» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - Child_abuse

child abuse (n.)

1.the physical or emotional or sexual mistreatment of children

Child Abuse (n.)

1.(MeSH)Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Child_abuse

Child Abuse (n.) (MeSH)

Child Neglect  (MeSH)

   Advertizing ▼

analogical dictionary



Wikipedia

Child abuse

                   

Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional mistreatment or neglect of a child or children.[1] In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department for Children And Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child.[2] Child abuse can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect, physical abuse, psychological/emotional abuse, and child sexual abuse.

Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. According to the Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect, child abuse is "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm".[3] A person who feels the need to abuse or neglect a child may be described as a "pedopath".[4]

Contents

  Types

Child abuse can take several forms:[5] The four main types are physical, sexual, psychological, and neglect.[6] A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice], Office on Child Abuse and doctor). There are many effects of child neglect, such as children not being able to interact with other children around them.[7] The continuous refusal of a child's basic needs is considered chronic neglect.[8]

  Physical abuse

Physical abuse involves physical aggression directed at a child by an adult. Most nations with child-abuse laws consider the deliberate infliction of serious injuries, or actions that place the child at obvious risk of serious injury or death, to be illegal. Beyond this, there is considerable variation. The distinction between child discipline and abuse is often poorly defined. Cultural norms about what constitutes abuse vary widely: among professionals as well as the wider public, people do not agree on what behaviors constitute abuse.[9] Some professionals claim that cultural norms that sanction physical punishment are one of the causes of child abuse, and have undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms.[10][11][12]

  Child sexual abuse

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation.[13][14] Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact with a child, physical contact with the child's genitals, viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to produce child pornography.[13][15][16] Selling the sexual services of children may be viewed and treated as child abuse with services offered to the child rather than simple incarceration.[17]

Effects of child sexual abuse include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctor's visits, etc.), self-esteem issues, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, somatic complaints, depression,[18] post-traumatic stress disorder,[19] anxiety,[20] other mental illnesses (including borderline personality disorder[21] and dissociative identity disorder,[21] propensity to re-victimization in adulthood,[22] bulimia nervosa,[23] physical injury to the child, among other problems.[24]

Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children.[25][26][27][28][29] Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, mothers, uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbours; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases.[25] In over one-third of cases, the perpetrator is also a minor.[30]

  Psychological/emotional abuse

Out of all the possible forms of abuse, emotional abuse is the hardest to define. It could include name-calling, ridicule, degradation, destruction of personal belongings, torture or killing of a pet, excessive criticism, inappropriate or excessive demands, withholding communication, and routine labeling or humiliation.[31]

Victims of emotional abuse may react by distancing themselves from the abuser, internalizing the abusive words, or fighting back by insulting the abuser. Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment development, a tendency for victims to blame themselves (self-blame) for the abuse, learned helplessness, and overly passive behavior.[31]

  Prevalence

According to the (American) National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, in 1997 neglect represented 54% of confirmed cases of child abuse, physical abuse 22%, sexual abuse 8%, emotional maltreatment 4%, and other forms of maltreatment 12%.[32]

A UNICEF report on child wellbeing[33] stated that the United States and the United Kingdom ranked lowest among industrial nations with respect to the wellbeing of children. It also found that child neglect and child abuse were far more common in single-parent families than in families where both parents are present.[citation needed]

In the USA, neglect is defined as the failure to meet the basic needs of children including housing, clothing, food and access to medical care. Researchers found over 91,000 cases of neglect in one year (from October 2005 to 30 September 2006) using information from a database of cases verified by protective services agencies.[2]

Neglect could also take the form of financial abuse by not buying the child adequate materials for survival.[34]

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reports that for each year between 2000 and 2005, "female parents acting alone" were most likely to be perpetrators of child abuse.[35]

Race and ethnicity of victims in 2010: 44.8% of all victims were White, 21.9% were African American, and 21.4% were Hispanic.[36]

  Fatalities

A child abuse fatality: when a child’s death is the result of abuse or neglect, or when abuse and/or neglect are contributing factors to a child’s death. In the United States, 1,730 children died in 2008 due to factors related to abuse; this is a rate of 2 per 100,000 U.S. children.[37] Child abuse fatalities are widely recognized as being under-counted; it is estimated that between 60–85% of child fatalities due to maltreatment are not recorded as such on death certificates. Younger children are at a much higher risk for being killed, as are African Americans. Girls and boys, however, are killed at similar rates. Caregivers, and specifically mothers, are more likely to be the perpetrators of a child abuse fatality, than anyone else, including strangers, relatives, and non-relative caregivers[citation needed]. Family situations which place children at risk include moving, unemployment, having non-family members living in the household. A number of policies and programs have been put into place to try to better understand and to prevent child abuse fatalities, including: safe-haven laws, child fatality review teams, training for investigators, shaken baby syndrome prevention programs, and child abuse death laws which mandate harsher sentencing for taking the life of a child.[38][unreliable source?][verification needed]

  Causes

Child abuse is a complex phenomenon with multiple causes.[39] Understanding the causes of abuse is crucial to addressing the problem of child abuse.[40] Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely than others to physically abuse their children.[41] However, it is impossible to know whether marital strife is a cause of child abuse, or if both the marital strife and the abuse are caused by tendencies in the abuser.[41]

Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to be abused or neglected.[42][43] In addition, unintended pregnancies are more likely than intended pregnancies to be associated with abusive relationships,[44] and there is an increased risk of physical violence during pregnancy.[45] They also result in poorer maternal mental health,[45] and lower mother-child relationship quality.[45]

Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse. One U.S. study found that parents with documented substance abuse, most commonly alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, were much more likely to mistreat their children, and were also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments.[46] Another study found that over two thirds of cases of child maltreatment involved parents with substance abuse problems. This study specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse, and between cocaine and sexual abuse.[47]

Unemployment and financial difficulties are associated with increased rates of child abuse.[48] In 2009 CBS News reported that child abuse in the United States had increased during the economic recession. It gave the example of a father who had never been the primary care-taker of the children. Now that the father was in that role, the children began to come in with injuries.[49]

A 1988 study of child murders in the US found that children are 100 times more often killed by a "non-biological parent (e.g. step-parent, co-habitee or boyfriend/girlfriend of a biological parent)" than by a biological parent.[50] An evolutionary psychology explanation for this is that using resources in order to take care of another person's biological child is likely not a good strategy for increasing reproductive success.[50] More generally, stepchildren have a much higher risk of being abused which is sometimes referred to as the Cinderella effect.

  Effects

There are strong associations between exposure to child abuse in all its forms and higher rates of many chronic conditions. The strongest evidence comes from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE's) series of studies which show correlations between exposure to abuse or neglect and higher rates in adulthood of chronic conditions, high-risk health behaviors and shortened lifespan.[51] A recent publication, Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse,[52] makes the case that such exposure represents a serious and costly public-health issue that should be addressed by the healthcare system. Child abuse is a major life stressor that has consequences involving the mental health of an adult but, the majority of studies examining the negative consequences of abuse have been focused on adolescences and young adults.[citation needed] It has been identified that childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for the development of substance-related problems during adolescence and adulthood.[citation needed] The early experiences of child abuse can trigger the development of an internalizing disorder, such as anxiety and depression. For example, adults with a history of some form of child abuse, whether sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect, have more chances of developing depression then an adult who has never been abused.[citation needed] Child abuse can also cause problems with the neurodevelopment of a child.[citation needed] Research[by whom?] shows that abused children often develop deficits with language, deregulation of mood, behaviour and also social/emotional disturbances. These risks are elevated when child abuse is combined with traumatic events and/or fetal alcohol exposure.[citation needed]

  Psychological effects

Children who have a history of neglect or physical abuse are at risk of developing psychiatric problems,[53][54] or a disorganized attachment style.[55][56][57] Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems, including dissociative symptoms,[58] as well as anxiety, depressive, and acting out symptoms.[59][60] A study by Dante Cicchetti found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment.[61][62] When some of these children become parents, especially if they suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociative symptoms, and other sequelae of child abuse, they may encounter difficulty when faced with their infant and young children's needs and normative distress, which may in turn lead to adverse consequences for their child's social-emotional development.[63][64] Despite these potential difficulties, psychosocial intervention can be effective, at least in some cases, in changing the ways maltreated parents think about their young children.[65]

Victims of childhood abuse, it is claimed, also suffer from different types of physical health problems later in life. Some reportedly suffer from some type of chronic head, abdominal, pelvic, or muscular pain with no identifiable reason.[66] Even though the majority of childhood abuse victims know or believe that their abuse is, or can be, the cause of different health problems in their adult life, for the great majority their abuse was not directly associated with those problems, indicating that sufferers were most likely diagnosed with other possible causes for their health problems, instead of their childhood abuse.[66]

The effects of child abuse vary, depending on the type of abuse. A 2006 study[which?] found that childhood emotional and sexual abuse were strongly related to adult depressive symptoms, while exposure to verbal abuse and witnessing of domestic violence had a moderately strong association, and physical abuse a moderate one. For depression, experiencing more than two kinds of abuse exerted synergetically stronger symptoms. Sexual abuse was particularly deleterious in its intrafamilial form, for symptoms of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and limbic irritability.[clarification needed] Childhood verbal abuse had a stronger association with anger-hostility than any other type of abuse studied, and was second only to emotional abuse in its relationship with dissociative symptoms.[citation needed] More generally, in the case of 23 of the 27 illnesses listed in the questionnaire of a French INSEE survey, some statistically significant correlations were found between repeated illness and family traumas encountered by the child before the age of 18 years.[67] According to Georges Menahem, the French sociologist who found out these correlations by studying health inequalities, these relationships show that inequalities in illness and suffering are not only social. Health inequality also has its origins in the family, where it is associated with the degrees of lasting affective problems (lack of affection, parental discord, the prolonged absence of a parent, or a serious illness affecting either the mother or father) that individuals report having experienced in childhood.[citation needed]

  Physical effects

  Rib fractures in an infant secondary to child abuse

Children who are physically abused are likely to receive bone fractures, particularly rib fractures,[68] and may have a higher risk of developing cancer.[69] Children who experience child abuse & neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as juveniles, 28% more likely to be arrested as adults, and 30% more likely to commit violent crime.[70]

The immediate physical effects of abuse or neglect can be relatively minor (bruises or cuts) or severe (broken bones, hemorrhage, or even death). In some cases the physical effects are temporary; however, the pain and suffering they cause a child should not be discounted. Meanwhile, the long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on physical health is just beginning to be explored. The long-term effects can be:

Shaken baby syndrome. Shaking a baby is a common form of child abuse that often results in permanent neurological damage (80% of cases) or death (30% of cases).[71] Damage results from intracranial hypertension (increased pressure in the skull) after bleeding in the brain, damage to the spinal cord and neck, and rib or bone fractures (Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2007).

Impaired brain development. Child abuse and neglect have been shown, in some cases, to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form or grow properly, resulting in impaired development (De Bellis & Thomas, 2003). These alterations in brain maturation have long-term consequences for cognitive, language, and academic abilities (Watts-English, Fortson, Gibler, Hooper, & De Bellis, 2006). NSCAW found more than three-quarters of foster children between 1 and 2 years of age to be at medium to high risk for problems with brain development, as opposed to less than half of children in a control sample (ACF/OPRE, 2004a).

Poor physical health. Several studies have shown a relationship between various forms of household dysfunction (including childhood abuse) and poor health (Flaherty et al., 2006; Felitti, 2002). Adults who experienced abuse or neglect during childhood are more likely to suffer from physical ailments such as allergies, arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, high blood pressure, and ulcers (Springer, Sheridan, Kuo, & Carnes, 2007).[72]

On the other hand, there are some children who are raised in child abuse, but who manage to do unexpectedly well later in life regarding the preconditions. Such children have been termed dandelion children, as inspired from the way that dandelions seem to prosper irrespective of soil, sun, drought, or rain.[73] Such children (or currently grown-ups) are of high interest in finding factors that mitigate the effects of child abuse.

  Prevention

Unintended conception increases the risk of subsequent child abuse, and large family size increases the risk of child neglect.[43] Thus a comprehensive study for the National Academy of Sciences concluded that affordable contraceptive services should form the basis for child abuse prevention.[43][74] "The starting point for effective child abuse programming is pregnancy planning," according to an analysis for US Surgeon General C. Everett Koop.[43][75]

April has been designated Child Abuse Prevention Month in the United States since 1983.[76] U.S. President Barack Obama continued that tradition by declaring April 2009 Child Abuse Prevention Month.[77] One way the Federal government of the United States provides funding for child-abuse prevention is through Community-Based Grants for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CBCAP).[78]

Resources for child-protection services are sometimes limited. According to Hosin (2007), "a considerable number of traumatized abused children do not gain access to protective child-protection strategies."[79] Briere (1992) argues that only when "lower-level violence" of children ceases to be culturally tolerated will there be changes in the victimization and police protection of children.[80]

  Treatment

A number of treatments are available to victims of child abuse.[81] Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, first developed to treat sexually abused children, is now used for victims of any kind of trauma. It targets trauma-related symptoms in children including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), clinical depression and anxiety. It also includes a component for non-offending parents. Several studies have found that sexually abused children undergoing TF-CBT improved more than children undergoing certain other therapies. Data on the effects of TF-CBT for children who experienced only non-sexual abuse was not available as of 2006.[81]

Abuse-focused cognitive behavioral therapy was designed for children who have experienced physical abuse. It targets externalizing behaviors and strengthens prosocial behaviors. Offending parents are included in the treatment, to improve parenting skills/practices. It is supported by one randomized study.[81]

Child-parent psychotherapy was designed to improve the child-parent relationship following the experience of domestic violence. It targets trauma-related symptoms in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, including PTSD, aggression, defiance, and anxiety. It is supported by two studies of one sample.[81]

Other forms of treatment include group therapy, play therapy, and art therapy. Each of these types of treatment can be used to better assist the client, depending on the form of abuse they have experienced. Play therapy and art therapy are ways to get children more comfortable with therapy by working on something that they enjoy (coloring, drawing, painting, etc.). The design of a child's artwork can be a symbolic representation of what they are feeling, relationships with friends or family, and more. Being able to discuss and analyze a child's artwork can allow a professional to get a better insight of the child.[82]

  Ethics

One of the most challenging ethical dilemmas arising from child abuse relates to the parental rights of abusive parents or caretakers with regard to their children, particularly in medical settings.[83] In the United States, the 2008 New Hampshire case of Andrew Bedner drew attention to this legal and moral conundrum. Bedner, accused of severely injuring his infant daughter, sued for the right to determine whether or not she remain on life support; keeping her alive, which would have prevented a murder charge, created a motive for Bedner to act that conflicted with the apparent interests of his child.[83][84][85] Bioethicists Jacob M. Appel and Thaddeus Mason Pope recently argued, in separate articles, that such cases justify the replacement of the accused parent with an alternative decision-maker.[83][86]

Child abuse also poses ethical concerns related to confidentiality, as victims may be physically or psychologically unable to report abuse to authorities. Accordingly, many jurisdictions and professional bodies have made exceptions to standard requirements for confidentiality and legal privileges in instances of child abuse. Medical professionals, including doctors, therapists, and other mental health workers typically owe a duty of confidentiality to their patients and clients, either by law and/or the standards of professional ethics, and cannot disclose personal information without the consent of the individual concerned. This duty conflicts with an ethical obligation to protect children from preventable harm. Accordingly, confidentiality is often waived when these professionals have a good faith suspicion that child abuse or neglect has occurred or is likely to occur and make a report to local child protection authorities. This exception allows professionals to breach confidentiality and make a report even when the child or his/her parent or guardian has specifically instructed to the contrary. Child abuse is also a common exception to Physician–patient privilege: a medical professional may be called upon to testify in court as to otherwise privileged evidence about suspected child abuse despite the wishes of the child and his/her family.[87]

  Organizations

There are organizations at national, state, and county levels in the United States that provide community leadership in preventing child abuse and neglect. The National Alliance of Children's Trust Funds and Prevent Child Abuse America are two national organizations with member organizations at the state level.

Many investigations into child abuse are handled on the local level by Child Advocacy Centers. Started over 25 years ago at what is now known as the National Children's Advocacy Center[88] in Huntsville, Alabama by District Attorney Robert "Bud" Cramer these multi-disciplinary teams have met to coordinate their efforts so that cases of child abuse can be investigated quickly and efficiently, ultimately reducing trauma to the child and garnering better convictions.[89][90] These Child Advocacy Centers (known as CACs) have standards set by the National Children's Alliance.[91]

Other organizations focus on specific prevention strategies. The National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome focuses its efforts on the specific issue of preventing child abuse that is manifested as shaken baby syndrome. Mandated reporter training is a program used to prevent ongoing child abuse.

  See also

  References

  1. ^ "Child abuse – definition of child abuse by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Child+abuse. Retrieved 15 September 2010. 
  2. ^ a b Leeb, R.T.; Paulozzi, L.J.; Melanson, C.; Simon, T.R.; Arias, I. (1 January 2008). "Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Uniform Definitions for Public Health and Recommended Data Elements". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/CMP/CMP-Surveillance.htm. Retrieved 20 October 2008. 
  3. ^ Herrenkohl, R.C. (2005). "The definition of child maltreatment: from case study to construct". Child Abuse and Neglect 29 (5): 413–24. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.04.002. PMID 15970317. 
  4. ^ http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pedopath
  5. ^ "Child Abuse and Neglect: Types, Signs, Symptoms, Help and Prevention". helpguide.org. http://www.helpguide.org/mental/child_abuse_physical_emotional_sexual_neglect.htm. Retrieved 20 October 2008. 
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ Link text, Effects of Child Neglect, Darlene Barriere, 2005–2011
  8. ^ "Chronic Neglect". American Human Association. http://www.americanhumane.org/children/programs/chronic-neglect.html. Retrieved 1 october 2011. 
  9. ^ Noh Anh, Helen (1994). "Cultural Diversity and the Definition of Child Abuse", in Barth, R.P. et al., Child welfare research review, Columbia University Press, 1994, p. 28. ISBN 0231080743
  10. ^ Haeuser, A. A. (1990). "Banning parental use of physical punishment: Success in Sweden". International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect. Hamburg[page needed]. 
  11. ^ Barth, Richard (1994). Child Welfare Research Review, Volume 1. Columbia University Press. pp. 49–50. ISBN 0231080751. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=OzTq7SHLlIMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA28&dq=child+abuse+cultural+norms+movement+change&ots=1R7uyr4BLg&sig=NA_diabapBmL9pT13432noel628#v=onepage&q=movement&f=true. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  12. ^ Durrant, Joan E. (1996). "The Swedish Ban on Corporal Punishment: Its History and Effects". In Detlev Frehsee, Wiebke Horn, and Kai-D. Bussmann. From Family Violence Against Children: A Challenge for Society. New York: Walter de Gruyter & Co.. pp. 19–25. http://books.google.de/books?id=aMebqOjGz28C&lpg=PP1&dq=Family%20Violence%20Against%20Children%3A%20A%20Challenge%20for%20Society&pg=PA19#v=onepage&q=Family%20Violence%20Against%20Children:%20A%20Challenge%20for%20Society&f=false. 
  13. ^ a b "Child Sexual Abuse". Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2 April 2008. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childsexualabuse.html. 
  14. ^ "Guidelines for psychological evaluations in child protection matters. Committee on Professional Practice and Standards, APA Board of Professional Affairs". The American Psychologist 54 (8): 586–93. August 1999. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.8.586. PMID 10453704. "Abuse, sexual (child): generally defined as contacts between a child and an adult or other person significantly older or in a position of power or control over the child, where the child is being used for sexual stimulation of the adult or other person." 
  15. ^ Martin J, Anderson J, Romans S, Mullen P, O'Shea M (1993). "Asking about child sexual abuse: methodological implications of a two stage survey". Child Abuse & Neglect 17 (3): 383–92. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(93)90061-9. PMID 8330225. 
  16. ^ Child sexual abuse definition from the NSPCC
  17. ^ Brown, Patricia Leigh (23 May 2011). "In Oakland, Redefining Sex Trade Workers as Abuse Victims". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/24/us/24oakland.html. Retrieved 24 May 2011. "Once viewed as criminals and dispatched to juvenile centers, where treatment was rare, sexually exploited youths are increasingly seen as victims of child abuse, with a new focus on early intervention and counseling." 
  18. ^ Roosa M.W., Reinholtz C., Angelini P.J. (1999). "The relation of child sexual abuse and depression in young women: comparisons across four ethnic groups". Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 27 (1): 65–76. PMID 10197407. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0902/is_1_27/ai_54422556/print. 
  19. ^ Widom C.S. (1999). "Post-traumatic stress disorder in abused and neglected children grown up". American Journal of Psychiatry 156 (8): 1223–1229. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/156/8/1223. 
  20. ^ Levitan, R. D., N. A. Rector, Sheldon, T., & Goering, P. (2003). "Childhood adversities associated with major depression and/or anxiety disorders in a community sample of Ontario: Issues of co-morbidity and specificity," Depression & Anxiety; 17, 34–42.
  21. ^ a b Journals.lww.com
  22. ^ Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Long, Patricia J. (2000). "Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse, Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological Maltreatment". Journal of Interpersonal Violence 15 (5): 489–502. doi:10.1177/088626000015005003. http://jiv.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/15/5/489. 
  23. ^ Jpedhc.org
  24. ^ Dinwiddie S, Heath AC, Dunne MP, Bucholz KK, Madden PA, Slutske WS, Bierut LJ, Statham DB et al. (2000). "Early sexual abuse and lifetime psychopathology: a co-twin-control study". Psychological Medicine 30 (1): 41–52. doi:10.1017/S0033291799001373. PMID 10722174. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=26191. 
  25. ^ a b Whealin, Julia (22 May 2007). "Child Sexual Abuse". National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, US Department of Veterans Affairs. http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/child-sexual-abuse.asp. 
  26. ^ Finkelhor, D. (1994). "Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse". The Future of Children (Princeton University) 4 (2): 31–53. doi:10.2307/1602522. JSTOR 1602522. PMID 7804768. http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/VS75.pdf. 
  27. ^ Crimes against Children Research Center
  28. ^ Family Research Laboratory
  29. ^ Gorey, K.M.; Leslie, D.R. (April 1997). "The prevalence of child sexual abuse: integrative review adjustment for potential response and measurement biases". Child Abuse & Neglect 21 (4): 391–8. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(96)00180-9. PMID 9134267. 
  30. ^ Finkelhor, David; Richard Ormrod, and Mark Chaffin (2009). "Juveniles Who Commit Sex Offenses Against Minors". Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Office of Justice Programs, Department of Justice. http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/227763.pdf. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  31. ^ a b "Child Abuse". The National Center for Victims of Crime. http://ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentAction=ViewProperties&DocumentID=32313&UrlToReturn=http%3a%2f%2fncvc.org%2fncvc%2fmain.aspx%3fdbName%3dAdvancedSearch&gclid=CJ_1q6m2oZ4CFcx25QodNG2_ow. 
  32. ^ "Child Abuse and Neglect Statistics". National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse. 1998. Archived from the original on 15 May 1998. http://web.archive.org/web/19980515052303/http://childabuse.org/facts97.html. 
  33. ^ Child Poverty in Respective: An Overview of Child Wellbeing in Rich Countries. UNICEF: Innocenti Research Center, Report Card 7.
  34. ^ "Sometimes They Can't Afford to Leave their Abusers", Santa Ynez Valley Journal, California, ‎22 October 2009‎.
  35. ^ Stats for 2000; Stats for 2001; Stats for 2002; Stats for 2003; Stats for 2004; Stats for 2005.
  36. ^ Child Maltreatment 2010, US Department of Health and Human Services, p. 24.
  37. ^ Child Maltreatment 2008, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, p. 55.
  38. ^ For a review of this literature, see, Douglas, E.M., 2005, Child maltreatment fatalities: What do we know, what have we learned, and where do we go from here?,pp 4.1–4.18, in Child Victimization, edited by K. Kendall-Tackett & S. Giacomoni, published by Civic Research Institute, Kingston, N.J.
  39. ^ Fontana, V.J. (October 1984). "The maltreatment syndrome of children". Pediatric Annals 13 (10): 736–44. PMID 6504584. 
  40. ^ Finkelman, Byrgen (1995). "Introduction". Child abuse: a multidisciplinary survey. New York: Garland. p. xvii. ISBN 0-8153-1813-8. 
  41. ^ a b Ross, S. (1996). "Risk of physical abuse to children of spouse abusing parents". Child Abuse & Neglect 20 (7): 589. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(96)00046-4. 
  42. ^ Lesa Bethea (1999). "Primary Prevention of Child Abuse". American Family Physician. http://www.aafp.org/afp/990315ap/1577.html. 
  43. ^ a b c d Eisenberg, Leon; Brown, Sarah Hart (1995). The best intentions: unintended pregnancy and the well-being of children and families. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN 0-309-05230-0. 
  44. ^ J.E. Hathaway, L.A. Mucci and J.G. Silverman et al., Health status and health care use of Massachusetts women reporting partner abuse, Am J Prev Med 19 (2000), pp. 302–307.
  45. ^ a b c "Family Planning – Healthy People 2020". http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=13. Retrieved 18 August 2011. "Which cites:
  46. ^ Murphy JM, Jellinek M, Quinn D, Smith G, Poitrast FG, Goshko M (1991). "Substance abuse and serious child mistreatment: prevalence, risk, and outcome in a court sample". Child Abuse & Neglect 15 (3): 197–211. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(91)90065-L. PMID 2043972. 
  47. ^ Famularo R, Kinscherff R, Fenton T (1992). "Parental substance abuse and the nature of child maltreatment". Child Abuse & Neglect 16 (4): 475–83. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(92)90064-X. PMID 1393711. 
  48. ^ Child Abuse. Florida Performs. http://www.floridaperforms.com/Indicators.aspx?si=SI_007 
  49. ^ Hughes, Sandra (20 May 2009). "Child Abuse Spikes During Recession", CBS News.
  50. ^ a b Roach, J. (2011). "Evolution and the Prevention of Violent Crime". Psychology 02 (4): 393. doi:10.4236/psych.2011.24062.  edit
  51. ^ Middlebrooks, J.S.; Audage, A.C. (2008). The Effects of Childhood Stress on Health Across the Lifespan. Centers for Disease Control. 
  52. ^ Dolezal, T.; McCollum, D.; Callahan, M. (2009). Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse. Academy on Violence and Abuse. 
  53. ^ Gauthier L, Stollak G, Messé L, Aronoff J (July 1996). "Recall of childhood neglect and physical abuse as differential predictors of current psychological functioning". Child Abuse & Neglect 20 (7): 549–59. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(96)00043-9. PMID 8832112. 
  54. ^ Malinosky-Rummell R, Hansen DJ (July 1993). "Long-term consequences of childhood physical abuse". Psychological Bulletin 114 (1): 68–79. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.114.1.68. PMID 8346329. 
  55. ^ Lyons-Ruth, K.; Jacobvitz, D. (1999). "Attachment disorganization: unresolved loss, relational violence and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies". In Cassidy, J.; Shaver, P.. Handbook of Attachment. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 520–554. 
  56. ^ Solomon, J.; George, C., ed. (1999). Attachment Disorganization. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-480-4. [page needed]
  57. ^ Main, M.; Hesse, E. (1990). "Parents' Unresolved Traumatic Experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status". In Greenberg, M.T.; Ciccehetti, D; Cummings, E.M.. Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research, and Intervention. University of Chicago Press. pp. 161–184. 
  58. ^ Carlson, E.A. (August 1998). "A prospective longitudinal study of attachment disorganization/disorientation". Child Development 69 (4): 1107–28. PMID 9768489. 
  59. ^ Lyons-Ruth, K. (February 1996). "Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: the role of disorganized early attachment patterns". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64 (1): 64–73. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.64.1.64. PMID 8907085. 
  60. ^ Lyons-Ruth K, Alpern L, Repacholi B (April 1993). "Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom". Child Development (Blackwell Publishing) 64 (2): 572–85. doi:10.2307/1131270. JSTOR 1131270. PMID 8477635. 
  61. ^ Carlson, V. et al. (1995). "Finding order in disorganization: Lessons from research on maltreated infants' attachments to their caregivers". In Cicchetti, D.; Carlson, V.. Child Maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect. Cambridge University Press. pp. 135–157. 
  62. ^ Cicchetti, D. et al. (1990). "An organizational perspective on attachment beyond infancy". In Greenberg, M.; Cicchetti, D; MCummings, M.. Attachment in the Preschool Years. University of Chicago Press. pp. 3–50. ISBN 0-226-30629-1. 
  63. ^ >Schechter DS, Coates, SW, Kaminer T, Coots T, Zeanah CH, Davies M, Schonfield IS, Marshall RD, Liebowitz MR, Trabka KA, McCaw J, Myers MM (2008). "Distorted maternal mental representations and atypical behavior in a clinical sample of violence-exposed mothers and their toddlers". Journal of Trauma and Dissociation 9 (2): 123–149. doi:10.1080/15299730802045666. PMC 2577290. PMID 18985165. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2577290. 
  64. ^ Schechter DS, Zygmunt A, Coates SW, Davies M, Trabka KA, McCaw J, Kolodji A., Robinson JL (2007). "Caregiver traumatization adversely impacts young children's mental representations of self and others". Attachment & Human Development 9 (3): 187–205. doi:10.1080/14616730701453762. PMC 2078523. PMID 18007959. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2078523. 
  65. ^ Schechter DS, Myers MM, Brunelli SA, Coates SW, Zeanah CH, Davies M, Grienenberger JF, Marshall RD, McCaw JE, Trabka KA, Liebowitz MR (2006). "Traumatized mothers can change their minds about their toddlers: Understanding how a novel use of video feedback supports positive change of maternal attributions". Infant Mental Health Journal 27 (5): 429–448. doi:10.1002/imhj.20101. PMC 2078524. PMID 18007960. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2078524. 
  66. ^ a b Takele Hamnasu, MBA. Impact of Childhood Abuse on Adult Health. Amberton University.[page needed]
  67. ^ "Study of Living Conditions 1986–1987" INSEE survey with a sample of 13–154 individuals, cf. Menahem G., "Problèmes de l'enfance, statut social et santé des adultes", IRDES, biblio No 1010, pp. 59–63, Paris.
  68. ^ Kemp AM, Dunstan F, Harrison S, et al. (2008). "Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review". BMJ 337 (oct02 1): a1518. doi:10.1136/bmj.a1518. PMC 2563260. PMID 18832412. http://bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18832412. 
  69. ^ Fuller-Thomson E, Brennenstuhl S (July 2009). "Making a link between childhood physical abuse and cancer: results from a regional representative survey". Cancer 115 (14): 3341–50. doi:10.1002/cncr.24372. PMID 19472404. 
  70. ^ Child Abuse Statistics
  71. ^ Morad Y, Wygnansky-Jaffe T, Levin AV (2010) Retinal haemorrhage in abusive head trauma. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 38:514–520.
  72. ^ Factsheet
  73. ^ Ellis, Bruce J.; Boyce, W. Thomas (2008). "Biological Sensitivity to Context". Current Directions in Psychological Science 17 (3): 183–187. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00571.x.  edit
  74. ^ Baumrind (1993). Optimal Caregiving and Child Abuse: Continuities and Discontinuities. National Academy of Sciences Study Panel on Child Abuse and Neglect. (Report). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 
  75. ^ Cron T (1986). "The Surgeon General's Workshop on Violence and Public Health: Review of the recommendations.". Public Health Rep. 101: 8-14. 
  76. ^ Child Welfare Information Gateway, History of National Child Abuse Prevention Month. 3 April 2009.
  77. ^ Presidential Proclamation Marking National Child Abuse Prevention Month. The White House – Press Room, 1 April 2009.
  78. ^ U.S. Administration for Children and Families. Department of Health and Human Services. Children's Bureau.
  79. ^ Hosin, A.A., ed. (2007). Responses to traumatized children. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 211. ISBN 1-4039-9680-6. 
  80. ^ Briere, John (1992). Child abuse trauma. Sage. p. 7. ISBN 0-8039-3713-X. 
  81. ^ a b c d Cohen, J.A.; Mannarino, A.P.; Murray, L.K.; Igelman, R. (2006). "Psychosocial Interventions for Maltreated and Violence-Exposed Children". Journal of Social Issues 62 (4): 737–766. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00485.x. 
  82. ^ Schechter DS, Zygmunt A, Trabka KA, Davies M, Colon E, Kolodji A, McCaw J (2007). "Child mental representations of attachment when mothers are traumatized: The relationship of family-drawings to story-stem completion". Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology 3: 119–141. PMC 2268110. PMID 18347736. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2268110. 
  83. ^ a b c Appel, J.M. (October 2009). "Mixed motives, mixed outcomes when accused parents won't agree to withdraw care". Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (10): 635–7. doi:10.1136/jme.2009.030510. PMID 19793945. 
  84. ^ "Springfield man denies charges in infant assault", Rutland Herald, New Hampshire, 5 August 2008.
  85. ^ "Springfield Father Charged with Baby's Murder", WCAX.com, Vermont, 21 January 2009.
  86. ^ "Withdrawal Okay When Surrogate's Refusal to Consent Based on Wrong Reasons", Medical Futility (blog).
  87. ^ National Center for Youth Law. "Minor Consent, Confidentiality, and Child Abuse Reporting". http://www.youthlaw.org/publications/minor_consent/. Retrieved 29 December 2010. 
  88. ^ Nationalcac.org
  89. ^ Nationalcac.org
  90. ^ Nationalcac.org
  91. ^ Nationalchildrensalliance.org

  Further reading

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of Child_abuse


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

4173 online visitors

computed in 0.281s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼

6 CT. COLON CANCER AWARENESS/CHILD ABUSE PREVENTION 'RUBBER' BRACELETS (8.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Blue Awareness Ribbon Butterfly Hat Stone Baseball Cap Colon Cancer Child Abuse (16.97 USD)

Commercial use of this term

CHILD ABUSE PREVENTION HANDBOOK...An Intervention Guide CRIME & VIOLENCE PREVENT (4.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Blue Awareness Ribbon Butterfly Black Baseball Cap Colon Cancer Child Abuse New (17.97 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect (8th Edition), Crosson-Tower, Cynthia, Acc (14.98 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Blue Awareness Ribbon Butterfly Hat White Baseball Cap Colon Cancer Child Abuse (16.97 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Blue Awareness Ribbon Butterfly Hat Navy Baseball Cap Colon Cancer Child Abuse (16.97 USD)

Commercial use of this term

5 - COLON CANCER AWARENESS/CHILD ABUSE PREVENTION BLUE LEATHER CHARM BRACELETS (10.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Wounded Children, Healing Homes : How Traumatized Children Impact Adoptive... (13.39 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Wounded Innocents : The Real Victims of the War Against Child Abuse by... (12.95 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Wounded Boys Heroic Men: A Man's Guide to Recovering from Child Abuse, Sonkin, D (10.2 USD)

Commercial use of this term

SICKENED Julie Gregory MUNCHAUSEN BY PROCY CHILD ABUSE MEMOIR book ~ mpb (8.0 AUD)

Commercial use of this term

MR PARACORD MULTI COLOR 2 550 PARACORD PARACHUTE CORD TYPE III SPEC 7 STRAND (5.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Child Abuse and Culture : Working with Diverse Families by Lisa Aronson... (24.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Child Abuse in the Classroom (8.03 USD)

Commercial use of this term