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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
|Number of teams||16|
|Levels on pyramid||1|
|Relegation to||China League One|
|Domestic cup(s)||Chinese FA Cup|
|International cup(s)||AFC Champions League
|Current champions||Guangzhou Evergrande
(2011, 1st title)
|Most championships||Shandong Luneng
|2012 Chinese Super League|
The Chinese Football Association Super League (Chinese: 中国足球协会超级联赛; pinyin: Zhōngguó Zúqiú Xiéhuì Chāojí Liánsài), commonly known as Chinese Super League (中超联赛) or CSL, currently known as the Wanda Plaza Chinese Football Association Super League for sponsorship reasons, is the highest tier of professional association football in China, operating under the auspices of the Chinese Football Association (CFA).
The Super League was created by the rebranding of the former top division Chinese Football Association Jia-A League in 2004. (See Chinese Jia-A League, not to be confused with Chinese Football Association Jia League, which is the current second tier league.)
Originally contested by 12 teams in the inaugural year, the league has been expanding. There are 16 teams in the current season. The title has been won by six teams: Shenzhen Jianlibao, Dalian Shide, Shandong Luneng, Changchun Yatai, Beijing Guoan,and Guangzhou Evergrande. The current Super League champions are Guangzhou Evergrande.
Unlike in many top European leagues, the CSL starts in February or March and ends in November or December. In each season, each club plays each of the other clubs twice, once at home and another away. The current system, with 16 clubs in the Super League, so the teams played 30 games each for a total of 240 games in the season.
The two lowest placed teams by the end of the season are relegated to the China League One and the top two teams from the League One are promoted, taking their places.
The top three of the league, as well as the winner of the Chinese FA Cup, qualify for the AFC Champions League of the next year. If the FA Cup finalists finish the league 3rd or higher, 4th place in the league will take the Champions League spot.
The first title sponsor of the league was Siemens. Following a controversial first season, Siemens did not renew its multi-million dollar sponsorship of the league. The start of the second season in 2005 had to be delayed a month in order to find new sponsors. When no title sponsor was found the League was simply called the Chinese Football Association Super League.
|Season||Squad||Play in match||Note|
|2001–2003||4||3||From 2001 season, foreign goalkeepers were restricted in play the match.|
|2004–2006||3||2||From 2006 season, Hong Kong players were not considers as foreigners.|
|2009–||4+1||3+1||'+1' is Asian quota.
Hong Kong players were considered foreigners at the
beginning of 2009 but the league hold back the change in summer transfer.
From 2010 season, players from Hong Kong Macau and Taiwan were not considers as
foreigners in CSL matches, but will be regarded as foreigners in AFC competitions
Professional footballers in China receive relatively high salaries both when compared to other Chinese sports leagues and football leagues in other countries. As a result, numerous players from Serbia, Brazil, Honduras, and other Latin American regions make up the foreign players in the Chinese league. The league has rules, however, restricting the number of foreign players strictly to five per team, including a slot for a player from AFC countries. A team could use a maximum of four foreign players on the field each game. This is to promote native player improvement and to conform to rules regarding international club competitions in the AFC.
The first Level of Chinese football league, the Chinese National Football Jia A League, realised professionalism by year 1994, it was the first ever professional football league in China.
On October 29, 2000, Yan Shiduo, Vice-president of the Chinese Football Association plotted out the idea for setting up a new Professional League Syatem, in 2002 the CFA made a decision to establish the China Super League in 2004.
Compared to Jia A, the CSL is a lot more demanding on teams. The CFA and CSL committee has imposed a range of minimum criteria to ensure professional management and administration, financial probity and a progressive youth development programme at every club. besides the regular professional league, CSL also has reserve league, U-19 League, U-17 League and U-15 League, also some cups for the young boys.
the second division, Jia B, with the new name China League, also re-established under a new system.
The CSL and China League's goals are to promote high quality and high level competition; introduce advanced managerial concepts to the market; enforce the delivery of minimum standards of professionalism; encourage the influx of more higher quality foreign coaches and players; and gradually establish the European system for player registrations and transfers.
The first CSL season was kicked off by 2004, with 12 teams in the league. The inaugural season was plagued with grave controversy. But the new league style faces series of big problems in early seasons, which may see as the continue of the Chaos of Jia-A, after 1998 scandals like Match-Fixing, Gambling & black whistle started to reveal. followed by a series of scandal both on and off the fields. The chaotic scene caused a loss of interest in the domestic game, lead to low attendance in earlier season and great financial losses.
The original plan was to have one relegation and two promotions for the 2004 season and 2005 season, thus increasing the number of teams in 2006 to 14. But the FA's decisions caused the relegations to be cancelled for these 2 years.
For the 2005 season, the league expanded to 14 teams after Wuhan Huanghelou and Zhuhai Zhongbang won promotion from the Jia League. The Zhuhai team, formerly Zhuhai Anping, had been bought by the Shanghai Zhongbang real estate company and relocated to Shanghai for the 2005 season, and subsequently renamed to Shanghai Zobon.
In 2006, the league was planned to expand to 16 teams with the newly promoted Xiamen Lanshi and Changchun Yatai, however, Sichuan Guancheng withdrew before the start of the season, leaving only 15 teams when the season started on March 11. Shanghai Liancheng Zobon after another change of ownership was renamed Shanghai United.
In 2007, the league was planned to be expanded to 16 teams as well but once again, it found itself 1 team short. Shanghai United F.C.'s owner, Zhu Jun bought a major share from local rival Shanghai Shenhua and merged the 2 teams. As a result, Shanghai Shenhua retained its name as it already had a strong fanbase in the city, while Shanghai United F.C. was pulled out from the league.
In season 2008, the league starts with 16 clubs participating for the first time, however with Wuhan protested aganist the penalties decision made by CFA after a match against Beijing Guo'an, and announced its withdrawal from the league immediately, the league finished with 15 clubs by the end of the season.
Since 2009 the league runs with stable 16 clubs participating in each year, with two relegated to C-League 1 and two promoted from C-League division 1 each season.
The CSL was beset by scandal is 2010, with the scandal going right to the top of the CFA. The Chinese government has launched a resolute nationwide action against soccer gambling, match-fixing and corruption, in which former CFA vice presidents Xie Yalong, Nan Yong and Yang Yimin were arrested.
During 2011, the anti-corruption movement had visibly improved the image and environment of the CSL with increases to attendance during the 2011 season, reflecting positive growth for the league. Attendance levels slowly climbed back to former heights as clubs such as Guangzhou Evergrande began investing heavily in foreign stars. Perhaps its most noticeable signing was Fluminense star player Darío Conca.
Towards the end of the 2011 year, further high profile signings emerged. Chelsea F.C. player Nicolas Anelka, the CSL's most prolific signing yet, agreed to join Shanghai Shenhua, former Fulham F.C. coach Jean Tigana entered as Shanghai's new coach for the 2012 season and former Japanese National Team coach Takeshi Okada took up reigns as the new coach of Hangzhou Greentown.
|Club||Chinese name||Home stadium||Capacity||Seasons in CSL||Best finish||Worst finish||Spell in level 1||Top Division Titles (Overall)||Top Division Titles (Professional)||Last Title|
|Beijing Guoan||北京国安||Workers Stadium||66,161||2004 to 2012||1st, 2009||7th, 2004||from 1991||8||1||2009|
|Changchun Yatai||长春亚泰||Development Area Stadium||25,000||2006 to 2012||1st, 2007||9th, 2010||from 2006||1||1||2007|
|Dalian Aerbin||大连阿尔滨||Jinzhou Stadium||30,775||2012||－||－||from 2012||0||0||－|
|Dalian Shide||大连实德||Jinzhou Stadium||30,775||2004 to 2012||1st, 2005||14th, 2008||from 1990||8||8||2005|
|Guangzhou Evergrande||广州恒大||Tianhe Stadium||60,151||2008 to 2009, 2011 to 2012||1st, 2011||9th, 2009||from 2011||1||1||2011|
|Guangzhou R&F F.C.||广州富力||Yuexiushan Stadium||30,000||2004 to 2010，2012||8th, 2004||16th, 2010||from 2012||0||0||－|
|Guizhou Renhe||贵州人和||Guiyang Olympic Sports Center||51,636||2004 to 2012||3rd, 2004||13th, 2007||from 2002||0||0||－|
|Hangzhou Greentown||杭州绿城||Yellow Dragon Sports Center||52,672||2007 to 2012||4th, 2010||15th, 2009||from 2007||0||0||－|
|Henan Construction||河南建业||Hanghai Stadium||29,860||2007 to 2012||3rd, 2009||13th, 2011||from 2007||0||0||－|
|Jiangsu Sainty||江苏舜天||Nanjing Olympic Sports Center||61,443||2009 to 2012||4th, 2011||11th, 2010||from 2009||0||0||－|
|Liaoning Whowin||辽宁宏运||Tiexi New District Sports Center||30,000||2004 to 2008, 2010 to 2012||3rd, 2011||15th, 2008||from 2010||8||0||1993|
|Qingdao Jonoon||青岛中能||Qingdao Tiantai Stadium||20,525||2004 to 2012||6th, 2011||14th, 2006, 2010||from 1997||0||0||－|
|Shandong Luneng||山东鲁能||Shandong Provincial Stadium||43,700||2004 to 2012||1st, 2006, 2008, 2010||4th, 2009||from 1994||4||4||2010|
|Shanghai Shenhua||上海申花||Hongkou Football Stadium||33,060||2004 to 2012||2nd, 2005, 2006, 2008||11th, 2011||from 1982||4||2||2003|
|Shanghai Shenxin||上海申鑫||Jinshan Football Stadium||30,000||2010 to 2012||13th, 2010||14th, 2011||from 2010||0||0||－|
|Tianjin Teda||天津泰达||TEDA Football Stadium||37,450||2004 to 2012||2nd, 2010||10th, 2011||from 1999||2||0||1980|
|2004||Shenzhen Jianlibao||Shandong Luneng||Inter Shanghai|
|2005||Dalian Shide||Shanghai Shenhua||Shandong Luneng|
|2006||Shandong Luneng||Shanghai Shenhua||Beijing Guoan|
|2007||Changchun Yatai||Beijing Guoan||Shandong Luneng|
|2008||Shandong Luneng||Shanghai Shenhua||Beijing Guoan|
|2009||Beijing Guoan||Changchun Yatai||Henan Construction|
|2010||Shandong Luneng||Tianjin Teda||Shanghai Shenhua|
|2011||Guangzhou Evergrande||Beijing Guoan||Liaoning Whowin|
Average crowds for the regular season are listed below. The table only listed with the season in top division, Clubs are listed with their current name.
|Shandong Luneng Taishan||23,636||26,000||30,679||22,607||26,501||17,015||15,901||12,112|
The Official CSL Annual Awards given to players, managers and refrees based on their performance during the season. It now includes:
Mr. Football League Golden Ball awards, also called MVP awards or Mr.China Football awards by some media
Top Scorer Golden Boot awards
Top Scorer for domestic players awards
Refree of the year Golden Whistle awards
Manager of the year awards
Youth player of the year awards
Most Valuable players of the league awards; named Mr. Football League Golden Ball awards
|2004||Zhao Junzhe||Liaoning Zhongyu||China|
|2005||Branko Jelic||Beijing Guoan||Serbia|
|2006||Zheng Zhi||Shandong Luneng||China|
|2007||Du Zhenyu||Changchun Yatai||China|
|2008||Emil Martínez||Shanghai Shenhua||Honduras|
|2009||Samuel Caballero||Changchun Yatai||Honduras|
|2010||Duvier Riascos||Shanghai Shenhua||Colombia|
Top Scorer of the League, traditional awarded "Golden Boots Award"
|2004||Kwame Ayew||Inter Shanghai||17|
|2005||Branko Jelić||Beijing Guoan||21|
|2006||Li Jinyu||Shandong Luneng||26|
|2007||Li Jinyu||Shandong Luneng||15|
|2008||Éber Luís||Tianjin Teda||14|
|2009|| Hernán Barcos
|Shenzhen Asia Travel
|2010||Duvier Riascos||Shanghai Shenhua||20|
Awarded top Chinese players who scored most goals in the League, awarded since 2011
|2011||Yu Hanchao||Liaoning Whowin||12|
The award does not necessarily goes to the manager of the champions.
|2004||Zhu Guanghu||Shenzhen Jianlibao||Chinese Super League Champions||China|
|2005||Vladimir Petrovic Pizon||Dalian Shide||Chinese Super League Champions; Chinese FA Cup Winners||Serbia|
|2006||Ljubisa Tumbakovic||Shandong Luneng||Chinese Super League Champions; Chinese FA Cup Winners||Serbia|
|2007||Gao Hongbo||Changchun Yatai||Chinese Super League Champions||China|
|2008||Ljubisa Tumbakovic||Shandong Luneng||Chinese Super League Champions||Serbia|
|2009||Tang Yaodong||Henan Jianye||Chinese Super League 3rd place||China|
|2010||Branko Ivankovic||Shandong Luneng||Chinese Super League Champions||Croatia|
|2011||Ma Lin||Liaoning Whowin||Chinese Super League 3rd place||China|
|2004||Chen Tao||Shenyang Ginde||China|
|2005||Hao Junmin||Tianjin Teda||China|
|2006||Wang Dalei||Shanghai Liancheng||China|
|2007||Hao Junmin||Tianjin Teda||China|
|2008||Huang Bowen||Beijing Guoan||China|
|2009||Deng Zhuoxiang||Jiangsu Sainty||China|
|2010||Zheng Zheng||Shandong Luneng||China|
|2011||Song Wenjie||Qingdao Jonoon||China|
In Jia-A period, the reserve League was called "Olympic League" or "Coca-Cola League", there was no reserve league in 2004 & 2005 CSL season. and resumes in 2006, the league opens to all of the reserve teams from CSL and China League clubs.
|2008||Wuhan Optics Valley|
Like the Reserve League, the Adidas Youth League is open to youth teams of all professional clubs. It was called Nike league in 2005.
|Season||U-19 Champions||U-17 Champions||U-15 Champions|
|2004||Shanghai Shenhua||Shandong Luneng||Shandong Luneng|
|2005||Shandong Luneng||Shandong Luneng||Shandong Luneng|
|2006||Beijing Guoan||Shandong Luneng||Shandong Luneng|
|2007||Chongqing Lifan||Shandong Luneng||Shandong Luneng|
|2008||Beijing Guoan||Changchun Yatai||Shandong Luneng|
|2009||Shandong Luneng||Changchun Yatai||Wuhan FA|
|2010||Defunct||Shandong Luneng||Shanghai Luckystar|
|2011||Beijing Guo'an||Shanghai FA||Hubei FA|