» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - Chongqing

Chongqing (n.)

1.a city in south-central China on the Chang Jiang; a commercial center for western China

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Chongqing

Chongqing (n.)

Chungking

   Advertizing ▼

phrases

-2009 Chongqing mine blast • 3011 Chongqing • Bombing of Chongqing • Chengdu-Chongqing Expressway • Chinese Chongqing Dog • Chongqing (disambiguation) • Chongqing Airlines • Chongqing Baishiyi Air Base • Chongqing Changon Automobile Company Limited • Chongqing Chinese Self-supporting Methodist Church • Chongqing Economic and Technological Development Zone • Chongqing Huaya Modern Paper Work Company Limited • Chongqing Institute of Technology • Chongqing Iron and Steel • Chongqing Iron and Steel Company • Chongqing Iron and Steel Company Limited • Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport • Chongqing Jiaotong University • Chongqing Juvenile Offender Detachment • Chongqing Lifan F.C. • Chongqing Medical University • Chongqing Metro • Chongqing Municipality • Chongqing Nankai High School • Chongqing Nankai Middle School • Chongqing No.1 Middle School • Chongqing Normal University • Chongqing Olympic Sports Center • Chongqing Prison • Chongqing Qinghua Middle School • Chongqing Steel • Chongqing Technology and Business University • Chongqing Television • Chongqing Three Gorges University • Chongqing University • Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications • Chongqing University of Science and Technology • Chongqing Women's Prison • Chongqing World Trade Center • Chongqing gang trials • Chongqing, China • Ciqikou, Chongqing • History of Chongqing • Jiangbei District, Chongqing • List of administrative divisions of Chongqing • List of prisons in Chongqing municipality • List of tallest buildings in Chongqing • List of universities and colleges in Chongqing • Politics of Chongqing • Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chongqing • Shuangqiao District, Chongqing • Western Chongqing University • Wushan County, Chongqing

analogical dictionary

Wikipedia

Chongqing

                   
Chongqing
重庆
—  Municipality  —
Municipality of Chongqing • 重庆市
Clockwise from top: Jiefangbei CBD Skyline, Baidicheng temple, Chaotianmen Bridge, Qutang Gorge, and the Great Hall of the People.
Location of Chongqing Municipality within China
Coordinates: 29°33′30″N 106°34′00″E / 29.55833°N 106.5666667°E / 29.55833; 106.5666667Coordinates: 29°33′30″N 106°34′00″E / 29.55833°N 106.5666667°E / 29.55833; 106.5666667
Country People's Republic of China
Settled ca. 316 BCE
Divisions
 - County-level
 - Township-level

19 districts, 19 counties
1259 towns, townships, and subdistricts
Government
 • Type Municipality
 • CPC Ctte Secretary Zhang Dejiang
 • Mayor Huang Qifan
Area
 • Municipality 82,401 km2 (31,815 sq mi)
Elevation 237 m (778 ft)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Municipality 28,846,170
 • Density 350/km2 (910/sq mi)
Demonym Chongqinger
Time zone China standard time (UTC+8)
Postal code 4000 00 - 4099 00
Area code(s) 23
GDP 2011
 - Total CNY 1001.1 billion
US$ 158.9 billion (23rd)
 - Per capita CNY 27,596
US$ 4,077 (14th)
HDI (2008) 0.783 (18th) — medium
Licence plate prefixes 渝 A, B, C, F, G, H
ISO 3166-2 CN-50
City flower Camellia
City tree Ficus lacor
Website (Chinese) www.cq.gov.cn
(English) english.cq.gov.cn
Chongqing
Simplified Chinese 重庆
Traditional Chinese 重慶
Hanyu Pinyin Chóngqìng
Sichuanese Pinyin Cong2qin4 ([tsʰoŋ˨˩tɕʰin˨˩˦])
Literal meaning double celebration or celebrate again

Chongqing (simplified Chinese: 重庆; traditional Chinese: 重慶; Chinese Postal Map Romanization: Chungking) is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities in the People's Republic of China (PRC). Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and the only such municipality in inland China.

The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the sub-provincial city administration that was part of Sichuan province. As of November 2010, the municipality had a population of 28,846,200,[1] although the urbanized area is estimated to have a population of only 6 or 7 million. [2] Chongqing is the largest direct-controlled municipality, and comprises 19 districts, 15 counties, and 4 autonomous counties.

The official abbreviation, (Yú), was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997. Chongqing was also a municipality of the Republic of China administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). Its abbreviated name is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds the Yangtze River.

Chongqing is one of the most notable cities for history and culture in China (历史文化名城), and serves as the economic centre of the upstream Yangtze area. It is the major manufacturing centre and a transportation hub for Southwest China.

Contents

  History

Tradition associates Chongqing with the semi-legendary State of Ba that the Ba people supposedly established during the eleventh century BCE. By 316 BCE, however, it had been overrun by the State of Qin. The Qin emperor ordered a new city to be constructed, which was called Jiang (江州) and Chu Prefecture (楚州).

Chongqing was subsequently renamed in 581 CE (Sui Dynasty) and later 1102, to Yu Prefecture (渝州) and then Gong Prefecture (恭州). It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song Dynasty described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double celebration" (simplified Chinese: 双重喜庆; traditional Chinese: 雙重喜慶; pinyin: shuāngchóng xǐqìng). Hence, Yu Prefecture became Chongqing subprefecture to mark the occasion.

In 1362, (Yuan Dynasty), Ming Yuzhen, a peasant rebelling leader, established the Daxia Kingdom (大夏) at Chongqing for a short time.

In 1621 (Ming Dynasty), another short-lived kingdom of Daliang[disambiguation needed] (大梁) was established by She Chongming (奢崇明) with Chongqing as its capital.

Between 1627–1645, with the fall of the Ming Dynasty, Chongqing, together with the rest of Sichuan, were captured by the Revolts who overthrew the Ming Dynasty across the nation. Later during the Qing Dynasty, immigration to Chongqing and Sichuan took place with the support of Qing emperor.

  Open to the world

In 1890, the Consulate General of UK was opened in Chongqing[3]
In 1891, Chongqing became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners
In 1896, the French Consulate General was opened in Chongqing[4]
In 1896, the Japanese Consulate General was opened in Chongqing
In 1896, the US Consulate General was opened in Chongqing
In 1904, the German Consulate General was opened in Chongqing[5]

  Provisional Capital of the Republic of China

  Kangzhuang, historical house built in early 1930s in Chongqing

In 1929, Chongqing became a municipality in the Republic of China. During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) it was Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's provisional capital. More than 50 embassies moved to Chongqing with the Kuomintang government at the time, and by now, some of which are still well protected. During this time, the Allies set up the Chinese Anti-fascist headquarters in Chongqing, which was responsible for directing the allied army of China, Vietnam, Thailand, Burma, and Malaysia. It was under the direction of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and General Joseph Stilwell. The Japanese Air Force heavily bombed it . Due to its mountainous environment, many people were saved from the bombing. Due to the bravery, contributions and sacrifices made by the local people during World War II, Chongqing became known as the City of Heroes. Many factories and universities were relocated from eastern China to Chongqing during the war, transforming this city from inland port to a heavily industrialized city. In late November 1949 the Nationalist KMT government fled the city.[citation needed]

A letter from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Chongqing in 1945:

In the name of the people of the United States of America. I present this scroll to the city of Chungking as a symbol of our admiration for its brave men, women and children. Under blasts of terror from the air, even in the days before the world at large had known this horror. Chungking and its people held out firm and unconquered. They proved gloriously that terrorism cannot destroy the spirit of a people determined to be free. Their fidelity to the cause of freedom will inspire the hearts of all future generations.

In 1949, when the Peoples' Republic of China was established, Chongqing was still a municipality.

In 1954, the municipality was demoted to a sub-provincial city within Sichuan province in the People's Republic of China.

  Municipality status

On 14 March 1997, the Eighth National People's Congress decided to merge the city with the neighbouring Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang prefecture-level districts that it had governed on behalf of the province since September 1996. The resulting single division became Chongqing Municipality, containing 30,020,000 people in forty-three former counties (without intermediate political levels). The municipality became the spearhead of China's effort to develop its western regions and to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project. Its first official ceremony took place on the 18 June 1997.

On 8 February 2010, Chongqing became one of the five National Central/Core cities, the other four are Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Tianjin.

On 18 June 2010, Liangjiang New Area was established in Chongqing, which is one of the 3 National New Areas, the other two being Pudong new area in Shanghai and Binhai new area in Tianjin.

  Geography

  Chongqing commercial skyscrapers
Geographic coordinates 
Latitude 28° 10' to 32° 13' N, Longitude 105° 17' to 110° 11' E.
Neighbouring provinces 
Hubei (east), Hunan (southeast), Guizhou (south), Sichuan (west), Shaanxi (north)

Located at the northern end of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the eastern limits of the Sichuan Basin, Chongqing is intersected by the Jialing River and the upper reaches of the Yangtze. It contains the Daba Mountains in the north, the Wu Mountains in the east, the Wuling Mountains in the southeast, and the Dalou Mountains in the south.

With an area of 82,401 square kilometres (31,815 sq mi), it is the largest direct-controlled municipality, larger even than the province of Hainan and the autonomous region of Ningxia. It is possibly the world's largest municipality by population and one of the largest by area.[citation needed]

The city is very hilly and as a result is unusual in China for its lack of significant numbers of bicycles.


  Climate

All climatic data listed below comes from the central parts of the city.

Annual average 
18.2 °C (64.8 °F) [6]
January average 
7.8 °C (46.0 °F) [6]
August average 
28.5 °C (83.3 °F) [6]
Historical Temperature range 
−3.0 to 44.0 °C (27 to 111 °F) [7]
Total annual hours of sunshine 
1055
Annual precipitation 
~ 1,140 millimetres (45 in)
Chongqing
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
20
 
10
6
 
 
21
 
13
8
 
 
36
 
17
11
 
 
105
 
23
15
 
 
152
 
27
19
 
 
171
 
29
22
 
 
175
 
33
25
 
 
134
 
34
25
 
 
128
 
28
21
 
 
92
 
22
16
 
 
46
 
17
12
 
 
25
 
12
8
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Chongqing has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), and for most of the year experiences very humid conditions. Known as one of the "Three Furnaces" of the Yangtze River, along with Wuhan and Nanjing, its summers are long and among the hottest and most humid in China, with highs of 33 to 34 °C (91 to 93 °F) in July and August in the urban area. Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. The city's location in the Sichuan Basin causes it to have one of the lowest sunshine totals annually in China, at only 1055 hours.

Chongqing, with over 100 days of fog per year,[8] is also known as the "Fog City" (雾都), and a thick layer of fog shrouds it for 68 days per year during the spring and autumn.[9] During the Second Sino-Japanese War, this special weather possibly played a role in protecting the city from being overrun by the Imperial Japanese Army. In recent years, the strong industrial development has degraded the air quality further, and the municipal government has been aggressively trying to improve the city's air quality.[citation needed] The so-called "blue sky days" (days with air quality within or better than slight pollution) number have been on the rise.[citation needed]

Conditions are cooler in the southeast part of the municipality due to the higher elevations there.


  Administrative divisions

  Administrative map of the Chongqing municipality

Chongqing is the largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China. The municipality is divided into 38 subdivisions (3 were abolished in 1997, and Wansheng and Shuangqiao districts were abolished in October 2011[10]), consisting of 19 districts, 15 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. The boundaries of Chongqing municipality reach much farther into the city's hinterland than the boundaries of the other three provincial level municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and much of its administrative area, which spans over 80,000 square kilometres (30,900 sq mi), is rural.

Districts
Pinyin name Hanzi Previous
associationa
Banan 巴南区 Chongqing
Beibei 北碚区
Changshou 长寿区
Dadukou 大渡口区
Fuling 涪陵区 Fuling
Hechuan 合川区 Chongqing
Jiangbei 江北区
Jiangjin 江津区
Jiulongpo 九龙坡区
Nan'an 南岸区
Nanchuan 南川区 Fuling
Qianjiang 黔江区 Qianjiang
Shapingba 沙坪坝区 Chongqing
Dazu 大足区
Qijiang 綦江区
Wanzhou 万州区 Wanxian
Yubei 渝北区 Chongqing
Yongchuan 永川区
Yuzhong 渝中区
Counties
Pinyin name Hanzi Previous
associationa
Bishan 璧山县 Chongqing
Chengkou 城口县 Wanxian
Dianjiang 垫江县 Fuling
Fengdu 丰都县
Fengjie 奉节县 Wanxian
Kai 开县
Liangping 梁平县
Rongchang 荣昌县 Chongqing
Tongliang 铜梁县
Tongnan 潼南县
Wulong 武隆县 Fuling
Wushan 巫山县 Wanxian
Wuxi 巫溪县
Yunyang 云阳县
Zhong 忠县
  Jiefangbei CBD, Central Chongqing at night.
  A view of the Jeifangbei CBD skyline in Yuzhong district
Autonomous counties
Pinyin name Hanzi Previous
associationa
Pengshui Miao and Tujia 彭水苗族土家族自治县 Qianjiang
Shizhu Tujia 石柱土家族自治县
Xiushan Tujia and Miao 秀山土家族苗族自治县
Youyang Tujia and Miao 酉阳土家族苗族自治县

a Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian (now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997.

The urban area of Chongqing Municipality (重庆主城区市区) includes the following districts:

  Cityscape

 
Panorama of the Chongqing Skyline, taken from the southeast hills in 2010

  Demographics

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1949 1,003,000
1979 6,301,000 +528.2%
1983 13,890,000 +120.4%
1996 15,297,000 +10.1%
1997** 30,220,000 +97.6%
2000 30,512,763 +1.0%
2004 30,550,000 +0.1%
2010 28,846,170 −5.6%
**Population size in 1997 was affected by expansion of administrative divisions.

According to a July 2010 article from the official Xinhua news agency, the municipality has a population of 32.8 million, including 23.3 million farmers. Among them, 8.4 million farmers have become migrant workers, including 3.9 million working and living in urban areas of Chongqing.[11]

This would mean that the locally registered farmers who work in other jurisdictions number 4.5 million, reducing the local, year-round population of Chongqing in 2010 to 28.3 million, plus those who are registered in other jurisdictions but live and work in Chongqing. According to China's 2005 statistical yearbook, of a total population of 30.55 million, those with residence registered in other jurisdictions but residing in the Chongqing enumeration area numbered 1.4 million, including 46,000 who resided in Chongqing "for less than half year". An additional 83,000 had registered in Chongqing, but not yet settled there.[12]

The 2005 statistical yearbook also lists 15.22 million (49.82%) males and 15.33 million (50.18%) females.[12]

It terms of age distribution in 2004, of the 30.55 million total population, 6.4 million (20.88%) were age 0-14, 20.7 million (67.69%) were 15-64, and 3.5 million (11.46%) were 65 and over.[13]

Of a total 10,470,000 households (2004), 1,360,000 consisted of one person, 2,940,000 2-person, 3,190,000 3-person, 1,790,000 4-person, 783,000 5-person, 270,000 6-person, 89,000 7-person, 28,000 8-person, 6,000 9-person, and 10,000 households of 10 or more persons per household.[14]

  Politics

The politics of Chongqing is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the People's Republic of China.

The Mayor of Chongqing is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Chongqing. Since Chongqing is a centrally administered municipality, the mayor occupies the same level in the order of precedence as provincial governors. However, in the city's dual party-government governing system, the mayor has less power than the Chongqing Communist Party of China Municipal Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Chongqing CPC Party Chief".

Chongqing also has the distinction of having been the wartime capital of China during the Second Sino-Japanese war, and, for a brief period, being the seat of administration for the Republic of China government before its departure to Taiwan.

Preceded by
Nanjing
Capital of China
1937-1945
Succeeded by
Nanjing

  Military

Chongqing is headquarters of the 13th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the two group armies that comprise the Chengdu Military Region responsible for the defence of China's southwestern borders with India and Myanmar, as well as security in Tibet.

  Five Chongqing city developing program

Five Chongqing city developing program, which contains "Healthy Chongqing program", "Safe Chongqing Program", "Livable Chongqing Program", "Accessible Chongqing Program" and "Forest Chongqing Program" was first raised on 20th, August, 2008 and becoming the goal of the development of this city.Chongqing government is trying its best to achieve this goal in the coming years

  Economy

  Commercial skyscrapers and high-rise buildings around the People's Liberation Monument in downtown Jiefangbei
  WalMart super market at Nan'an District
  Jeifangbei-People's Liberation (World War II victory monument)
  The pedestrian mall in downtown Jeifangbei
  The pedestrian mall in Nanping CBD

Chongqing was separated from Sichuan province and made into a municipality in its own right in March 1997[15] in order to accelerate its development and subsequently China's relatively poorer western areas (see China Western Development strategy).[16] An important industrial area in western China,[17] Chongqing is also rapidly urbanising. For instance, statistics[18] suggest that new construction added approximately 137,000 square meters (1.5 million square feet) daily of usable floor space to satisfy demands for residential, commercial and factory space. In addition, more than 1,300 people moved into the city daily, adding almost 100 million yuan (US$15 million) to the local economy.

Traditionally, due to its geographical remoteness, Chongqing and neighbouring Sichuan have been important military bases in weapons research and development.[19] Chongqing's industries have now diversified but unlike eastern China, its export sector is small due to its inland location. Instead, factories producing local-oriented consumer goods such as processed food, autos, chemicals, textiles, machinery and electronics are common.

Chongqing is China's third largest centre for motor vehicle production and the largest for motorcycles. In 2007, it had an annual output capacity of 1 million automobiles and 8.6 million motorcycles.[20] Leading makers of cars and motor bikes includes China's fourth biggest automaker; Changan Automotive Corp and Lifan Hongda Enterprise. The municipality is also one of the nine largest iron and steel centres in China and one of the three major aluminium producers. Important manufacturers include Chongqing Iron and Steel Company and South West Aluminium which is Asia's largest aluminum plant.[21] Agriculture remains significant. Rice and fruits (especially oranges) are the area's main produce. Natural resources are also abundant with large deposits of coal, natural gas, and more than 40 kinds of minerals such as strontium and manganese,[22] although the mining sector has been criticised for being wasteful, heavily-polluting, and unsafe.[23] Chongqing is also planned to be the site of a 10 million ton capacity refinery operated by CNPC (parent company of PetroChina) to process imported crude oil from the Sino-Burma pipelines. The pipeline itself, though not yet finished, will eventually run from Sittwe (in Myanmar's western coast) through Kunming in Yunnan province before reaching Chongqing[24] and it will provide China with fuels sourced from Myanmar, the Middle East, and Africa. Recently, there has been a drive to move up the value chain by shifting towards high technology and knowledge intensive industries resulting in new development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ).[25] Chongqing's local government is hoping through the promotion of favorable economic policies for the electronics and information technology sectors, that it can create a 400 billion RMB high technology manufacturing hub which will surpass its auto industry and account for 25% of its exports.[26]

The city has also invested heavily in infrastructure to attract investment.[20][27] The network of roads and railways connecting Chongqing to the rest of China has been expanded and upgraded reducing logistical costs. Furthermore, the nearby Three Gorges Dam which is the world's largest, will not only supply Chongqing with power once completed but also allows ocean going ships to reach Chongqing's Yangtze River port.[28] These infrastructure improvements have led to the arrivals of numerous foreign direct investors (FDI) in industries ranging from auto to finance and retailing; such as Ford, Mazda, HSBC, Standard Chartered Bank, Citibank, Deutsche Bank, ANZ Bank, Scotiabank, Wal-Mart, Metro AG and Carrefour among other multinational corporations.[29]

Chongqing's nominal GDP in 2011 reached 1001.1 billion yuan (US$158.9 billion) while registering an annual growth of 16.4%. However, its overall economic performance is still lagging behind eastern coastal cities such as Shanghai. For instance, its per capita GDP was 22,909 yuan (US$3,301) which is below the national average. Nevertheless, there is a massive government support to transform Chongqing into the region's economic, trade, and financial centre and use the municipality as a platform to open up the country's western interior to further development.[30]

Chongqing has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.[31]

  Organised crime

In the first decade of the 21st century, the city became notorious for organised crime and corruption. Gangsters oversaw businesses involving billions of yuan and the corruption reached into the law-enforcement and justice systems. In 2009, city authorities under the auspices of municipal Communist Party secretary Bo Xilai undertook a massive crackdown, arresting 4,893 suspected gangsters, 'outlaws' and corrupt cadres, leading to optimism that the period of gangsterism was over.[32]

However, local media later highlighted the apparent reliance by the authorities on torture to extract confessions upon which convictions were based. In December 2009, one defence lawyer was controversially arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for "coaching his client to make false claims of torture" and in July 2010, another lawyer released videotapes of his client describing the torture in detail.[33][34]

  Economic and technological development zones

The city includes a number of economic and technological development zones:

  • Chongqing Chemical Industrial Park
  • Chongqing Economic & Technological Development Zone
  • Chongqing Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone
  • Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ)
  • Chongqing Export Processing Zone
  • Jianqiao Industrial Park (located in Dadukou District)

  Transport

Since its elevation to national-level municipality in 1997, the city has dramatically expanded its transportation infrastructure. With the construction of railways and expressways to the east and southeast, Chongqing is a major transportation hub in southwestern China. The municipality now has 25 bridges across the Yangtze River including half a dozen in the city's urban core.

  River port

  Hydrofoil on the Yangtze, within the Chongqing municipality
  The confluence of the Jialing River and Yangtze River, as seen from Chongqing

Chongqing is one of the most important inland ports in China. There are numerous luxury cruise ships that terminate at Chongqing, cruising downstream along the Yangtze River to Yichang, Wuhan, Nanjing or even Shanghai. In the recent past, this provided virtually the only transportation option along the river. However, improved rail, expressways and air travel have seen this ferry traffic reduce or been cancelled altogether, thus most of the river ferry traffic consists of mostly leisure cruises for tourists rather than local needs. Improved access by larger cargo vessels has been made due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. This allows bulk transport of goods along the Yangtze River. Coal, raw minerals and containerized goods provide the majority of traffic plying this section of the river. Several port handling facilities exists throughout the city, including many impromptu river bank sites.

  Railways

Major train stations in Chongqing:

Chongqing Railway Station (Chongqing Zhan - Caiyuanba 重庆站), Cai Yuan Ba Li Jiao Qiao, Yuzhong (Line 1 & 3 Lianglukou Metro Station). Original station closest to the centre of Chongqing handling mostly long distance services. There are plans for a major renovation and overhaul of this station, thus many services have been transferred to Chongqing North Railway Station.

Chongqing North Railway Station (Chongqing Bei Zhan) is a newly constructed station handling many long distance services and high speed rail services to Chengdu. It is connected to Metro Line 3.

Chongqing West Railway Station (Chongqing Xi Zhan) was formerly called Shapingba Railway Station after the district that it is in. It is undergoing redevelopment. Many local and regional services stop here.

Chongqing is a major freight destination for rail with continued development with improved handling facilities. Due to subsidies and incentives, the relocation and construction of many factories in Chongqing has seen a huge increase in rail traffic.

Chongqing is a major rail hub in south central China.

  Highways

  Bicycling can be a challenge in Chongqing

Long distance buses travel to Chongqing from almost anywhere. There are numerous buses into Chongqing, most notably is the hourly service to and from Chengdu, Nanchong, and Xi'an. From the west Chengdu is 2.5 hours and to the east Wanzhou is three hours, both on good highways and good buses.

Traditionally the road network in Chongqing has been narrow, winding and limited to smaller vehicles because of the natural terrain, large rivers and the huge population demands on the area. Especially in the central Yuzhong district. In other places, such as Jiangbei, large areas of homes and buildings have recently been cleared to improve the road network and create better urban planning. This has seen many tunnels and large bridges needing to be built across the city. Construction of many expressways have connected Chongqing to neigbouring provinces. Several ring roads have also been constructed. The natural mountainous terrain that Chongqing is built on makes many road projects difficult to construct, including for example some of the worlds highest road bridges.

Unlike many other Chinese cities, it is rare for motorbikes, electric scooters or bicycles to be seen on Chongqing Roads. This is due to the extremely hilly and mountainous nature of Chongqing's roads and streets. However, despite this, Chongqing is a large manufacturing centre for these types of vehicles.

  • Chongqing-Chengdu Expressway
  • Chongqing-Chengdu 2nd Expressway (under construction)
  • Chongqing-Wanzhou-Yichang highway (Wanzhou-Yichang section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Guiyang highway
  • Chongqing-Changsha Expressway (Xiushan-Changsha section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Dazhou-Xi'a highway (Dazhou-Xi'an section under construction)
  • Chongqing-Suining Express way
  • Chongqing-Nanchong Express way
  • China National Highway 210
  • China National Highway 212

  Airport

  CRT Line 3 in Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport

Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport (Simplified Chinese: 重庆江北国际机场, Traditional Chinese: 重慶江北國際機場, Pinyin: Chóngqìng Jiāngběi Guójì Jīchǎng) (IATA: CKG, ICAO: ZUCK) is an airport located in the Yubei District of Chongqing, People's Republic of China offering a growing network of direct flights to China, South East Asia, the Middle East and Europe. It is located 21 km north of the city-centre of Chongqing and serves as an important aviation hub for south-western China. Jiangbei airport is a hub for China Southern Airlines, Chongqing Airlines, Sichuan Airlines and HNA's new China West Air, and Chongqing is a focus city of Air China. Therefore it is very well connected with Star Alliance and Sky Team's international network. It currently has two parallel runways in operation.

Currently Jiangbei airport has two terminals: Terminal 1 (old original terminal) serving international flights; Terminal 2, larger building split into Halls A and B serving domestic flights. The first, second and third phase of the airport came into operation in January 1990, December 2004, and December 2010 respectively. The domestic terminal is capable of handling 30 million passengers while its international terminal is able to handle more than 1 million passengers annually. A third terminal is currently in the planning stage along with a third runway construction due to commence shortly.

In terms of passenger traffic, Chongqing airport was the 10th busiest airport nationwide in 2010, handling 15,802,334 people. Also, the airport was the 11th busiest airport by cargo traffic and by traffic movements in China. During the first half of year 2011, Chongqing airport handled 8.87 million passengers, and surpassed Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport(8.48 million) to become the 9th busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic in mailand China.

Freight development has increased, especially in the export of high value electronics, such as laptop computers. It is envisaged that Chongqing can become the global leading exporter of these products by air.

Currently, it's the only airport in central and western China which has railway (light-rail) city transportation access, (CRT Line 3) and two runways in normal use.

  Public transport

  CRT Line 2 in Chongqing city

The three main forms of public transport in Chongqing are CRT metro, intercity railway, and the ubiquitous bus system.

According to the Chongqing Municipal Government's ambitious plan in May 2007, Chongqing is investing 150 billion RMB over 13 years to finish a system that combines underground metro lines with light rail (heavy monorail). By 2020 this network will consist of 6 straight lines and 1 circular line; Line 1 and Line 6 are underground subway while Lines 2 and 3 are High Capacity monorail. These improvements will add 363.5 kilometers of road and railway to the existing transportation infrastructure and 93 new train stations will be added to the 111 stations that are already in place.

As of 2012 three metro lines, the 14 km long CRT Line 1, a conventional subway, and the 19 km long heavy monorail CRT Line 2 (through Phase II), Line 3, a new heavy monorail connects the airport and the southern part of downtown, have already opened. A new subway, Line 6, is currently in trials and is expected to open later in 2012.

By 2050 Chongqing was initially planning to have ten metro lines, totaling 513 kilometres, with 270 stations.,[35] although more recent reports have now indicated as many as 18 lines are planned to be in operation.

  Culture

  Language

  Zhongshan Ancient Town, Jiangjin, Chongqing

The language native to Chongqing is Southwestern Mandarin. More precisely, the great majority of the municipality, save for Xiushan, speak Sichuanese, including the primary Chengdu-Chongqing dialect and Minjiang dialect spoken in Jiangjin and Qijiang.[36] There are also a few speakers of Xiang and Hakka in the municipality, due to the great immigration wave to the Sichuan region (湖广填四川) during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. In addition, in parts of southeastern Chongqing, the Miao and Tujia languages are also used by some Miao and Tujia people.[37]

  Tourism

As the provisional Capital of China for almost ten years (1937 to 1945), the city was also known as one of the three headquarters of the Allies. Chongqing has many historical World War II buildings or sites (some of which have since been destroyed):

  • The People's Liberation Monument, located in the center of Chongqing city used to be the highest building in the area but is now surrounded and dwarfed by numerous shopping centres. Originally named the Monument for the Victory over Axis Armies, it is the only building in China for that purpose. Today, the monument serves as a symbol for the city.
  • Chongqing Museum
  • General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum dedicated to General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell.
  • Great Hall of the People (Chongqing), based on the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. This is one of the largest public assembly buildings in China which, though built in modern times, emulates traditional architectural styles. It is adjacent to the densely populated and hilly central district, with narrow streets and pedestrian only walkways.
  • Renmin Hotel
  • Luohan Si, Ming Dynasty temple
  • The air force cemetery in the Nanshan area, in memory of those air force personnel killed during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945);
  • The former sites for embassies of major countries during the 1940s. As the capital at that time, Chongqing had many residential and other buildings for these officials.
  • Red Rock Village Museum (红岩村博物馆), a diplomatic site for the Communist Party in Chongqing led by Zhou Enlai during World War II. It is where Mao Zedong signed the "Double 10 (10 October) Peace Agreement" with the Kuomintang.

Besides these historical sites, Chongqing also has the following attractions:

  The Hongyadong stilted house in Chongqing city
  Baotaoping Wharf in Fengjie County
  The steep path up to the front gate of Fishing Town
  Ciqikou ancient road in Shapingba District
  • Fishing Town or Fishing City, also called the “Oriental Mecca” and “the Place That Broke God's Whip”, is one of the three great ancient battlefields of China. It is noted for its resistance to the Mongol armies during the Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279) and the location where the Mongol leader Möngke Khan died in 1259.
  • Xueyu Cave in Fengdu County is the only example[citation needed] of a pure-white, jade-like karst cave in China.
  • A modern and well stocked zoo exhibits many national and regional animals, including the Giant Panda and the extremely rare South China Tiger.

  Media

Chongqing is served by the Chongqing People's Broadcast Station as the largest radio station. The only municipal-level TV network is Chongqing TV station, claimed to be the 4th largest television station.[citation needed] Chongqing Daily is the largest newspaper group, controlling more than 10 newspapers and one website.

  Cuisine

One distinct trait of Chongqing cuisine is that it is spicy and numbing (麻辣), as opposed to the spicy and fragrant (香辣) flavours of Chengdu cuisine.

  • Hot pot is Chongqing's local culinary specialty. Tables in hotpot restaurants usually have a central vat (or pot) where food ordered by the customers is boiled in a spicy broth. As well as beef, pork, lotus and other vegetables, items such as pig's kidney, brain, duck's bowels, and cow's stomach are often consumed.

  Sports

Professional sports teams in Chongqing include:

  Religion

Arhat Temple is a Buddhist temple, which includes monks. The Dazu Rock Carvings are religious sculptures, which present a World Heritage Site. A large Buddha sculpture is outside Shuangjiang. Laitan has a Buddha Temple. Though the Christian population is small, a Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chongqing exists.

  Education

  Colleges and universities

  Middle and high schools

  International schools

  International relations

  Consulates

Consulate Date Consular District
 Canadian Consulate, Chongqing[38] 05.1998 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
 British Consulate-General, Chongqing[38] 03.2000 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
 Cambodian Consulate-General, Chongqing[38] 12.2004 Chongqing, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi
 Japanese Consulate-General, Chongqing[38] 01.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
 Danish Consulate, Chongqing[38] 07.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
 Filipino Consulate-General, Chongqing[38] 12.2008 Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan
 Hungarian Consulate-General, Chongqing[38] 02.2010 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu
 Ethiopian Consulate-General, Chongqing[38] 11.2011 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan

  Twin towns — sister cities

Chongqing is twinned with:

  Africa

  Asia

  Europe

  North America

  Oceania

  South America

  See also

  Notes

  1. ^ a b "重庆市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报". Netease. 2011-05-03. http://news.163.com/11/0503/01/733HTAIV00014AED.html. 
  2. ^ "The world's biggest cities: How do you measure them?". BBC News. 29 January 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16761784. 
  3. ^ http://www.cq.xinhuanet.com/subject/2005/2005-08/12/content_4869354.htm
  4. ^ http://www.cq.xinhuanet.com/subject/2005/2005-08/12/content_4868903.htm
  5. ^ http://2011.cqlib.cn/article_detail.asp?cid=13&rid=1&did=622
  6. ^ a b c d "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值数据集 (1961-1990年)" (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. May 2011. http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/shuju/search1.jsp?dsid=SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_MMON_19611990_CES&tpcat=SURF&type=table&pageid=3. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  7. ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-28. 
  8. ^ "Chongqing Municipality". IES Global. http://iesglobal.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=450&Itemid=404. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  9. ^ "Chongqing -- City of Hills, Fog and Spicy Food". China.com. http://english.china.com/zh_cn/tourism/chongqing/11047307/20060331/13212034.html. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  10. ^ 重庆调整部分行政区划:4区(县)并为2区
  11. ^ "China's Chongqing starts household registration reform". Xinhua News. 2010-07-02. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2010-07/29/c_13420830.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  12. ^ a b "Residence Status of Population by Region and Sex (2004)". National Bureau of Statistics of China, in allcountries.org. 2005. http://www.allcountries.org/china_statistics/4_8_residence_status_of_population_by.html. Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  13. ^ "Age Composition and Dependency Ratio of Population by Region (2004)". National Bureau of Statistics of China, in allcountries.org. 2005. http://www.allcountries.org/china_statistics/4_9_age_composition_and_dependency_ratio.html. Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  14. ^ "Number and Size of Family Households by Region (2004)". National Bureau of Statistics of China, in allcountries.org. 2005. http://www.allcountries.org/china_statistics/4_13_number_and_size_of_family.html. Retrieved 2010-08-12. 
  15. ^ Chinese vice premier urges Chongqing to become economic engine for western regions - Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Australia - retrieved 2009-01-31.
  16. ^ China urges reform, development of Chongqing municipality - Xinhua News Agency - retrieved 2009-01-31.
  17. ^ "Market Profiles on Chinese Cities and Provinces (hktdc.com)". Tdctrade.com. http://www.tdctrade.com/mktprof/china/mpchq.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  18. ^ "Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything," Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, Penguin, p. 218, 2006.
  19. ^ Chongqing Municipality(重慶市) - The Australia-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry of New South Wales - retrieved 2009-01-31.
  20. ^ a b Critical Eye on Chongqing - Pillar of the West - China Business Review - retrieved 2009-01-31.
  21. ^ MacKie, Nick (2005-05-04). "China's west seeks to impress investors". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4512015.stm. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  22. ^ Coal reserves ≈ 4.8 billion tonnes. Chuandong Natural Gas Field is China's largest inland gas field with deposits of around 270 billion m³ - more than 1/5 of China's total. Has China's largest reserve of strontium (China has the world's 2nd biggest strontium deposit). Manganese is mined in the Xiushan area.
  23. ^ A survey in 2005 by China’s State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) found 13 firms in the manganese triangle had breached targets on the release of hexavalent chromium and ammonia-nitrogen – in the worst case, by a factor of 180. The cleanup ordered by SEPA resulted in firms closing and the expenditure of 280 million yuan.
  24. ^ "Asia Times Online: China Business News : China-Myanmar pipeline projects on track". Atimes.com. 2007-04-24. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China_Business/ID24Cb01.html. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  25. ^ welcome to www.cnnz.gov.cn
  26. ^ "China Business News : HP Foxcom Setup Laptop Plants in Chongqing". The China Perspective. http://thechinaperspective.com/index.php?cmd=pharticle&articleid=6216. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  27. ^ "Chongqing Investment Zone Profiles". Allroadsleadtochina.com. 2007-05-30. http://www.allroadsleadtochina.com/index.php/2007/05/30/fdi-and-investment-zones-part-iii-chongqing/. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  28. ^ China's Three Gorges Dam - CNN - retrieved 2009-01-31.
  29. ^ "Ford weighs third China plant to meet demand". Reuters. 2008-04-18. http://www.reuters.com/article/businessNews/idUSN1845570620080418?feedType=RSS&feedName=businessNews. 
  30. ^ Innovative City in West China Chongqing (PDF) - Jon Sigurdson and Krystyna Palonka of Stockholm School of Economics, EIJS - retrieved on 1 February 2009.
  31. ^ "The Rise Of The ‘Champs’ - New Report Maps Business Opportunity In China’s Fastest Growing Cities". Sourcewire.com. 2010-11-09. http://www.sourcewire.com/releases/rel_display.php?relid=60590. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  32. ^ Chongqing on the mend after crackdown on criminal gangs, SCMP, 5 Oct 2009
  33. ^ Lawyer reveals grim details of client's torture, Ng Tze-wei, SCMP, 29 Jul 2010
  34. ^ Ramzy, Austin (2010-03-15). "China's Dark City: Behind Chongqing's Crime Crackdown". Time (Chongqing). http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1969642,00.html. Retrieved 2010-08-09. 
  35. ^ Chongqing Daily (23 March 2008)
  36. ^ 翟时雨 (Ruo Shiyu) (2003). "中篇第四节:四川话的分区 (The divisions of the Sichuan dialect)" (in Simplified Chinese). 《汉语方言学》 (The Study of Chinese Languages). 西南师范大学出版社 (Southwest China Normal University Press). ISBN 7-5621-2942-8/H•49. 
  37. ^ "苗族:特色苗语 (The Miao People: Characteristics of the Miao language)". http://www.aluzhou.com/custom/detail.asp?ID=127. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h "各国驻华领馆领区一览表 (in Simplified Chinese)". 中华人民共和国外交部. 2007-05-08. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/chn/gxh/tyb/bszn/lsfw/t246715.htm. 
  39. ^ "Why Chongqing? Wales Week The Trade Mission Chongqing, 1–8 March" (PDF). http://www.ibwales.com/upload/pdf/Chongqing_Trade_Mission_Flyer.pdf. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 
  40. ^ "Twin Towns". Amazingdusseldorf.com. http://www.amazingdusseldorf.com/community-local/people/twin-towns.html. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  41. ^ "Chongqing Municipality and Sør-Trøndelag county signs Twinning-Agreement (Norway - the official site in China)". Norway.cn. 2007-06-14. http://www.norway.cn/norway_and_china/friendship/TwinningAgreement.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-14. 

  References

  • Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "Chongqing," pp.325-362 in The Three Gorges and the Upper Yangzi. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 981-232-599-9. 
  • Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "Revisiting Chongqing: China's Second World War Temporary National Capital," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong Branch, Vol.45. Hong Kong: Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong Branch. 
  • Huang, Jiren (1999). Lao Chongqing (Old Chongqing): Ba Shan Ye Yu (part of the "Lao Cheng Shi" series. Nanjing: Jiangsu Meishu Chubanshe (Jiangsu Fine Arts Publishing House). 
  • Kapp, Robert A. (1974). "Chungking as a Center of Warlord Power, 1926-1937," pp.143-170 in The Chinese City Between Two Worlds, ed. by Mark Elvin and G. William Skinner. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 
  • Kapp, Robert A. (1973). Szechwan and the Chinese Republic: Provincial Militarism and Central Power, 1911-1938. New Haven: Yale University Press. 
  • Liao, Qingyu (2005). Chongqing Ge Le Shan Pei Du Yizhi (The Construction of War-time Capital on the Gele Mountain, Chongqing). Chengdu: Sichuan Da Xue Chubanshe (Sichuan University Press). 
  • Long, Juncai (2005). Sui Yue Ya Feng de Jiyi: Chongqing Kang Zhan Yizhi (Covered Memory of Flowing Years: Site[s] of [the] Anti-Japanese War in Chongqing). Chongqing: Xi Nan Shi Fang Da Xue Chubanshe (Southwest University Press). 
  • McIsaac, Lee (2000). "The City as Nation: Creating a Wartime Capital in Chongqing," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900-1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
  • Xu, Dongsheng and Liu, Yuchuan, et al. (1998). Chongqing Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Chongqing). Beijing: Renmin Meishu Chubanshe People’s Fine Arts Publishing House). 

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of Chongqing


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

2359 online visitors

computed in 0.094s

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼

5 x 132g Chinese specialty Chongqing spicy flavor of gluten David Dragon (卫龙辣条)- (25.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

China 2011 8th Chongqing Int'l Garden Expo Special Full Flower Mascot (3.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Chinese food beef jerky beef jerky spicy / Spiced in Chongqing specialty snack (19.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Phoenix 1/400 Chongqing Airlines Airbus A319 B-6248 die cast miniature model (34.95 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Chongqing Chrysostom open 5x90g Pickle crisp golden pig pigskin(金口开5x90g金猪脆泡椒) (19.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

5x100g 有友泡椒凤爪 Pickle Chicken bubble Chongqing specialty spicy chicken legs (14.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

China 2006 Top Ten Chongqing Enterpreneur Special Full S/S A (3.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Chongqing -- City of Ambition (37.57 USD)

Commercial use of this term

110v snowblower starter Chongqing Briggs Craftsman 20110518 049971 (50.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

ChongQing Seasoning Spicy Sauce For Hot Pot (Comcentrated) - Buy 3 get 1 Free (8.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

China Post 2010 Tiger New Year Postcard Wuxi Chongqing (3.99 GBP)

Commercial use of this term

Western China: Chongqing Municipality& Sichuan Province (6.48 USD)

Commercial use of this term

10PCgluten Article spicy spicy spicy flavor Chongqing specialty vegetarian面筋辣条卫龙 (7.5 USD)

Commercial use of this term

(有友猪皮晶)5x90g China Chongqing specialty salamanders flavor grain pigskin (18.55 USD)

Commercial use of this term

5 x 132g Chinese specialty Chongqing spicy flavor of gluten David Dragon (22.8 USD)

Commercial use of this term

10x28g Chinese specialty Chongqing spicy flavor of gluten David Dragon (11.4 USD)

Commercial use of this term

China 2007-15 Chongqing Contruction sheet (6.68 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Chongqing wonderful taste Pickle smell of dry sub 5x90g(重庆渝妙味泡椒臭干子5x90g) (19.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

China Chongqing View Special Full S/S (3.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term