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Weathering steel

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Cor-Ten steel – Fulcrum (1987) by Richard Serra
Hebrew version of the LOVE sculpture. Ahava ('love' in Hebrew) sculpture made of Cor-Ten steel by Robert Indiana (American), 1977, resting in the Israel Museum Art Garden, Jerusalem, Israel.

Weathering steel, best-known under the trademark COR-TEN steel and sometimes written without the hyphen as "Corten steel", is a group of steel alloys which were developed to obviate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance if exposed to the weather for several years.

United States Steel Corporation (USS) holds the registered trademark on the name COR-TEN.[1] Although USS sold its discrete plate business to International Steel Group (now Arcelor-Mittal) in 2003,[2] it still sells COR-TEN branded material in strip-mill plate and sheet forms.

The original COR-TEN received the standard designation A 242 ("COR-TEN A") from the ASTM International standards group. Newer ASTM grades are A 588 ("COR-TEN B") and A 606 for thin sheet. All alloys are in common production and use.

Contents

Properties

"Weathering" means that due to their chemical compositions, these steels exhibit increased resistance to atmospheric corrosion compared to unalloyed steels. This is because the steel forms a protective layer on its surface under the influence of the weather.

The corrosion-retarding effect of the protective layer is produced by the particular distribution and concentration of alloying elements in it. The layer protecting the surface develops and regenerates continuously when subjected to the influence of the weather.

Chemical composition of Cor-ten grades[3]
Grade %C %Si %Mn %P %S %Cr %Cu %V %Ni
Cor-ten A0.120.25-0.750.20-0.500.07-0.150.0300.50-1.250.25-0.550.65
Cor-ten B0.160.30-0.500.80-1.250.0300.0300.40-0.650.25-0.400.02-0.100.40

The mechanical properties of weathering steels depend on which alloy and how thick the material is.[4][5]

ASTM A 242

The original A 242 alloy has a yield strength of 50,000 pounds per square inch (340,000 kPa) and ultimate tensile strength of 70,000 psi (480,000 kPa) for light-medium rolled shapes and plates up to 0.75 inches (19 mm) thick. It has yield strength of 46,000 psi (320,000 kPa) and ultimate strength of 67,000 psi (460,000 kPa) for medium weight rolled shapes and plates from 0.75–1 inch (19–25 mm) thick. The thickest rolled sections and plates – from 1.5–4 in (38–100 mm) thick have yield strength of 42,000 psi (290,000 kPa) and ultimate strength of 63,000 psi (430,000 kPa).

ASTM A 588

A 588 has a yield strength of at least 50,000 psi (340,000 kPa), and ultimate tensile strength of 70,000 psi (480,000 kPa) for all rolled shapes and plate thicknesses up to 4 in (100 mm) thick. Plates from 4–5 in (100–130 mm) have yield strength at least 46,000 psi (320,000 kPa) and ultimate tensile strength at least 67,000 psi (460,000 kPa), and plates from 5–8 in (130–200 mm) thick have yield strength at least 42,000 psi (290,000 kPa) and ultimate tensile strength at least 63,000 psi (430,000 kPa).

Usage

Weathering steel is popularly used in outdoor sculptures, such as in the large Chicago Picasso sculpture, and as exterior facades, for its rustic antique appearance. Examples include The Angel of the North, Gateshead, UK and the Humanites and Arts complex at Leeds Metropolitan University - Broadcasting Place - Leeds, UK [6]

It has also been used in bridge and other large structural applications such as the New River Gorge Bridge, the newer span of the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge, and the creation of the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art (ACCA).

It is very widely used in marine transportation, in the construction of Intermodal containers.[7]

The first use of COR-TEN for architectural applications was the John Deere World Headquarters in Moline, Illinois. The building was designed by architect Eero Saarinen, and completed in 1964. In 1977, Robert Indiana created a Hebrew version of the Love sculpture using the four letter word ahava (אהבה "love" in Hebrew) made from COR-TEN, for the Israel Museum Art Garden in Jerusalem, Israel.

COR-TEN was used in 1971 for an order of electric railcars built by the St. Louis Car Company for Illinois Central Railroad. The use of COR-TEN was seen as a cost-cutting move in comparison with the contemporary railcar standard of stainless steel. A subsequent order in 1979 was built to similar specs, including COR-TEN bodies, by Bombardier. The cars were painted, a standard practice for COR-TEN railcars. However, the durability of COR-TEN did not live up to expectations, with rust holes appearing in the railcars. Ironically, painting may have contributed to the problem, as painted weathering steel is no more corrosion-resistant than conventional steel, because the protective patina will not form in time to prevent corrosion over a localized area of attack such as a small paint failure. Most of these railcars still operate out of Chicago.[8]

Usage challenges

Using weathering steel in construction presents several challenges. Ensuring that weld-points weather at the same rate as the other materials may require special welding techniques or material. Weathering steel is not rustproof in itself. If water is allowed to accumulate in pockets, those areas will experience higher corrosion rates, so provision for drainage must be made. Weathering steel is sensitive to salt-laden air environments like Hawaii. In such environments, it is possible that the protective patina may not stabilize but instead continue to corrode. An example of such a structure would be the Aloha Stadium built in 1975 in Hawaii. The former Omni Coliseum, built in 1972 in Atlanta, Georgia never stopped rusting and eventually large holes appeared in the structure, a major factor in the decision to demolish it just 25 years after construction.Weathering steel's normal surface weathering can lead to rust stains on nearby surfaces.

The U.S. Steel Tower in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was constructed by U.S. Steel in part to showcase COR-TEN steel. The initial weathering of the material resulted in a discoloration of the surrounding city sidewalks, as well as other nearby buildings. A cleanup effort was orchestrated by the corporation once weathering was complete to undo this damage, but the sidewalks still have a decidedly rusty tinge. This problem has been reduced in newer formulations of weathering steel. Staining can be prevented if the structure can be detailed so that water does not drain from the steel onto concrete where stains would be visible.

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