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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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The combined gas law is a gas law which combines Charles's law, Boyle's law,and Gay-Lussac's law. These laws each relate one thermodynamic variable to another mathematically while holding everything else constant. Charles's law states that volume and temperature are directly proportional to each other as long as pressure is held constant. Boyle's law asserts that pressure and volume are inversely proportional to each other at fixed temperature. Finally, Gay-Lussac's law introduces a direct proportionality between temperature and pressure as long as it is at a constant volume. The inter-dependence of these variables is shown in the combined gas law, which clearly states that:
|“||The ratio between the pressure-volume product and the temperature of a system remains constant.||”|
This can be stated mathematically as
For comparing the same substance under two different sets of conditions, the law can be written as:
Boyle's Law states that the pressure-volume product is constant:
Charles's Law shows that the
A derivation of the combined gas law using only elementary algebra can contain surprises. For example, starting from the three empirical laws
where kv, kp, and kt are the constants, one can multiply the three together to obtain
Taking the square root of both sides and dividing by T appears to produce of the desired result
However, if before applying the above procedure, one merely rearranges the terms in Boyle's Law, kt = P V, then after canceling and rearranging, one obtains
which is not very helpful if not misleading.
In seeking to find kv(V), one should not unthinkingly eliminate T between (4) and (5) since P is varying in the former while it is assumed constant in the latter. Rather it should first be determined in what sense these equations are compatible with one another. To gain insight into this, recall that any two variables determine the third. Choosing P and V to be independent we picture the T values forming a surface above the PV plane. A definite V0 and P0 define a T0, a point on that surface. Substituting these values in (4) and (5), and rearranging yields
Since these both describe what is happening at the same point on the surface the two numeric expressions can be equated and rearranged
The kv(V0) and kp(P0)are the slopes of orthogonal lines through that surface point. Their ratio depends only on P0 / V0 at that point.
Note that the functional form of (6) did not depend on the particular point chosen. The same formula would have arisen for any other combination of P and V values. Therefore one can write
This says each point on the surface has it own pair of orthogonal lines through it, with their slope ratio depending only on that point. Whereas (6) is a relation between specific slopes and variable values, (7) is a relation between slope functions and function variables. It holds true for any point on the surface, i.e. for any and all combinations of P and V values. To solve this equation for the function kv(V) first separate the variables, V on the left and P on the right.
Choose any pressure P1. the right side evaluates to some arbitrary value, call it karb.
This particular equation must now hold true, not just for one value of V but for all values of V. The only definition of kv(V) that guarantees this for all V and arbitrary karb is
which may be verified by substitution in (8).
Finally substituting (9) in Gay-Lussac's law (4) and rearranging produces the combined gas law
Note that Boyle's law was not used in this derivation but is easily deduced from the result. Generally any two of the three starting laws are all that is needed in this type of derivation - all starting pairs lead to the same combined gas law.
The combined gas law can be used to explain the mechanics where pressure, temperature, and volume are affected. For example: air conditioners, refrigerators and the formation of clouds.