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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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CSMA/CA is a modification of carrier sense multiple access.
Collision avoidance is used to improve CSMA performance by not allowing wireless transmission of a node if another node is transmitting, thus reducing the probability of collision due to the use of a random truncated binary exponential backoff time.
CSMA/CA is a layer 2 access method, not a protocol of the OSI model.
Collision avoidance is used to improve the performance of the CSMA method by attempting to divide the wireless channel somewhat equally among all transmitting nodes within the collision domain. CSMA/CA differs from CSMA/CD due to the nature of the medium, the radio frequency spectrum. Collisions cannot be detected while occurring at the sending node, thus it is vital for CSMA/CA or another access method to be implemented. CSMA/CA is used in 802.11 based wireless LANs and other wired and wireless communication systems. One of the problems of wireless data communications is that it is not possible to listen while sending, therefore collision detection is not possible. Another reason is the hidden terminal problem, whereby a node A, in range of the receiver R, is not in range of the sender S, and therefore cannot know that S is transmitting to R.
CSMA/CA can optionally be supplemented by the exchange of a Request to Send (RTS) packet sent by the sender S, and a Clear to Send (CTS) packet sent by the intended receiver R. Thus alerting all nodes within range of the sender, receiver or both, to not transmit for the duration of the main transmission. This is known as the IEEE 802.11 RTS/CTS exchange. Implementation of RTS/CTS helps to solve the hidden node problem that is often found in wireless networking.
CSMA/CA performance is based largely upon the modulation technique used to transmit the data between nodes. Studies show that under ideal propagation conditions (simulations), Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) provides the highest throughput for all nodes on a network when used in conjunction with CSMA/CA and the IEEE 802.11 RTS/CTS exchange under light network load conditions. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) follows distantly behind DSSS with regard to throughput with a greater throughput once network load becomes substantially heavy. However, the throughput is generally the same under real world conditions due to radio propagation factors.