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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
1.the appearance of objects (or light sources) described in terms of a person's perception of their hue and lightness (or brightness) and saturation
2.an outward or token appearance or form that is deliberately misleading"he hoped his claims would have a semblance of authenticity" "he tried to give his falsehood the gloss of moral sanction" "the situation soon took on a different color"
3.the timbre of a musical sound"the recording fails to capture the true color of the original music"
4.interest and variety and intensity"the Puritan Period was lacking in color" "the characters were delineated with exceptional vividness"
5.(physics) the characteristic of quarks that determines their role in the strong interaction"each flavor of quarks comes in three colors"
6.a race with skin pigmentation different from the white race (especially Blacks)
7.any material used for its color"she used a different color for the trim"
8.(American)the coloring of a person's face
9.(American)a visual attribute of things that results from the light they emit or transmit or reflect"a white color is made up of many different wavelengths of light"
1.having or capable of producing colors"color film" "he rented a color television" "marvelous color illustrations"
1.change color, often in an undesired manner"The shirts discolored"
2.add color to"The child colored the drawings" "Fall colored the trees" "colorize black and white film"
3.affect as in thought or feeling"My personal feelings color my judgment in this case" "The sadness tinged his life"
4.give a deceptive explanation or excuse for"color a lie"
5.decorate with colors"color the walls with paint in warm tones"
6.modify or bias"His political ideas color his lectures"
ColorCol"or (kŭl"ẽr), n. [Written also colour.] [OF. color, colur, colour, F. couleur, L. color; prob. akin to celare to conceal (the color taken as that which covers). See Helmet.]
1. A property depending on the relations of light to the eye, by which individual and specific differences in the hues and tints of objects are apprehended in vision; as, gay colors; sad colors, etc.
☞ The sensation of color depends upon a peculiar function of the retina or optic nerve, in consequence of which rays of light produce different effects according to the length of their waves or undulations, waves of a certain length producing the sensation of red, shorter waves green, and those still shorter blue, etc. White, or ordinary, light consists of waves of various lengths so blended as to produce no effect of color, and the color of objects depends upon their power to absorb or reflect a greater or less proportion of the rays which fall upon them.
2. Any hue distinguished from white or black.
3. The hue or color characteristic of good health and spirits; ruddy complexion.
Give color to my pale cheek. Shak.
4. That which is used to give color; a paint; a pigment; as, oil colors or water colors.
5. That which covers or hides the real character of anything; semblance; excuse; disguise; appearance.
They had let down the boat into the sea, under color as though they would have cast anchors out of the foreship. Acts xxvii. 30.
That he should die is worthy policy;
But yet we want a color for his death. Shak.
6. Shade or variety of character; kind; species.
Boys and women are for the most part cattle of this color. Shak.
7. A distinguishing badge, as a flag or similar symbol (usually in the plural); as, the colors or color of a ship or regiment; the colors of a race horse (that is, of the cap and jacket worn by the jockey).
In the United States each regiment of infantry and artillery has two colors, one national and one regimental. Farrow.
8. (Law) An apparent right; as where the defendant in trespass gave to the plaintiff an appearance of title, by stating his title specially, thus removing the cause from the jury to the court. Blackstone.
☞ Color is express when it is averred in the pleading, and implied when it is implied in the pleading.
Body color. See under Body. -- Color blindness, total or partial inability to distinguish or recognize colors. See Daltonism. -- Complementary color, one of two colors so related to each other that when blended together they produce white light; -- so called because each color makes up to the other what it lacks to make it white. Artificial or pigment colors, when mixed, produce effects differing from those of the primary colors, in consequence of partial absorption. -- Of color (as persons, races, etc.), not of the white race; -- commonly meaning, esp. in the United States, of negro blood, pure or mixed. -- Primary colors, those developed from the solar beam by the prism, viz., red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet, which are reduced by some authors to three, -- red, green, and violet-blue. These three are sometimes called fundamental colors. -- Subjective color or Accidental color, a false or spurious color seen in some instances, owing to the persistence of the luminous impression upon the retina, and a gradual change of its character, as where a wheel perfectly white, and with a circumference regularly subdivided, is made to revolve rapidly over a dark object, the teeth of the wheel appear to the eye of different shades of color varying with the rapidity of rotation. See Accidental colors, under Accidental.
ColorCol"or (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Colored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Coloring.] [F. colorer.]
1. To change or alter the hue or tint of, by dyeing, staining, painting, etc.; to dye; to tinge; to paint; to stain.
The rays, to speak properly, are not colored; in them there is nothing else than a certain power and disposition to stir up a sensation of this or that color. Sir I. Newton.
2. To change or alter, as if by dyeing or painting; to give a false appearance to; usually, to give a specious appearance to; to cause to appear attractive; to make plausible; to palliate or excuse; as, the facts were colored by his prejudices.
He colors the falsehood of Æneas by an express command from Jupiter to forsake the queen. Dryden.
3. To hide. [Obs.]
That by his fellowship he color might
Both his estate and love from skill of any wight. Spenser.
ColorCol"or, v. i. To acquire color; to turn red, especially in the face; to blush.
coloration, coloring, coloring agent, coloring material, color of the skin, colour, colouration, colouring, colouring agent, colouring material, colour of the skin, gloss, people of color, people of colour, pigment, semblance, skin color, skin colour, vividness
complexion, coloring (American), coloring agent (American), color of the skin (American), colour (British), colouring (British), colouring agent (British), colour of the skin (ellipsis, British), dye (cheveux), skin color (ellipsis, American), skin colour (British)
blush, color in, colorise, colorize, colour, colour in, colourise, colourize, distort, emblazon, fade, gloss, grow red, paint, redden, tinge, tint, change color (American), change colour (British), discolor (American), discolour (British)
Color Anomia • Color Blindness • Color Blindness, Acquired • Color Blindness, Blue • Color Blindness, Green • Color Blindness, Inherited • Color Blindness, Red • Color Blindness, Red-Green • Color Doppler Ultrasonography • Color Echocardiography, Doppler • Color Perception • Color Perception Tests • Color Therapy • Color Vision • Color Vision Defects • change color • change of color • color TV • color TV tube • color bar • color bearer • color blindness • color chart • color circle • color code • color composite • color constancy • color density slicing • color force • color guard • color in • color infra-red • color line • color movie • color of law • color of the skin • color property • color range • color scheme • color sergeant • color spectrum • color television • color television set • color television system • color television tube • color tube • color variety • color vision • color vision deficiency • color wash • color wheel • color-TV viewer • color-blind • color-blind person • color-blindness • dark in color • light in color • lose color • off-color • person of color • ring of color • skin color • without color
Electromagnetic Radiation, Nonionizing, Electromagnetic Radiation, Non-Ionizing, Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation, Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation, Nonionizing Radiation, Non-Ionizing Radiation, Radiation, Nonionizing, Radiation, Nonionizing Electromagnetic, Radiation, Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic - Optics[Hyper.]
Color (n.) [MeSH]
photography, picture taking[Domaine]
peau humaine (fr)[termes liés]
étoffe et tissu (fr)[termes liés]
color (n.) [American]
(hair), (depilation; shave; shaving)[termes liés]
peau humaine (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
change color, change colour, color, colour, discolor, discolour - color, color in, colorise, colorize, colour, colour in, colourise, colourize - color, colour, emblazon, paint - colorist - colored, colorful, coloured - uncolored, uncoloured - complexion - color, color of the skin, colour, colouring, colour of the skin, complexion, skin color, skin colour - blondness, fairness, paleness[Dérivé]
color (n.) [American]
chose que l'on voit (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
oiseau ne volant pas (fr)[Classe]
Ordre des Charadriiformes (fr)[ClasseTaxo.]
devenir plus terne (fr)[Classe]
colored; coloured; colorful[ClasseHyper.]
absence de qqch (fr)[Classe...]
phénomène optique (fr)[Classe]
propriété ou état de la matière (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
(optics), (optical reading)[termes liés]
discoloration, discolouration - coloring, colouring - discoloration, discolouration, stain - color, coloring, colour, colouring - color, coloring material, colour, colouring material - coloration, colouration - coloring, colouring, food color, food coloring, food colour, food colouring - colorist - color, colour, emblazon, paint - color, colour - colorless, colourless[Dérivé]
color; colour; coloring; colouring[ClasseHyper.]
change color, change colour, color, colour, discolor, discolour, fade - color in, colorise, colorize, colour in, colourise, colourize - emblazon, paint - colorist - colored, colorful, coloured - uncolored, uncoloured[Dérivé]
color (n.) [American]
qualité du son (fr)[Classe]
qualité de la voix (fr)[ClasseParExt.]
(singer; vocalist; vocalizer; vocaliser), (tune; melody; air; strain; melodic line; melodic phrase; motif; motive; subject; theme; melodic theme; musical theme; idea; aria), (chant; warble; sing)[termes liés]
acoustique (fr)[termes liés]
sonnette (fr)[termes liés]
[ dans le genre de ] (fr)[Syntagme]
group, grouping, party, set[Hyper.]
race hatred, racial[Dérivé]
devenir plus terne (fr)[Classe]
discoloration, discolouration - coloring, colouring - discoloration, discolouration, stain - color, coloring, colour, colouring - color, coloring material, colour, colouring material - coloration, colouration - colorist - color, colour, emblazon, paint - color, colour[Dérivé]
peau humaine (fr)[DomainDescrip.]
color; colour; coloring; colouring[ClasseHyper.]
change - alteration, change, modification, transformation - change - change color, change colour, color, colour, discolor, discolour - discolor, discolour - stain - color, color in, colorise, colorize, colour, colour in, colourise, colourize - color, colour, emblazon, paint - colorist - colored, colorful, coloured - uncolored, uncoloured - color, colour[Dérivé]
devenir plus terne (fr)[Classe]
change; alter; modify[ClasseHyper.]
color; colour; coloring; colouring[ClasseHyper.]
change - adjustment, alteration, change, changing, edit, modification, variation - change - alteration, change, modification, transformation - changer, modifier - change - change - alterable - editable, modifiable - color, color in, colorise, colorize, colour, colour in, colourise, colourize - color, colour, emblazon, paint - change color, change colour, color, colour, discolor, discolour - colorist - colored, colorful, coloured - uncolored, uncoloured[Dérivé]
alter, change, modify[Hyper.]
justification - rationalisation, rationalization - justification - apology - justification - apologia, apology - alibi, exculpation, excuse, pretext, self-justification - apologist, justifier, vindicator - apologetic, excusatory - defensive, justificative, justificatory - justifiable - color, colour, gloss[Dérivé]
color, colour, gloss, semblance[Dérivé]
color; colour; coloring; colouring[ClasseHyper.]
beautification - decoration - adornment - embellishment, ornamentation - adornment, decoration, embellishment, ornament, ornamentation - decor, décor, interior decoration - beauty, loveliness - grace, gracefulness, gracility - decorator, ornamentalist - cosmetic, decorative, fancy, ornamental - color, color in, colorise, colorize, colour, colour in, colourise, colourize - color, colour, emblazon, paint - change color, change colour, color, colour, discolor, discolour - colorist - colored, colorful, coloured - uncolored, uncoloured - color, colour - color, coloring, colour, colouring - color, coloring material, colour, colouring material - color, colour[Dérivé]
color (v. intr.) [American]
(faire) devenir autre une propriété (fr)[Classe...]
peau humaine (fr)[Thème]
peau humaine (fr)[termes liés]
étoffe et tissu (fr)[termes liés]
color (v. tr.) [American]
Color or colour (see spelling differences) is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, green, blue, and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light power versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects, materials, light sources, etc., based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by their coordinates.
Because perception of color stems from the varying spectral sensitivity of different types of cone cells in the retina to different parts of the spectrum, colors may be defined and quantified by the degree to which they stimulate these cells. These physical or physiological quantifications of color, however, do not fully explain the psychophysical perception of color appearance.
The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, chromatography, colorimetry, or simply color science. It includes the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (that is, what we commonly refer to simply as light).
|color||wavelength interval||frequency interval|
|red||~ 700–635 nm||~ 430–480 THz|
|orange||~ 635–590 nm||~ 480–510 THz|
|yellow||~ 590–560 nm||~ 510–540 THz|
|green||~ 560–490 nm||~ 540–610 THz|
|blue||~ 490–450 nm||~ 610–670 THz|
|violet||~ 450–400 nm||~ 670–750 THz|
Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its wavelength (or frequency) and its intensity. When the wavelength is within the visible spectrum (the range of wavelengths humans can perceive, approximately from 390 nm to 750 nm), it is known as "visible light".
Most light sources emit light at many different wavelengths; a source's spectrum is a distribution giving its intensity at each wavelength. Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations. In fact, one may formally define a color as a class of spectra that give rise to the same color sensation, although such classes would vary widely among different species, and to a lesser extent among individuals within the same species. In each such class the members are called metamers of the color in question.
The familiar colors of the rainbow in the spectrum – named using the Latin word for appearance or apparition by Isaac Newton in 1671 – include all those colors that can be produced by visible light of a single wavelength only, the pure spectral or monochromatic colors. The table at right shows approximate frequencies (in terahertz) and wavelengths (in nanometers) for various pure spectral colors. The wavelengths are measured in air or vacuum (see refraction).
The color table should not be interpreted as a definitive list – the pure spectral colors form a continuous spectrum, and how it is divided into distinct colors linguistically is a matter of culture and historical contingency (although people everywhere have been shown to perceive colors in the same way). A common list identifies six main bands: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. Newton's conception included a seventh color, indigo, between blue and violet. Optical scientists Hardy and Perrin list indigo as between 446 and 464 nm wavelength.
The intensity of a spectral color, relative to the context in which it is viewed, may alter its perception considerably; for example, a low-intensity orange-yellow is brown, and a low-intensity yellow-green is olive-green.
For discussion of non-spectral colors, see below.
The color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain. Physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light leaving their surfaces, which normally depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and the reflectance properties of the surface, as well as potentially on the angles of illumination and viewing. Some objects not only reflect light, but also transmit light or emit light themselves (see below), which contribute to the color also. And a viewer's perception of the object's color depends not only on the spectrum of the light leaving its surface, but also on a host of contextual cues, so that the color tends to be perceived as relatively constant: that is, relatively independent of the lighting spectrum, viewing angle, etc. This effect is known as color constancy.
Some generalizations of the physics can be drawn, neglecting perceptual effects for now:
For further treatment of the color of objects, see structural color, below.
To summarize, the color of an object is a complex result of its surface properties, its transmission properties, and its emission properties, all of which factors contribute to the mix of wavelengths in the light leaving the surface of the object. The perceived color is then further conditioned by the nature of the ambient illumination, and by the color properties of other objects nearby, via the effect known as color constancy and via other characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain.
Although Aristotle and other ancient scientists had already written on the nature of light and color vision, it was not until Newton that light was identified as the source of the color sensation. In 1810, Goethe published his comprehensive Theory of Colors in which he described the physiological effects of color.
In 1801 Thomas Young proposed his trichromatic theory, based on the observation that any color could be matched with a combination of three lights. This theory was later refined by James Clerk Maxwell and Hermann von Helmholtz. As Helmholtz puts it, "the principles of Newton's law of mixture were experimentally confirmed by Maxwell in 1856. Young's theory of color sensations, like so much else that this marvellous investigator achieved in advance of his time, remained unnoticed until Maxwell directed attention to it."
At the same time as Helmholtz, Ewald Hering developed the opponent process theory of color, noting that color blindness and afterimages typically come in opponent pairs (red-green, blue-orange, yellow-purple, and black-white). Ultimately these two theories were synthesized in 1957 by Hurvich and Jameson, who showed that retinal processing corresponds to the trichromatic theory, while processing at the level of the lateral geniculate nucleus corresponds to the opponent theory.
In 1931, an international group of experts known as the Commission internationale de l'éclairage (CIE) developed a mathematical color model, which mapped out the space of observable colors and assigned a set of three numbers to each.
The ability of the human eye to distinguish colors is based upon the varying sensitivity of different cells in the retina to light of different wavelengths. Humans being trichromatic, the retina contains three types of color receptor cells, or cones. One type, relatively distinct from the other two, is most responsive to light that we perceive as violet, with wavelengths around 420 nm; cones of this type are sometimes called short-wavelength cones, S cones, or blue cones. The other two types are closely related genetically and chemically. One of them, sometimes called long-wavelength cones, L cones, or red cones, is most sensitive to light we perceive as greenish yellow, with wavelengths around 564 nm; the other type, known as middle-wavelength cones, M cones, or green cones is most sensitive to light perceived as green, with wavelengths around 534 nm.
Light, no matter how complex its composition of wavelengths, is reduced to three color components by the eye. For each location in the visual field, the three types of cones yield three signals based on the extent to which each is stimulated. These amounts of stimulation are sometimes called tristimulus values.
The response curve as a function of wavelength for each type of cone is illustrated above. Because the curves overlap, some tristimulus values do not occur for any incoming light combination. For example, it is not possible to stimulate only the mid-wavelength (so-called "green") cones; the other cones will inevitably be stimulated to some degree at the same time. The set of all possible tristimulus values determines the human color space. It has been estimated that humans can distinguish roughly 10 million different colors.
The other type of light-sensitive cell in the eye, the rod, has a different response curve. In normal situations, when light is bright enough to strongly stimulate the cones, rods play virtually no role in vision at all. On the other hand, in dim light, the cones are understimulated leaving only the signal from the rods, resulting in a colorless response. (Furthermore, the rods are barely sensitive to light in the "red" range.) In certain conditions of intermediate illumination, the rod response and a weak cone response can together result in color discriminations not accounted for by cone responses alone. These effects, combined, are summarized also in the Kruithof curve, that describes the change of color perception and pleasingness of light as function of temperature and intensity.
While the mechanisms of color vision at the level of the retina are well-described in terms of tristimulus values (see above), color processing after that point is organized differently. A dominant theory of color vision proposes that color information is transmitted out of the eye by three opponent processes, or opponent channels, each constructed from the raw output of the cones: a red–green channel, a blue–yellow channel, and a black–white "luminance" channel. This theory has been supported by neurobiology, and accounts for the structure of our subjective color experience. Specifically, it explains why we cannot perceive a "reddish green" or "yellowish blue", and it predicts the color wheel: it is the collection of colors for which at least one of the two color channels measures a value at one of its extremes.
The exact nature of color perception beyond the processing already described, and indeed the status of color as a feature of the perceived world or rather as a feature of our perception of the world, is a matter of complex and continuing philosophical dispute (see qualia).
If one or more types of a person's color-sensing cones are missing or less responsive than normal to incoming light, that person can distinguish fewer colors and is said to be color deficient or color blind (though this latter term can be misleading; almost all color deficient individuals can distinguish at least some colors). Some kinds of color deficiency are caused by anomalies in the number or nature of cones in the retina. Others (like central or cortical achromatopsia) are caused by neural anomalies in those parts of the brain where visual processing takes place.
While most humans are trichromatic (having three types of color receptors), many animals, known as tetrachromats, have four types. These include some species of spiders, most marsupials, birds, reptiles, and many species of fish. Other species are sensitive to only two axes of color or do not perceive color at all; these are called dichromats and monochromats respectively. A distinction is made between retinal tetrachromacy (having four pigments in cone cells in the retina, compared to three in trichromats) and functional tetrachromacy (having the ability to make enhanced color discriminations based on that retinal difference). As many as half of all women are retinal tetrachromats.:p.256 The phenomenon arises when an individual receives two slightly different copies of the gene for either the medium- or long-wavelength cones, which are carried on the x-chromosome. To have two different genes, a person must have two x-chromosomes, which is why the phenomenon only occurs in women. For some of these retinal tetrachromats, color discriminations are enhanced, making them functional tetrachromats.
In certain forms of synesthesia, perceiving letters and numbers (grapheme–color synesthesia) or hearing musical sounds (music–color synesthesia) will lead to the unusual additional experiences of seeing colors. Behavioral and functional neuroimaging experiments have demonstrated that these color experiences lead to changes in behavioral tasks and lead to increased activation of brain regions involved in color perception, thus demonstrating their reality, and similarity to real color percepts, albeit evoked through a non-standard route.
After exposure to strong light in their sensitivity range, photoreceptors of a given type become desensitized. For a few seconds after the light ceases, they will continue to signal less strongly than they otherwise would. Colors observed during that period will appear to lack the color component detected by the desensitized photoreceptors. This effect is responsible for the phenomenon of afterimages, in which the eye may continue to see a bright figure after looking away from it, but in a complementary color.
Afterimage effects have also been utilized by artists, including Vincent van Gogh.
There is an interesting phenomenon which occurs when an artist uses a limited color palette: the eye tends to compensate by seeing any gray or neutral color as the color which is missing from the color wheel. For example, in a limited palette consisting of red, yellow, black, and white, a mixture of yellow and black will appear as a variety of green, a mixture of red and black will appear as a variety of purple, and pure gray will appear bluish.
The trichromatic theory discussed above is strictly true when the visual system is in a fixed state of adaptation. In reality, the visual system is constantly adapting to changes in the environment and compares the various colors in a scene to reduce the effects of the illumination. If a scene is illuminated with one light, and then with another, as long as the difference between the light sources stays within a reasonable range, the colors in the scene appear relatively constant to us. This was studied by Edwin Land in the 1970s and led to his retinex theory of color constancy.
It should be noted, that both phenomena described above are readily explained and mathematical modeled with modern theories of chromatic adaptation and color appearance (e.g. CIECAM02, iCAM). There is no need to dismiss the trichromatic theory of vision, but rather it must be enhanced with an understanding of how the visual system adapts (adjusts) to changes in the viewing environment.
Colors vary in several different ways, including hue (shades of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet), saturation, brightness, and gloss. Some color words are derived from the name of an object of that color, such as "orange" or "salmon", while others are abstract, like "red".
In the 1969 study Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution, Brent Berlin and Paul Kay describe a pattern in naming "basic" colors (like "red" but not "red-orange" or "dark red" or "blood red", which are "shades" of red). All languages that have two "basic" color names distinguish dark/cool colors from bright/warm colors. The next colors to be distinguished are usually red and then yellow or green. All languages with six "basic" colors include black, white, red, green, blue, and yellow. The pattern holds up to a set of twelve: black, gray, white, pink, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, brown, and azure (distinct from blue in Russian and Italian, but not English).
Individual colors have a variety of cultural associations such as national colors (in general described in individual color articles and color symbolism). The field of color psychology attempts to identify the effects of color on human emotion and activity. Chromotherapy is a form of alternative medicine attributed to various Eastern traditions. Colors have different associations in different countries and cultures.
Different colors have been demonstrated to have effects on cognition. For example, researchers at the University of Linz in Austria demonstrated that the color red significantly decreases cognitive functioning in men.
Most light sources are mixtures of various wavelengths of light. Many such sources can still effectively produce a spectral color, as the eye cannot distinguish them from single-wavelength sources. For example, most computer displays reproduce the spectral color orange as a combination of red and green light; it appears orange because the red and green are mixed in the right proportions to allow the eye's cones to respond the way they do to the spectral color orange.
A useful concept in understanding the perceived color of a non-monochromatic light source is the dominant wavelength, which identifies the single wavelength of light that produces a sensation most similar to the light source. Dominant wavelength is roughly akin to hue.
There are many color perceptions that by definition cannot be pure spectral colors due to desaturation or because they are purples (mixtures of red and violet light, from opposite ends of the spectrum). Some examples of necessarily non-spectral colors are the achromatic colors (black, gray, and white) and colors such as pink, tan, and magenta.
Two different light spectra that have the same effect on the three color receptors in the human eye will be perceived as the same color. They are metamers of that color. This is exemplified by the white light emitted by fluorescent lamps, which typically has a spectrum of a few narrow bands, while daylight has a continuous spectrum. The human eye cannot tell the difference between such light spectra just by looking into the light source, although reflected colors from objects can look different. (This is often exploited; for example, to make fruit or tomatoes look more intensely red.)
Similarly, most human color perceptions can be generated by a mixture of three colors called primaries. This is used to reproduce color scenes in photography, printing, television, and other media. There are a number of methods or color spaces for specifying a color in terms of three particular primary colors. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages depending on the particular application.
No mixture of colors, however, can produce a fully pure color perceived as completely identical to a spectral color, although one can get very close for the longer wavelengths, where the chromaticity diagram above has a nearly straight edge. For example, mixing green light (530 nm) and blue light (460 nm) produces cyan light that is slightly desaturated, because response of the red color receptor would be greater to the green and blue light in the mixture than it would be to a pure cyan light at 485 nm that has the same intensity as the mixture of blue and green.
Because of this, and because the primaries in color printing systems generally are not pure themselves, the colors reproduced are never perfectly saturated colors, and so spectral colors cannot be matched exactly. However, natural scenes rarely contain fully saturated colors, thus such scenes can usually be approximated well by these systems. The range of colors that can be reproduced with a given color reproduction system is called the gamut. The CIE chromaticity diagram can be used to describe the gamut.
Another problem with color reproduction systems is connected with the acquisition devices, like cameras or scanners. The characteristics of the color sensors in the devices are often very far from the characteristics of the receptors in the human eye. In effect, acquisition of colors that have some special, often very "jagged", spectra caused for example by unusual lighting of the photographed scene can be relatively poor.
Species that have color receptors different from humans – such as bird species, which may have four receptors – can make color discriminations that humans cannot. A color reproduction system "tuned" to a human with normal color vision may give very inaccurate results for the other observers, human or non-human.
The different color response of different devices can be problematic if not properly managed. For color information stored and transferred in digital form, color management techniques, such as those based on ICC profiles, can help to avoid distortions of the reproduced colors. Color management does not circumvent the gamut limitations of particular output devices, but can assist in finding good mapping of input colors into the gamut that can be reproduced.
Pigments are chemicals that selectively absorb and reflect different spectra of light. When a surface is painted with a pigment, light hitting the surface is reflected, minus some wavelengths. This subtraction of wavelengths produces the appearance of different colors. Most paints are a blend of several chemical pigments, intended to produce a reflection of a given color.
Pigment manufacturers assume the source light will be white, or of roughly equal intensity across the spectrum. If the light is not a pure white source (as in the case of nearly all forms of artificial lighting), the resulting spectrum will appear a slightly different color. Red paint, viewed under blue light, may appear black. Red paint is red because it reflects only the red components of the spectrum. Blue light, containing none of these, will create no reflection from red paint, creating the appearance of black.
Structural colors are colors caused by interference effects rather than by pigments. Color effects are produced when a material is scored with fine parallel lines, formed of one or more parallel thin layers, or otherwise composed of microstructures on the scale of the color's wavelength. If the microstructures are spaced randomly, light of shorter wavelengths will be scattered preferentially to produce Tyndall effect colors: the blue of the sky (Rayleigh scattering, caused by structures much smaller than the wavelength of light, in this case air molecules), the luster of opals, and the blue of human irises. If the microstructures are aligned in arrays, for example the array of pits in a CD, they behave as a diffraction grating: the grating reflects different wavelengths in different directions due to interference phenomena, separating mixed "white" light into light of different wavelengths. If the structure is one or more thin layers then it will reflect some wavelengths and transmit others, depending on the layers' thickness.
Structural color is studied in the field of thin-film optics. A layman's term that describes particularly the most ordered or the most changeable structural colors is iridescence. Structural color is responsible for the blues and greens of the feathers of many birds (the blue jay, for example), as well as certain butterfly wings and beetle shells. Variations in the pattern's spacing often give rise to an iridescent effect, as seen in peacock feathers, soap bubbles, films of oil, and mother of pearl, because the reflected color depends upon the viewing angle. Numerous scientists have carried out research in butterfly wings and beetle shells, including Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke. Since 1942, electron micrography has been used, advancing the development of products that exploit structural color, such as "photonic" cosmetics.
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