbonates. These reactions are exothermic and occur naturally (e.g., the weathering of rock over geologic time periods).[41][42]

CaO + CO2CaCO3
MgO + CO2MgCO3

Calcium and magnesium are found in nature typically as calcium and magnesium silicates (such as forsterite and serpentinite) and not as binary oxides. For forsterite and serpentine the reactions are:

Mg2SiO4 + 2CO2 = 2MgCO3 + SiO2
Mg3Si2O5(OH)4+ 3CO2 = 3MgCO3 + 2SiO2 + 2H2O

The following table lists principal metal oxides of Earth's crust. Theoretically up to 22% of this mineral mass is able to form carbonates.

Earthen Oxide Percent of Crust Carbonate Enthalpy change
(kJ/mol)
SiO2 59.71
Al2O3 15.41
CaO 4.90 CaCO3 -179
MgO 4.36 MgCO3 -117
Na2O 3.55 Na2CO3
FeO 3.52 FeCO3
K2O 2.80 K2CO3
Fe2O3 2.63 FeCO3
21.76 All Carbonates

These reactions are slightly more favorable at low temperatures.[41] This process occurs naturally over geologic time frames and is responsible for much of the Earth's surface limestone. The reaction rate can be made faster, for example by reacting at higher temperatures and/or pressures, or by pre-treatment, although this method requires additional energy.

CO2 naturally reacts with peridotite rock in surface exposures of ophiolites, notably in Oman. It has been suggested that this process can be enhanced to carry out natural mineralisation of CO2.[43][44]

  Industrial use

Traditional cement manufacture releases large amounts of carbon dioxide, but newly developed cement types from Novacem[45] can absorb CO2 from ambient air during hardening.[46] A similar technique was pioneered by TecEco, which has been producing "EcoCement" since 2002.[47]

In Estonia, oil shale ash, generated by power stations could be used as sorbents for CO2 mineral sequestration. The amount of CO2 captured averaged 60–65% of the carbonaceous CO2 and 10–11% of the total CO2 emissions.[48]

  Chemical scrubbers

Various carbon dioxide scrubbing processes have been proposed to remove CO2 from the air, usually using a variant of the Kraft process. Carbon dioxide scrubbing variants exist based on potassium carbonate, which can be used to create liquid fuels, or on sodium hydroxide.[49][50][51] These notably include artificial trees proposed by Klaus Lackner to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere using chemical scrubbers.[52][53]

  Ocean-related

  Basalt storage

Carbon dioxide sequestration in basalt involves the injecting of CO2 into deep-sea formations. The CO2 first mixes with seawater and then reacts with the basalt, both of which are alkaline-rich elements. This reaction results in the release of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions forming stable carbonate minerals.[54]

Underwater basalt offers a good alternative to other forms of oceanic carbon storage because it has a number of trapping measures to ensure added protection against leakage. These measures include “geothermal, sediment, gravitational and hydrate formation.” Because CO2 hydrate is denser than CO2 in seawater, the risk of leakage is minimal. Injecting the CO2 at depths greater than 2,700 meters (8,900 ft) ensures that the CO2 has a greater density than seawater, causing it to sink.[55]

One possible injection site is Juan de Fuca plate. Researchers at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory found that this plate at the western coast of the United States has a possible storage capacity of 208 gigatons. This could cover the entire current U.S. carbon emissions for over 100 years.[55]

This process is undergoing tests as part of the CarbFix project.

  Acid neutralisation

Adding crushed limestone[56] or volcanic rock[57] to oceans enhances the solubility pump, which naturally removes CO2 from the atmosphere. Various other scientists have explored this technique, and suggested a variety of different bases that added to the ocean, increase CO2 absorption.[58][59][60][61][62][63]

  Hydrochloric acid removal

Electrolysis removes hydrochloric acid from the ocean for neutralization with silicate minerals or rocks. Electrolysis may contribute to carbon addition to the ocean if not carefully managed.[64]

  Objections

  Danger of leaks

Carbon dioxide may be stored deep underground. At depth, hydrostatic pressure acts to keep it in a liquid state. Reservoir design faults, rock fissures and tectonic processes may act to release the gas stored into the ocean or atmosphere.[citation needed]

  Financial costs

Some argue that the cost of carbon sequestration would actually increase over time. The use of the technology would add an additional 1-5 cents of cost per kilowatt hour, according to estimate made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The financial costs of modern coal technology would nearly double if use of CCS technology were to be implemented.[65]

  Energy requirements

The energy requirements of sequestration processes may be significant. In one paper, sequestration consumed 25 percent of the plant's rated 600 megawatt output capacity.[66]

After adding CO2 capture and compression, the capacity of the coal-fired power plant is reduced to 457 MW.

  See also

  References

  1. ^ "Glossary of climate change acronyms". UNFCCC. http://unfccc.int/essential_background/glossary/items/3666.php#C. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  2. ^ "Squaring the circle on carbon capture and storage" (PDF). Claverton Energy Group Conference, Bath,. 2008-10-24. http://www.claverton-energy.com/download/137/. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  3. ^ "Energy Terms Glossary S". Nebraska Energy Office. http://www.neo.ne.gov/statshtml/glossarys.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ Richard Lovett (2008-05-03). "Burying biomass to fight climate change". New Scientist (2654). http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19826542.400-burying-biomass-to-fight-climate-change.html?full=true. Retrieved 2010-05-09. (registration required)
  6. ^ Matthew McDermott (08.22.08). "Can Aerial Reforestation Help Slow Climate Change? Discovery Project Earth Examines Re-Engineering the Planet’s Possibilities". TreeHugger. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/08/aerial-reforestation-explored-in-discovery-project-earth-premiere.php. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  7. ^ http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RL31432.pdf
  8. ^ Batjes, Niels H. (1996). "Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world". European Journal of Soil Science 47 (2): 151–163. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2389.1996.tb01386.x. 
  9. ^ Pete Smith. "Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics and Land-Use Change". In Ademola K. Braimoh. Land Use and Soil Resources. Springer. ISBN 1-4020-6777-1. 
  10. ^ a b c "FACTBOX: Carbon farming on rise in Australia". Reuters. June 16, 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSTRE55G01B20090617?pageNumber=2&virtualBrandChannel=0&sp=true. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  11. ^ Sundermeiera A, Islam K, Rautb Y, Reederc R, and Dickd W. (September 2010). "Continuous No-Till Impacts on Soil Biophysical Carbon Sequestration". Soil Science Society of America Journal. 75 (5): 1779-1788. DOI:10.2136/sssaj2010.0334. https://www.soils.org/publications/sssaj/abstracts/75/5/1779. 
  12. ^ Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z, et al. (February 2008). "Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 363 (1492): 789–813. DOI:10.1098/rstb.2007.2184. PMC 2610110. PMID 17827109. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17827109.  |p 807, 790—793.
  13. ^ “Environmental Co Benefits of Sequestration Practices. 2006. 1 June 2009. http://www.epa.gov/sequestration/co-benefits.html
  14. ^ Lal, R. (June 2009). "Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security". Science 304 (5677): 1623–1627. Bibcode 2004Sci...304.1623L. DOI:10.1126/science.1097396. PMID 15192216. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/304/5677/1623.  “Addressing Reversibility (Duration) for Projects. US Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. 1 June 2009 < http://www.epa.gov/sequestration/duration.html>
  15. ^ Renwick, A; Ball, A; Pretty, J.N. (August 2002). "Biological and Policy Constraints on the Adoption of Carbon Farming in Temperate Regions". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 360 (1797): 1721–40. Bibcode 2002RSPTA.360.1721R. DOI:10.1098/rsta.2002.1028. PMID 12460494. http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/360/1797/1721.abstract?sid=781c4abf-2514-48a1-b4a2-47856b3aa08b.  pp. 1722, 1726—9.
  16. ^ a b Gerald Traufetter (01/02/2009). "Cold Carbon Sink: Slowing Global Warming with Antarctic Iron". Spiegel.de. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,599213,00.html#ref=rss. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  17. ^ The impact on atmospheric CO2 of iron fertilization induced changes in the ocean's biological pump. 5. Biogeosciences. 2008. pp. 385–406. http://www.biogeosciences.net/5/385/2008/bg-5-385-2008.html. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  18. ^ Richard Monastersky (September 30, 1995). "Iron versus the Greenhouse - Oceanographers cautiously explore a global warming therapy". Science News. http://www-formal.stanford.edu/pub/jmc/progress/iron/iron.html. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  19. ^ Planktos,http://www.planktos-science.com/
  20. ^ "WWF condemns Planktos Inc. iron-seeding plan in the Galapagos". Biopact.com. 2007-06-27. http://biopact.com/2007/06/wwf-condemns-planktos-inc-iron-seeding.html. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  21. ^ David Fogarty (2008-12-15). "Reuters AlertNet -RPT-FEATURE-Scientists urge caution in ocean-CO2 capture schemes". Alertnet.org. http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/SP39844.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  22. ^ Anna Salleh (2007-11-09). "Urea 'climate solution' may backfire". Australian Broadcasting Commission. http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2007/11/09/2085584.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  23. ^ a b Lovelock JE; Rapley CG (27 September 2007). "Ocean pipes could help the earth to cure itself". Nature 449 (7161): 403. Bibcode 2007Natur.449..403L. DOI:10.1038/449403a. PMID 17898747. 
  24. ^ Fred Pearce (26 September 2007). "Ocean pumps could counter global warming". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn12698. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  25. ^ Duke J. (2008). "A proposal to force vertical mixing of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent to create a system of equatorially trapped coupled convection that counteracts global warming". Geophysical Research Abstracts. http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU2008/10885/EGU2008-A-10885.pdf.  John H. Duke (September 5, 2007) (PDF). A proposal to force vertical mixing of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent to create a system of equatorially trapped coupled convection that counteracts global warming. http://www.johnduke.com/JDukeETCC09052007.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  26. ^ Impact of enhanced vertical mixing on marine biogeochemistry: lessons for. 6. Biogeosciences Discuss. 2009. pp. 1–26. http://www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/6/1/2009/bgd-6-1-2009-print.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  27. ^ Fisher, B.S.; et al. (2007). "Issues related to mitigation in the long term context, In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change". Fourth Assessment Report of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg3/ar4-wg3-chapter3.pdf. 
  28. ^ Obersteiner, M., Ch. Azar, P. Kauppi, K. Möllersten, J. Moreira, S.Nilsson, P. Read, K. Riahi, B. Schlamadinger, Y. Yamagata, J. Yan, and J.-P. van Ypersele (2001). "Managing climate risk". Science 294 (5543): 786–7. DOI:10.1126/science.294.5543.786b. PMID 11681318. 
  29. ^ Christian Azar, et al. (January 2006). "Carbon Capture and Storage From Fossil Fuels and Biomass – Costs and Potential Role in Stabilizing the Atmosphere". Climatic Change 74 (1–3): 47–79. DOI:10.1007/s10584-005-3484-7. 
  30. ^ Ning Zeng (2008). "Carbon sequestration via wood burial". Carbon Balance and Management 3 (1): 1. DOI:10.1186/1750-0680-3-1. PMC 2266747. PMID 18173850. http://www.cbmjournal.com/content/3/1/1. 
  31. ^ Richard Lovett (2008-05-03). "Burying biomass to fight climate change". New Scientist (2654). http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19826542.400. Retrieved 2010-05-09. (subscription required)
  32. ^ Lehmann, J., Gaunt, J., Rondon, M. (2006). "Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review". Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11: 403–427. 
  33. ^ "International Biochar Initiative | International Biochar Initiative". Biochar-international.org. http://www.biochar-international.org/. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  34. ^ Gaia Vince (2009-01-23). "One last chance to save mankind". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20126921.500-one-last-chance-to-save-mankind.html?full=true. Retrieved 2010-05-09. (subscription required)
  35. ^ Harvey, Fiona (February 27, 2009). "Black is the new green". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/67843ec0-020b-11de-8199-000077b07658.html. Retrieved 2009-03-04. 
  36. ^ Stuart E. Strand; Benford, Gregory (2009-01-12). "Ocean Sequestration of Crop Residue Carbon: Recycling Fossil Fuel Carbon Back to Deep Sediments". Environmental Science & Technology 43 (4): 1000. DOI:10.1021/es8015556. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es8015556. 
  37. ^ "World’s first network of demonstration projects, all of which are aiming to be operational by 2015 and commercially viable CCS by 2020". Ccsnetwork.eu. https://www.ccsnetwork.eu/. Retrieved 2012-02-22. 
  38. ^ "Weyburn-Midale CO2 Project, World’s first CO2 measuring, monitoring and verification initiative". Petroleum Technology Research Centre. http://www.ptrc.ca/weyburn_overview.php. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  39. ^ [2] Squaring the circle - carbon capture and storage - Chris Hodrien - Claverton Energy Conference, Bath, 2008
  40. ^ "Subscription Verification". Dailyoilbulletin.com. http://www.dailyoilbulletin.com/issues/article.asp?article=dob%2F080415%2FDOB2008%5FAF0019%2Ehtml. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  41. ^ a b Herzog, Howard (2002-03-14) (PDF). Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. http://sequestration.mit.edu/pdf/carbonates.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  42. ^ Goldberg, Philip; Zhong-Ying Chen; O'Connor, William; Walters, Richard; Ziock Hans (1998) (PDF). CO2 Mineral Sequestration Studies in US. National Energy Technology Laboratory. http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/01/carbon_seq/6c1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  43. ^ Peter B. Kelemen1 and Jürg Matter (2008-11-03). "In situ carbonation of peridotite for CO2 storage". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (45): 17295–300. Bibcode 2008PNAS..10517295K. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0805794105. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/45/17295.full. 
  44. ^ Timothy Gardner (2008-11-07). "Scientists say a rock can soak up carbon dioxide | Reuters". Uk.reuters.com. http://uk.reuters.com/article/scienceNews/idUKTRE4A59IB20081107. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  45. ^ "Novacem". Imperial Innovations. 2008-05-06. http://www.imperialinnovations.co.uk/?q=node/176. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  46. ^ Jha, Alok (2008-12-31). "Revealed: The cement that eats carbon dioxide". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/dec/31/cement-carbon-emissions. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  47. ^ "Home". TecEco. 1983-07-01. http://www.tececo.com/. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  48. ^ Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein (February 2008). "CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production". Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2): 1253–60. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.07.012. PMID 18793821. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WJ7-4TFDY5T-4&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=ec5c2795b42815e257bd049cc4fae18c. 
  49. ^ Chang, Kenneth (2008-02-19). "Scientists Would Turn Greenhouse Gas Into Gasoline". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/19/science/19carb.html?_r=1. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  50. ^ Frank Zeman (2007). "Energy and Material Balance of CO2 Capture from Ambient Air" (PDF). Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (21): 7558–63. DOI:10.1021/es070874m. PMID 18044541. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es070874m. 
  51. ^ "Chemical 'sponge' could filterCO2 from the air". New Scientist. 3 October 2007. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn12727. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  52. ^ "New Device Vacuums Away Carbon Dioxide". LiveScience. 2007-05-01. http://www.livescience.com/technology/070501_carbon_capture.html. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  53. ^ Adam, David (2008-05-31). "Could US scientist's 'CO2 catcher' help to slow warming?". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/may/31/carbonemissions.climatechange. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  54. ^ David S. Goldberg, Taro Takahashi, and Angela L. Slagle (2008). "Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep-sea basalt". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (29): 9920–5. Bibcode 2008PNAS..105.9920G. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0804397105. PMC 2464617. PMID 18626013. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/29/9920.full. 
  55. ^ a b "Carbon storage in undersea basalt offers extra security". environmentalresearchweb. 2008-07-15. http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/futures/35017. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  56. ^ Harvey, L.D.D. (2008). "Mitigating the atmospheric CO2 increase and ocean acidification by adding limestone powder to upwelling regions". Journal of Geophysical Research 113: C04028. Bibcode 2008JGRC..11304028H. DOI:10.1029/2007JC004373. 
  57. ^ Clover, Charles (2007-11-07). "Global warming 'cure' found by scientists". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/3313398/Global-warming-cure-found-by-scientists.html. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  58. ^ House, K.Z., House, C.H, Schrag, D.P., Aziz, M.J. (2007). "Electrochemical acceleration of chemical weathering as an energetically feasible approach to mitigating anthropogenic climate change". Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (24): 8464–70. DOI:10.1021/es0701816. PMID 18200880. 
  59. ^ Kheshgi, H. S. (1995). "Sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide by increasing ocean alkalinity". Energy 20 (9): 915–922. DOI:10.1016/0360-5442(95)00035-F. 
  60. ^ K.S. Lackner, C.H. Wendt, D.P. Butt, E.L. Joyce and D.H. Sharp (1995). "Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals". Energy 20 (11): 1153–70. DOI:10.1016/0360-5442(95)00071-N. 
  61. ^ K.S. Lackner, D.P. Butt, C.H. Wendt (1997). "Progress on binding CO2 in mineral substrates". Energy Conversion and Management 38: S259–S264. DOI:10.1016/S0196-8904(96)00279-8. 
  62. ^ Rau, G.H., Caldeira, K. (1999). "Enhanced carbonate dissolution: A means of sequestering waste CO2 as ocean bicarbonate". Energy Conversion and Management 40 (17): 1803–13. DOI:10.1016/S0196-8904(99)00071-0. 
  63. ^ Rau, G.H., K.G. Knauss, W.H. Langer, K. Caldeira (2007). "Reducing energy-related CO2 emissions using accelerated weathering of limestone". Energy 32 (8): 1471–7. DOI:10.1016/j.energy.2006.10.011. 
  64. ^ House, K. Z.; House, C. H.; Schrag, D. P.; Aziz, M. J. (2007). "Electrochemical Acceleration of Chemical Weathering as an Energetically Feasible Approach to Mitigating Anthropogenic Climate Change". Environmental Science & Technology 41 (24): 8464–8470. DOI:10.1021/es0701816. PMID 18200880.  edit
  65. ^ DeMonte, Adena. "The Cost of Carbon Capture." July 2007.
  66. ^ [3][dead link]

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of Carbon_sequestration


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

2375 online visitors

computed in 0.078s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼