» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - Cayuga_language

definition of Wikipedia

   Advertizing ▼

Wikipedia

Cayuga language

                   
Cayuga
Gayogo̱hó:nǫ’
Spoken natively in Canada
Region Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation
Native speakers 100–200  (date missing)
Language family
Iroquoian
  • Northern
    • Lake Iroquoian
      • Five Nations
        • Seneca–Cayuga
          • Cayuga
Language codes
ISO 639-3 cay

Cayuga (In Cayuga Gayogo̱hó:nǫ’) is a Northern Iroquoian language of the Iroquois Proper (also known as "Five Nations Iroquois") subfamily, and is spoken on Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation, Ontario, by around 100 Cayuga people.

Contents

  Dialects

There were at one time two distinct dialects of Cayuga. One is still spoken in Ontario, the other, called "Seneca-Cayuga," was spoken in Oklahoma until the 1980s.

  Phonology

  Modern dialects

There are two varieties of Cayuga. The Lower Cayuga dialect is spoken by those of the Lower End of the Six Nations and the Upper Cayuga are from the Upper End. The main difference between the two is that the Lower Cayuga use the sound [gj] and the Upper use the sound [dj]. [1] Also, pronunciation differs between individual speakers of Cayuga and their preferences.

  Vowels

There are 5 oral vowels in Cayuga, as well as four long vowels, [i:], [a:], [o:], and [e:]. [2] Cayuga also has 3 nasalized vowels, [ẽ], [õ], and [ã]. [3] Both [u] and [ã] are rare sounds in Cayuga. Sometimes, the sounds [u] and [o] are used interchangeably according on each individual speaker's preference. After long [e:] and [o:], an [n] sound can be heard, especially when before [t], [d], [k], [g], [ts], and [j]. [4]


Vowels can be devoiced allophonically, indicated in the orthography used at Six Nations by underlining them.

Front Back
Oral Long Nasal Oral Long Nasal
High /i/ /i:/ /u/
Mid /e/ /e:/ /ẽ/ /ẽ:/ /o/ /o:/ /õ/ /õ:/
Low /a/ /a:/ /ã/

[5]

  Long vowels

Length is important because it alone can distinguish two completely different meanings from one another. For example:
[haʔseʔ] you are going
[haʔse:] you went [6]

  Devoiced vowels

Following are some words that demonstrate what some vowels sound like when they occur before [h]. [ehaʔ], [ẽhaʔ], [ohaʔ], and [õha], [e] and [ẽ] sound like a whispered [j], and [o] and [õ] sound like a whispered [w]. Furthermore, the [ã] in [ẽhãʔ] and [õhã] is nasalized because of [ẽ] and [õ]. The consonant before the nasalized vowel becomes voiceless.[7] Also, odd-numbered vowels followed by [h] are devoiced, while even-numbered vowels followed by [h] are not. [8]

  Consonants

The first sound in each pair is voiceless.

Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Labiovelar Glottal
Plosive t d k g ʔ
Affricate ts ʤ
Fricative s ʃ h
Nasal n
Approximant ɹ j w

[9]


Allophonic variations that occur in Cayuga:
[d] becomes devoiced [t] before devoiced consonants. The sound [d] does not exist word-finally. [10]
[g] becomes devoiced [k] before devoiced consonants.
[s] becomes [ʃ] before [j] or [ɹ].

[ʤ] becomes [dz] and [ds] before [a] and [o], respectively. Speakers may use [dz] and [ds] interchangeably according to the speaker’s preference.

[w] can be voiceless (sounds like [h] followed by [w]).
[j] can also be voiceless (sounds like [h] followed by [j])

[h]: “A vowel devoices if the vowel and a following [h] are in an odd-numbered syllable.” [11] For example:
the [õ] in [ ehyádõhkwaʔ] [12]

The vowel is voiced when it and a following [h] are in an even-numbered syllable and in “absolute word-initial position or in word-final position, or preceded by another [h].” [13] For example:
[shehó:wih] 'tell her'
[ehyá:dõh] 'she writes' [14]

  Accent

Most words have accented vowels, resulting in a higher pitch. [15] Where the stress is placed is dependent on the “position of the word in the phrase.” [16] The default location for stress for nouns is on final vowel. “In words that are at the end of a phrase, accent falls on the 2nd last vowel, the 3rd last vowel, or occasionally, on the 4th vowel from the end of the word.” [17] For example:

[negitsõˊ: aga:tõˊ:deʔ] ‘I just heard it’ [18]

These sounds are long, especially in an even-numbered position. When nouns and verbs are not at the end of a phrase, accent is placed on the final vowel. [19] For example:

[aga:tõ:déʔ tsõ: teʔ ni:ʔ dedé:gẽ:ʔ] ‘I heard it, I didn’t see it’ [20]

  Morphosyntax

Cayuga is a polysynthetic language. As with other Iroquoian languages, the verbal template contains an optional prepronominal prefix, a pronominal prefix (indicating agreement), an optional incorporated noun, a verbal root, and an aspectual suffix. The nominal template consists of an agreement prefix (usually neuter for non-possessed nouns), the nominal root, and a suffix.

  Notes

  1. ^ Froman, Frances, Alfred Keye, Lottie Keye and Carrie Dyck. English-Cayuga/Cayuga-English Dictionary. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002, p. xii
  2. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxii
  3. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxi
  4. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxi
  5. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxx-xxxii
  6. ^ Froman, 2002, p.xxxii
  7. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxii
  8. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxi
  9. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxvi-xxxviii
  10. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxvi
  11. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxvi
  12. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxvi
  13. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxvi
  14. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxvi
  15. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxii
  16. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxii
  17. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxii
  18. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxiii
  19. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxii
  20. ^ Froman, 2002, p. xxxiii

  References

  • Froman, Frances, Alfred Keye, Lottie Keye and Carrie Dyck. English-Cayuga/Cayuga-English Dictionary. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002.
  • Mithun, Marianne (1999). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29875-X. 
  • Rijkhoff, Jan (2002). The Noun Phrase. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-823782-0. 

  Further reading

  External links


   
               

 

All translations of Cayuga_language


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

4060 online visitors

computed in 0.047s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼