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definitions - Cottonseed_oil

cottonseed oil (n.)

1.edible oil pressed from cottonseeds

Cottonseed Oil (n.)

1.(MeSH)Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.

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Merriam Webster

Cottonseed oilCottonseed oil. A fixed, semidrying oil extracted from cottonseed. It is pale yellow when pure (sp. gr., .92-.93). and is extensively used in soap making, in cookery, and as an adulterant of other oils.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Cottonseed_oil

Cottonseed Oil (n.) (MeSH)

Cottonseed  (MeSH)

analogical dictionary



Wikipedia

Cottonseed oil

                   
  Cotton seeds

Cottonseed oil is a cooking oil extracted from the seeds of cotton plant of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum. Cotton grown for oil extraction is one of the big four genetically modified crops grown around the world, next to soy, corn, and rapeseed (canola), mostly Monsanto products.[1][2]

Cotton seed has a similar structure to other oilseeds such as sunflower seed, having an oil-bearing kernel surrounded by a hard outer hull; in processing, the oil is extracted from the kernel. Cottonseed oil is used for salad oil, mayonnaise, salad dressing, and similar products because of its flavor stability.[3] The cottonseed oil undergoes intensive treatment after extraction to reduce the level of gossypol found in untreated cottonseed oil, the consumption of which may produce undesirable side effects.[4]

Contents

  Composition

  Mississippi Cottonseed Oil Co. seed house, Jackson, Mississippi, USA

Its fatty acid profile generally consists of 70% unsaturated fatty acids (18% monounsaturated, and 52% polyunsaturated), 26% saturated fatty acids and 4% glycerol.[5] When it is fully hydrogenated, its profile is 94% saturated fat and 2% unsaturated fatty (1.5% monounsaturated, and 0.5% polyunsaturated).[5] The cottonseed oil industry claims cottenseed oil does not need to be hydrogenated as much as other polyunsaturated oils to achieve similar results.[3]

Gossypol is a toxic, yellow, polyphenolic compound produced by cotton and other members of the order Malvaceae, such as okra.[6] This coloured compound is found in tiny glands in the seed, leaf, stem, tap root bark, and root of the cotton plant. The adaptive function of the compound is believed to be one of facilitating insect resistance. Further, gossypol[Gossypol 1] acts as a male and female contraceptive. It may be used to treat gynaecological problems and viral infections. In addition, global cottonseed production can potentially provide the protein requirements for half a billion people per year. Work is under way to find a viable solution to the gossypol[Gossypol 2] problem.

The three key steps of refining, bleaching and deodorization in producing finished oil act to reduce the gossypol level. Ferric chloride is often used to decolorize cotton seed oil.[7]

  Comparison to other vegetable oils

Vegetable oils
Type Saturated
fatty acids[8]
Mono-
unsaturated
fatty acids[8]
Polyunsaturated fatty acids Oleic acid
(ω-9)
Smoke point
Total poly[8] linolenic acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic acid
(ω-6)
Not hydrogenated[9]
Canola 7.365 63.276 28.142 10 22 62 400 °F (204 °C) [10]
Coconut 86.500 5.800 1.800 - 2 6 350 °F (177 °C) [11]
Corn 12.948 27.576 54.677 1 58 28 450 °F (232 °C) [10]
Cottonseed 25.900 17.800 51.900 1 54 19 420 °F (216 °C) [10]
Olive 13.808 72.961 10.523 1 10 71 374 °F (190 °C) [12]
Palm 49.300 37.000 9.300 - 10 40 455 °F (235 °C) [13]
Peanut 16.900 46.200 32.000 - 32 48 437 °F (225 °C) [10]
Safflower (high oleic) 7.541 75.221 12.820 0.096 12.724 74.742 510 °F (266 °C) [10]
Soybean 15.650 22.783 57.740 7 54 24 460 °F (238 °C) [10]
Sunflower
(<60%linoleic)
10.100 45.400 40.100 0.200 39.800 45.300 440 °F (227 °C) [10]
Fully hydrogenated
Cottonseed 93.600 1.529 .587 .287[8]
Palm 47.500 40.600 7.500
Soybean 21.100 73.700 .400 .096[8]
Values as weight percent (%) of total fat.

  Nutrition

Cottonseed oil is under scrutiny by some nutritionists, who deem it too high in saturated fat and too low in monounsaturated fat.[14] Detractors say cottonseed oil may contain natural toxins and unacceptably high levels of pesticide residues, since "cotton is not classified as a food crop, and farmers use many agrichemicals when growing it."[14] The natural toxin, gossypol, is eliminated in the refining process of commercially edible cottonseed oil, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has documented the lack of appreciable residues in cottonseed and cottonseed oil.[15] Cottonseed oil has traditionally been used in foods such as potato chips and is a primary ingredient in Crisco, the shortening product.[16] But since it is significantly less expensive than olive oil or canola oil, cottonseed has started to creep into a much wider range of processed foods, including cereals, breads and snack foods. Products that say "may contain one or more of these oils" and list cottonseed, virtually always contain it.[17] Cottonseed oil resists rancidity, so offers a longer shelf life for food products in which it is an ingredient.

  Physical properties

Once processed, cottonseed oil has a mild taste and appears generally clear with a light golden color, the amount of color depending on the amount of refining.[18] It has a relatively high smoke point as a frying medium. Like other long-chain fatty acid oils, cottonseed oil has a smoke point of about 450 °F (232 °C),[6] and is high in tocopherols, which also contribute its stability, giving products that contain it a long shelf life, hence manufacturers' proclivity to use it in packaged goods.

  References

  1. ^ "Reports on GM Canola". http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nrensr.nsf/LinkView/AE641E63162D0A50CA256ECA000A8B123A8D6D972510B1ED4A2567C40015A7EE.  from the Australian Department of Primary Industries.
  2. ^ "Australian Department of Primary Industries homepage". http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/. 
  3. ^ a b "Twenty Facts About Cottonseed Oil". National Cottonseed Products Association. http://www.cottonseed.com/publications/facts.asp. 
  4. ^ "Low potassium levels from use of Gossypol linked to paralysis". International Family Planning Perspectives 7 (1): 24–25. 1981. DOI:10.2307/2947696. JSTOR 2947696. "Gossypol, a male antifertility agent derived from the cotton plant, may be the cause of hypokalemic paralysis in a small but significant proportion of its users." 
  5. ^ a b "Nutrient data for 04502, Oil, cottonseed, salad or cooking". United States Department of Agriculture. http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/764. 
  6. ^ a b Jones, Lynn A.; King, C. Clay (1996). "Cottonseed oil". In Y. H. Hui (ed.). Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Edible Oil and Fat Products: Oils and Oilseeds. New York: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-59426-0. 
  7. ^ "Research abstract: Southern Regional Research Laboratory". http://www.springerlink.com/content/h860k75388370033/. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "Nutrient database, Release 24". United States Department of Agriculture. http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/.  All values in this column are from the USDA Nutrient database unless otherwise cited.
  9. ^ "Fats, Oils, Fatty Acids, Triglycerides". Scientific Psychic (R). http://www.scientificpsychic.com/fitness/fattyacids1.html.  All values for ω-3, ω-6, ω-9 fats (not hydrogenated) are from Scientific Psychic (R) unless otherwise cited.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/15/AR2007051500398.html. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  11. ^ Nutiva, Coconut Oil Manufacturer,http://nutiva.com/the-nutiva-kitchen/coconut-oil-recipes/
  12. ^ The Culinary Institute of America (2011). The Professional Chef. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-470-42135-5. 
  13. ^ (Italian) Scheda tecnica dell'olio di palma bifrazionato PO 64.
  14. ^ a b Dr. Andrew Weil. "Why you should avoid cottonseed oil?". Q & A Library. http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/QAA400361/Is-Cottonseed-Oil-Okay.html. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  15. ^ Edible Fats and oils: basic principles and modern practices, Daivd R. Erickson
  16. ^ "Ingredient facts". crisco.com. http://www.crisco.com/Products/Details.aspx?groupID=17&prodID=803. 
  17. ^ "Cottonseed oil use on the rise". cotton 247.com. http://www.cotton247.com/cg/?storyid=743. 
  18. ^ "Cottonseed oil". National Cottonseed Products Association. http://www.cottonseedoiltour.com/pdf/NCPA_CSOFACTSHEET_03.pdf. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  1. ^ "Gossypol". drugs.com. http://www.drugs.com/npp/gossypol.html. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  2. ^ Engineering cottonseed for use in human nutrition by tissue-specific reduction of toxic gossypol. pnas.org. June 27, 2006. DOI:10.1073/pnas.103.48.18054. 

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