Church History (Eusebius)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Church History (Latin: Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius of Caesarea was a fourth-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the first century. It was written in Koine Greek, and survives also in Latin, Syriac and Armenian manuscripts. The result was the first full-length historical narrative written from a Christian point of view. In the early fifth century two advocates in Constantinople, Socrates Scholasticus and Sozomen, and a bishop, Theodoret of Cyrrhus, Syria, wrote continuations of Eusebius' church history, establishing the convention of continuators that would determine to a great extent the way history was written for the next thousand years. Eusebius' Chronicle, that attempted to lay out a comparative timeline of pagan and Old Testament history, set the model for the other historiographical genre, the medieval chronicle or universal history.
Eusebius made use of many ecclesiastical monuments and documents, acts of the martyrs, letters, extracts from earlier Christian writings, lists of bishops, and similar sources, often quoting the originals at great length so that his work contains materials not elsewhere preserved. For example he wrote that Matthew composed the Gospel according to the Hebrews and his Church Catalogue suggests that it was the only Jewish gospel. It is therefore of historical value, though it pretends neither to completeness nor to the observance of due proportion in the treatment of the subject-matter. Nor does it present in a connected and systematic way the history of the early Christian Church. It is to no small extent a vindication of the Christian religion, though the author did not primarily intend it as such. Eusebius has been often accused of intentional falsification of the truth; in judging persons or facts he is not entirely unbiased.
Plan of the work
Eusebius attempted according to his own declaration (I.i.1) to present the history of the Church from the apostles to his own time, with special regard to the following points:
- the successions of bishops in the principal sees;
- the history of Christian teachers;
- the history of heresies;
- the history of the Jews;
- the relations to the heathen;
- the martyrdoms.
He grouped his material according to the reigns of the emperors, presenting it as he found it in his sources. The contents are as follows:
- Book i: detailed introduction on Jesus Christ
- Book ii: The history of the apostolic time to the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus
- Book iii: The following time to Trajan
- Books iv and v: approximately the second century AD
- Book vi: The time from Septimius Severus to Decius
- Book vii: extends to the outbreak of the persecution under Diocletian
- Book viii: more of this persecution
- Book ix: history to Constantine's victory over Maxentius in the West and over Maximinus in the East
- Book x: The reëstablishment of the churches and the rebellion and conquest of Licinius.
In its present form, the work was brought to a conclusion before the death of Crispus (July, 326), and, since book x is dedicated to Paulinus of Tyre who died before 325, at the end of 323, or in 324. This work required the most comprehensive preparatory studies, and it must have occupied him for years. His collection of martyrdoms of the older period may have been one of these preparatory studies.
Attitudes of the author
Eusebius blames the calamities which befell the Jewish nation on the Jews' role in the death of Jesus. This quote has been used to attack both Jews and Christians (see Christianity and anti-Semitism).
… that from that time seditions and wars and mischievous plots followed each other in quick succession, and never ceased in the city and in all Judea until finally the siege of Vespasian overwhelmed them. Thus the divine vengeance overtook the Jews for the crimes which they dared to commit against Christ.
This is not simply anti-Semitism, however. Eusebius levels a similar charge against Christians, blaming a spirit of divisiveness for some of the most severe persecutions.
But when on account of the abundant freedom, we fell into laxity and sloth, and envied and reviled each other, and were almost, as it were, taking up arms against one another, rulers assailing rulers with words like spears, and people forming parties against people, and monstrous hypocrisy and dissimulation rising to the greatest height of wickedness, the divine judgment with forbearance, as is its pleasure, while the multitudes yet continued to assemble, gently and moderately harassed the episcopacy.
He also launches into a panegyric, which is an elaborate speech giving extravagant praise to a person or thing, in the middle of Book x. He praises the Lord for his provisions and kindness to them for allowing them to rebuild their churches after they have been destroyed.
The dependability of Eusebius as a historian is discussed in R.M.Q. Grant, Eusebius as Church Historian (Oxford University Press) 1980.
Other early church historians:
- Socrates Scholasticus
- Theodoret of Cyrus
- Rufinus of Aquileia (he added two books to his translation of Eusebius)
- Evagrius Scholasticus
- Zacharias Rhetor
- Theodorus Lector
- John of Ephesus
- Barhadbesabba of 'Arbaya (Nestorian historian from the sixth century)
- Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum
- ^ Eusebius of Caesarea: the Manuscripts of the "Church History"
- ^ Glenn F. Chesnut, The First Christian Histories: Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, and Evagrius, 1986, "Introduction" summarizes Eusebius' influence on historiography.
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, s.v. "Ecclesiastical History"
- ^ "The Misfortunes which overwhelmed the Jews after their Presumption against Christ". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201.iii.vii.vii.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- ^ "The Events which preceded the Persecution in our Times". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201.iii.xiii.ii.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29.