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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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|Pronunciation||[kətəˈɫa] (EC) ~ [kataˈla] (WC)|
|Spoken in||Andorra, France, Italy, Spain|
|Region||See geographic distribution of Catalan|
|Native speakers||11.5 million (2006)|
|Writing system||Latin (Catalan alphabet)|
|Official language in|| Andorra
Spain: Catalonia, Valencian Community, Balearic Islands.
Italy: Alghero (Sardinia)
|Regulated by||Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
Catalan ( //, //, or //; autonym: català, IPA: [kətəˈɫa] or [kataˈla]) is a Romance language, the national and only official language of Andorra and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencian Community, where it is known as Valencian (valencià, IPA: [valensiˈa]), as well as in the city of Alghero (where Algherese is spoken), on the Italian island of Sardinia. It is also spoken, with no official recognition, in the autonomous communities of Aragon (in La Franja) and Murcia (in Carche) in Spain, and in the historic Roussillon region of southern France, roughly equivalent to the current département of the Pyrénées-Orientales (Northern Catalonia).
Although recognized as a regional language of the department Pyrénées-Orientales since 2007, Catalan has no official recognition in France, as French is the only official language of that country, according to the French Constitution of 1958.
The Catalan language developed from Vulgar Latin on both sides of the eastern end of the Pyrenees mountains and valleys (counties of Razès, Conflent, Rosselló-Vallespir, Empúries, Besalú, Cerdanya, Urgell, Pallars and Ribagorça). It shares origin and characteristics with Gallo-Romance, Ibero-Romance, and the Gallo-Italian speech types of Northern Italy. Though some hypothesize a historical split from languages of Occitan typology, the area covered from Liguria (on the present Italian coast) to Alicante (in Spain) can be seen as a classic dialect continuum, with some perturbation as a result of political divisions and overlay of standard national languages.
As a consequence of the Aragonese and Catalan conquests of Al-Andalus to the south and to the west, the language spread to present-day Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and most of the Valencian Community.
After the Treaty of the Pyrenees, a royal decree by Louis XIV of France on 2 April 1700 prohibited the use of Catalan language in present-day Northern Catalonia in all official documents under the threat of being invalidated.
Shortly after the French Revolution, the French First Republic prohibited official use of, and enacted discriminating policies against, the nonstandard languages of France (patois); such as Catalan, Breton, Occitan and Basque.
The deliberate process of eradicating non-French vernaculars in modern France and disparaging them as mere local and often strictly oral dialects was formalized with Abbé Grégoire's Report on the necessity and means to annihilate the patois and to universalize the use of the French language, which he presented on June 4, 1794 to the National Convention; thereafter, all languages other than French were officially banned in the administration and schools for the sake of linguistically uniting post-Bastille Day France.
To date, the French government continues its policy of recognizing only French as an official language in France. Nevertheless, on 10 December 2007, the General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales officially recognized Catalan as one of the languages of the department in the Article 1 (a) of its Charte en faveur du Catalan and seek to further promote it in public life and education.
After the Nueva Planta Decrees, administrative use of Catalan, and Catalan language education, were also banned in the territories of the Kingdom of Spain. It was not until the Renaixença that use of the Catalan language started to recover.
In Francoist Spain (1939–1975), the use of Spanish in place of Catalan was promoted, and public use of Catalan was initially repressed and discouraged by official propaganda campaigns. The use of Catalan in government-run institutions and in public events was banned. During later stages of the Francoist regime, certain folkloric or religious celebrations in Catalan were resumed and tolerated. Use of Catalan in the mass media was initially forbidden, but was permitted from the early 1950s in the theatre. Publishing in Catalan continued throughout the dictatorship. There was no official prohibition of speaking Catalan in public or in commerce, but all advertising and signage had to be in Spanish alone, as did all written communication in business.
Following the death of Franco in 1975 and the restoration of democracy under a constitutional monarchy, the use of Catalan increased significantly because of new affirmative action and subsidy policies and the Catalan language is now used in politics, education and the media, including the newspapers Avui ("Today"), El Punt ("The Point"), Ara ("Now"), La Vanguardia and El Periódico de Catalunya (sharing content with El Periòdic d'Andorra, printed in Andorra); and the television channels of Televisió de Catalunya (TVC): TV3, the main channel, and Canal 33 (culture channel), Super3/3XL (cartoons channel) as well as a 24-hour news channel 3/24 and the sports channel Esport 3; in Valencia Canal Nou, 24/9 and Punt 2; in the Balearic islands IB3; in Catalonia there are also some private channels such as 8TV, Barça TV, Estil9 or Canal Català, in others. Furthermore, everywhere in the Catalan-speaking territories, there are local channels available in Catalan.
The ascription of Catalan to the Occitano-Romance branch of Gallo-Romance languages is not shared by all linguists, particularly those from Spanish-speaking areas; furthermore, many modern linguists consider any internal classification of the Romance languages a pointless task.
According to Pierre Bec (in Occitan Pèire Bèc), its specific classification is as follows:
Catalan bears varying degrees of similarity to the linguistic varieties subsumed under the cover term Occitan language (see also differences between Occitan and Catalan and Gallo-Romance languages). Thus, as it should be expected from closely related languages, Catalan today shares many traits with other Romance languages.
|The Catalan/Valencian cultural domain|
Catalan is spoken in:
These territories are sometimes referred to as the Països Catalans (Catalan Countries), a denomination based on cultural affinity and common heritage, that has also had a subsequent political interpretation but no official status. Various interpretations of the term may include some or all of these regions.
The number of persons known to be fluent in Catalan varies depending on the sources used. A 2004 language study did not indicate the total number of speakers, but showed a total estimate of 9–9.5 million, by matching the percentage of speakers to the population of each area where Catalan is spoken. The web site of the Generalitat de Catalunya estimated that as of 2004 there were 9,118,882 speakers of Catalan. These figures only reflect potential speakers; today it is the native language of only 35.6% of the Catalan population. And according to Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Catalan has a total of 11,530,160 speakers.
|Territory||State||Understand 1||Can speak 2|
|La Franja (Aragon)||Spain||47,250||45,000|
|Carche (Murcia)||Spain||No data||No data|
|Total Catalan-speaking territories||11,150,218||9,062,637|
|Rest of World||No data||350,000|
In 1861, Manuel Milà i Fontanals proposed a division of Catalan into two major dialect blocks: Eastern Catalan and Western Catalan. The different Catalan dialects show deep differences in lexicon, grammar, morphology and pronunciation due to historical isolation. Each dialect also encompasses several regional varieties.
There is no precise linguistic border between one dialect and another because there is nearly always a transition zone of some size between pairs of geographically separated dialects (except for dialects specific to an island). The main difference between the two blocks is their treatment of unstressed vowels, in addition to a few other features:
In addition, neither dialect is completely homogeneous: any dialect can be subdivided into several subdialects. Catalan can be subdivided into two major dialect blocks and those blocks into individual dialects:
|Catalan (IEC)||Valencian (AVL)||gloss|
|néixer||nàixer||to be born|
|veure||vore (colloquial)||to see|
|estrella (estel)||estrela (estel)||star|
Catalan is a pluricentric language with two main standards; one regulated by the Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC), general standard, with Pompeu Fabra's orthography as axis, keeping features from Central Catalan, and the other regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (AVL), restricted scale standard, focused on Valencian standardization on the basis of Normes de Castelló, that is, Pompeu Fabra's orthography but more adapted to Western Catalan pronunciation and features of Valencian dialects.
IEC's standard, apart from the basis of Central Catalan features, takes also other dialects' features in consideration as standard. Despite this, the most notable difference between both standards is some tonic ⟨e⟩ accentuation, for instance: francès, anglès (IEC) – francés, anglés (AVL) ('French, English'), cafè (IEC) – café (AVL) ('coffee'), conèixer (IEC) – conéixer ('to know'), comprèn (IEC) – comprén (AVL) ('he understands'). This is because of the different pronunciation of some stressed ⟨e⟩, especially tonic ē (long e) and i (short i) from Latin, in both Catalan blocks (/ɛ/ in Eastern Catalan and /e/ in Western Catalan). Nevertheless, AVL's standard keeps the grave accent ⟨è⟩, without pronouncing this ⟨e⟩ as /ɛ/, in some words like: què ('what'), València, èter ('ether'), sèsam ('sesame'), sèrie ('series') and època ('age').
There are also some other divergences like the digraph ⟨tl⟩ used by AVL in some words instead of ⟨tll⟩ like in ametla/ametlla ('almond'), espatla/espatlla ('back' an.) or butla/butlla ('bull'), the use of elided demonstratives (este 'this', eixe 'that' -near-) in the same level as reinforced ones (aquest, aqueix) or the use of many verbal forms common in Valencian, and some of these common in the rest of Western Catalan too, like subjunctive mood or inchoative conjugation in -ix- at the same level as -eix- or the priority use of -e morpheme in 1st person singular in present indicative (-ar verbs): jo compre instead of jo compro ('I buy').
In the Balearic Islands, IEC's standard is used but adapted for the Balearic dialect by the University of the Balearic Islands's philological section, Govern de les Illes Balears's consultative organ. In this way, for instance, IEC says it is correct writing cantam as much as cantem ('we sing') but the University says that the priority form in the Balearic Islands must be "cantam" in all fields. Another feature of the Balearic standard is the non-ending in the 1st person singular present indicative: jo compr ('I buy'), jo tem ('I fear'), jo dorm ('I sleep').
In Alghero, the IEC has adapted its standard to the Alguerese dialect. In this standard one can find, among other features: the definite article lo instead of el, special possessive pronouns and determinants la mia ('mine'), lo sou/la sua ('his/her'), lo tou/la tua ('yours'), and so on, the use of -v- /v/ in the imperfect tense in all conjugations: cantava, creixiva, llegiva; the use of many archaic words, usual words in Alguerese: manco instead of menys ('less'), calqui u instead of algú ('someone'), qual/quala instead of quin/quina ('which'), and so on; and the adaptation of weak pronouns.
In 2011, the Aragonese government passed a decree for the establishment of a new language regulator of Catalan in La Franja (the so-called Catalan-speaking areas of Aragon). The new entity, designated as Acadèmia Aragonesa del Català, shall allow a facultative education in Catalan and a standardization of the Catalan language in La Franja.
||This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2011)|
The official language academy of the Valencian Community (the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua) considers Catalan and Valencian simply to be two names for the same language. All universities teaching Romance languages, and virtually all linguists, consider these two to be linguistic variants of the same language (similar to Canadian French versus Metropolitan French, and European versus Brazilian Portuguese).
There is a roughly continuous set of dialects covering the regional forms of Catalan/Valencian, with no break at the border between Catalonia and the Valencian Community, and the various forms of Catalan and Valencian are mutually intelligible This is not to say that there are no differences between them; the speech of Valencians is recognizable both in pronunciation as well as in morphological and lexical peculiarities. However, these differences are not any wider than among North-Western Catalan and Eastern Catalan. In fact, Northern Valencian (spoken in the Castelló province and Matarranya valley, a strip of Aragon) is more similar to the Catalan of the lower Ebro basin (spoken in southern half of Tarragona province and another strip of Aragon) than to apitxat Valencian (spoken in the area of L'Horta, in the province of Valencia).
What gets called a language (as opposed to a dialect) is defined partly by mutual comprehensibility as well as political and cultural factors. In this case, the perceived status of Valencian as a dialect of Catalan has historically had important political implications including Catalan nationalism and the idea of the Catalan Countries. Arguing that Valencian is a separate language may sometimes be part of an effort by Valencians to resist a perceived Catalan nationalist agenda aimed at incorporating Valencians into what they feel is a "constructed" nationality centered on Barcelona.
As such, the issue of whether Catalan and Valencian constitute different languages or merely dialects has been the subject of adversarial discussions for over a century and political agitation several times since the end of the Franco era. The latest political controversy regarding Valencian occurred on the occasion of the drafting of the European Constitution in 2004. The Spanish government supplied the EU with translations of the text into Basque, Galician, Catalan, and Valencian, but the Catalan and Valencian versions were identical.
While professing the unity of the Catalan language, the Spanish government claimed to be constitutionally bound to produce distinct Catalan and Valencian versions because the Statute of Autonomy of the Valencian Community refers to the language as Valencian. In practice, the Catalan, Valencian, and Balearic versions of the EU constitution are identical: the government of Catalonia accepted the Valencian translation without any changes under the premise that the Valencian standard is accepted by the norms set forth by the IEC.
Catalan may be seen instead as a multi-centric language (much like English); there exist two standards, one regulated by the IEC, which is centered on Central Catalan (with slight variations to include Balearic verb inflection) and one regulated by the AVL, centered on Valencian.
The AVL accepts the conventions set forth in the Normes de Castelló as the normative spelling, shared with the IEC that allows for the diverse idiosyncrasies of the different language dialects and varieties. As the normative spelling, these conventions are used in education, and most contemporary Valencian writers make use of them. Nonetheless, a small minority mainly of those who advocate for the recognition of Valencian as a separate language, use in a non-normative manner an alternative spelling convention known as the Normes del Puig.
The Catalan alphabet consists of the twenty-six letters of the basic Modern Latin alphabet: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z. The letters K, W and Y are only used in loanwords, and in the case of Y also in the palatal digraph ny. Modified letters with diacritics include À, É, È, Í, Ï, Ó, Ò, Ú, Ü and Ç.
The Catalan spelling has a number of distinctive features. The graph l·l (named ela geminada 'geminate-l') is composed of an interpunct (or middot) between two ⟨l⟩ (e.g. intel·ligent 'intelligent', novel·la 'novel') and is used to distinguish phonetically /lː/ from /ʎ/ (written ll as in Spanish). Another special grapheme is the digraph ny /ɲ/, found in Hungarian, Malay and in some African languages (e.g. banys 'baths'). Also of note is the final digraph ig, pronounced /tʃ/ after a vowel (e.g. raig 'ray', veig 'I see') and /itʃ/ after a consonant (e.g. mig 'half', desig 'desire'). The combination of t + nasal or lateral consonant is pronounced as a geminate of the second consonant: tm /mː/, tn /nː/, tl /lː/ and tll /ʎː/ (e.g. setmana 'week', cotna 'pork rind', Betlem 'Betlehem', bitllet 'bank note'), whereas t + sibilant consonant indicates affrication: tx /tʃ/, ts /ts/, tz /dz/, tg and tj /dʒ/ (e.g. fletxa 'arrow', potser 'maybe', dotze 'twelve', jutge 'judge', platja 'beach'). Similarly, the less common graphemes dj /dʒ/ and ds /ts/ also stand for affricates. Other digraphs are rr /r/, ss /s/, ix /ʃ/, gu /ɡ/ and qu /k/.
Catalan spelling utilizes ç (called ce trencada, literally 'broken cee') when ⟨c⟩ takes the soft sound /s/ before ⟨a, o, u⟩ (e.g. caça 'hunt') or in final position (e.g. dolç 'sweet'). The letter x is normally pronounced as a voiceless postalveolar /ʃ/ (usually affricated to /tʃ/ in many Western Catalan dialects); e.g. xic /ˈʃik/~/ˈtʃik/ ('little'). In Latin and Greek learned words it represents /ks/ (e.g. fixar 'fix') and /ɡz/ (e.g. exacte 'exact'), as in other closely related languages. The digraph ix instead, always represents /ʃ/ (/i̯ʃ/ in Western Catalan dialects); e.g. calaixos ('drawers').
Standard Catalan and Valencian has the typical seven-vowel system from Vulgar Latin (/a/, /ɛ/, /e/, /i/, /ɔ/, /o/, and /u/). Notable features:
|Plosive||voiceless||p||t||(c) ~ k|
|voiced||b||d||(ɟ) ~ ɡ|
The consonant system of Catalan is rather conservative, shared with most modern Western Romance languages. Notable features:
Catalan is one of the Western Romance languages, which forms a dialect chain running across Iberia from Portuguese through Astur-Leonese, Spanish and Aragonese. From there, the chain runs across the Pyrenees to various Occitan dialects: either northwest to Gascon and Limousin, or north to Languedocien; then from Languedocien, either north to Auvergnat and eventually French, northeast to Franco-Provençal and the Rhaeto-Romance languages, or east through Provençal and across to Ligurian and the other Gallo-Italian languages.
As a result, Catalan shares many of the basic features of the Western Romance languages, and more specifically evinces linguistic features similar to those of its closest neighbors (Occitan, Aragonese, Sardinian, Spanish and Italian). Catalan is most closely related to Occitan, only diverging from it towards the end of the first millennium AD. Since then, the Ibero-Romance languages have exerted a large conservatizing force over Catalan, preventing it from taking part in many later Occitan changes.
The following sections list:
Common features with Western Romance languages, but not Italo-Romance:
Common features with Occitan, but not French and Spanish:
Common features with Southern Occitan but not Northern Occitan:
Common features with Occitan and French, but not Spanish and Portuguese:
Common features with Occitan, French, Galician and Portuguese, but not Spanish:
Common features with Occitan, French and Portuguese, but not Spanish and Galician:
Common features with Occitan, Galician and Portuguese, but not French and Spanish:
Common with Spanish:
Common with Astur-Leonese, but not Portuguese or Spanish:
Common with Astur-Leonese, Galician, Portuguese and Spanish, but not French
Common with Astur-Leonese, Galician, Portuguese and Italian, but not Spanish or French:
The first descriptive and normative grammar book of modern Catalan was written by Pompeu Fabra in 1918. In 1995, a new grammar by Antoni Maria Badia i Margarit was published, which also documents the Valencian and Balearic varieties.
Substantives and adjectives are not declined by case, as in Classical Latin. There are two grammatical genders—masculine and feminine.
Grammatical articles developed from Latin demonstratives. The form of the article depends on the gender and the number of the subject and the first sounds of the word and can be combined with prepositions that precede them. A unique feature of Catalan is a definite article that may precede personal names in certain contexts. Its basic form is en and it can change according to its environment: en Joan meaning 'John', na Maria meaning 'Mary' (note clitic en has also other lexical meanings). One of the common usages of this article is in the word can, a combination of la casa shortened to ca ('house', as French chez) and en, which here means 'the'. For example la casa d'en Sergi becomes can Sergi meaning 'the house of Sergi', 'Sergi's house'. Note here, other definite articles (el, la, els, les) can also be used with personal names like in Portuguese, as la Maria ('Mary', Portuguese a Maria).
Verbs are conjugated according to tense and mood similarly to other Western Romance languages. Present, imperfect and simple preterite are based on classical Latin present, imperfect and perfect respectively, future and conditional are formed from the infinitive followed by the present and imperfect form of the auxiliary verb haver (written together and not considered periphrastic). Periphrastic tenses are formed from the conjugated auxiliary verbs haver ('to have') and ésser ('to be') followed by the past participle. A unique tense in Catalan is the "periphrastic simple preterite," which is formed of vaig, vas (or vares), va, vam (or vàrem), vau (or vàreu) and van (there is the usual wrong idea these forms are the conjugated forms of anar, which means 'to go'), which is followed by the infinitive of the verb. Thus, jo vaig parlar (or more simply vaig parlar) means 'I spoke'.
Nominative pronouns are often omitted, as the subject can be usually derived from the conjugated verb. The Catalan rules for combination of the object pronoun clitics with verbs, articles and other pronouns are significantly more complex than in most other Romance languages; see Weak pronouns in Catalan.
Catalan naming customs are similar to those of Spain and Portugal; people take two surnames–their father's and their mother's–which are separated by the particle i, meaning 'and' (in Spanish the equivalent particle is written y, but often omitted altogether).
For example, the full name of the architect Antoni Gaudí is Antoni Gaudí i Cornet after his parents: Francesc Gaudí i Serra and Antònia Cornet i Bertran, meaning he was son of Gaudí and Cornet.
|English||Catalan / Valencian||IPA pronunciation (Catalan)||IPA pronunciation (Valencian)|
|Catalan / Valencian||català / valencià||[kətəˈɫa]||[valensiˈa]|
|English||anglès / anglés||[əŋˈɡɫɛs]||[aŋˈɡles]|
|Good morning!||bon dia!||[ˈbɔn ˈdi.ə]||[ˈbɔn ˈdi.a]|
|Good afternoon!||bona tarda! / bona vesprada!||[ˈbɔnə ˈtarðə]||[ˈbɔna vesˈpɾaː]|
|Good evening!||bon vespre!, bon capvespre! (frm.)
bona tarda! / bona vesprada! (coll.)
|Good night!||bona nit!||[ˈbɔnə ˈnit]||[ˈbɔna ˈnit]|
|See you (later/soon)||a reveure, fins després, fins aviat / fins prompte||[ə rəˈβɛwɾə]
|Please/if you please||si us plau, per favor||[sis ˈpɫaw]
|Thank you||gràcies, mercès||[ˈɡɾasiəs]
|You are welcome||de res||[də ˈrɛs]||[de ˈres]|
|I am sorry||perdó, em sap greu||[pərˈðo]
[əm ˈsab ˈɡɾew]
|Why?||per què?||[pər ˈkɛ]||[peɾ ˈke]|
|What is your name?||com et dius/diuen? (inf. with tu)
com es diu? (frm. with vostè / vosté)
com us / vos dieu/diuen? (inf. with vosaltres)
com es diuen? (frm. with vostès / vostès)
|[ˈkɔm əd ˈdiws]
[ˈkɔm əz ˈðiw]
[ˈkɔm uz ðiˈɛw]
[ˈkɔm əz ˈðiwən]
|[ˈkɔm ed ˈdiws]
[ˈkɔm ez ˈðiw]
[ˈkɔm voz ðiˈɛw]
[ˈkɔm ez ˈðiwen]
|Because of||a causa de||[ə ˈkawzə ðə]||[a ˈkawza ðe]|
|I do not understand (it)||no ho entenc||[ˈno w ənˈteŋ]||[ˈno w anˈteŋk]|
|I agree||estic d’acord||[əsˈtiɡ dəˈkɔrt]||[esˈtiɡ daˈkɔɾt]|
|Bless you! (after sneezing)||Jesús!, salut!, Déu t'ajut!||[ʒəˈzus]
|Where are the toilets?||on és el bany?, on és el lavabo?, on és el servei / servici?||[ˈon ˈez əɫ ˈβaɲ]
[ˈon ˈez əɫ ɫəˈβaβu]
[ˈon ˈez əɫ sərˈβɛj]
|[ˈon ˈez eɫ ˈβaɲ]
[ˈon ˈez eɫ laˈvaβo]
[ˈon ˈez eɫ seɾˈvisi]
|Do you speak Catalan/Valencian?||que parles català / valencià? (inf. with tu)
que parla català / valencià? (frm. with vostè / vosté)
que parleu català / valencià? (inf. with vosaltres)
que parlen català / valencià? (frm. with vostès / vostés)
|[kə ˈparɫəs kətəˈɫa]
[kə ˈparɫə kətəˈɫa]
[kə pərˈɫɛw kətəˈɫa]
[kə ˈparɫəŋ kətəˈɫa]
|[ke ˈpaɾlez valensiˈa]
[ke ˈpaɾla valensiˈa]
[ke paɾˈlɛw valensiˈa]
[ke ˈpaɾlem valensiˈa]
|I do not speak Catalan/Valencian||no parlo català / no parle valencià||[ˈno ˈparɫu kətəˈɫa]||[ˈno ˈpaɾle valensiˈa]|
|Yes, I speak Catalan/Valencian||sí, parlo català||[ˈsi ˈparɫu kətəˈɫa]||[ˈsi ˈpaɾle valensiˈa]|
|How are you (doing)?||com va (això)?, com anem?, com estàs (inf.) / està (frm.)?, què hi ha?||[ˈkɔm ˈba (əˈʃɔ)]
|[ˈkɔm ˈva (ajˈʃɔ)]
|I am fine, thanks||(molt) bé, gràcies||[ˈmoɫ ˈbe ˈɡɾasiəs]||[ˈmoɫd ˈbe ˈɡɾasies]|
|Catalan language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
About the Catalan language
Bilingual and multilingual dictionaries
Automated translation systems
Catalan-language online encyclopedia