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definition - Cree_Language

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Cree language

                   
Cree
ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ
Spoken natively in Canada, United States
Ethnicity Cree
Native speakers 117,400  (2006 census)[1]
(including MontagnaisNaskapi and Atikamekw)
Language family
Writing system Latin, Canadian Aboriginal syllabics (Cree)
Official status
Official language in Northwest Territories (Canada)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 cr
ISO 639-2 cre
ISO 639-3 creinclusive code
Individual codes:
nsk – Naskapi
moe – Montagnais
atj – Atikamekw
crm – Moose Cree
crl – Northern East Cree
crj – Southern East Cree
csw – Swampy Cree
cwd – Woods Cree
crk – Plains Cree
Crimapo.png
A rough map of Cree dialect areas

Cree (Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ; also known as Cree–Montagnais, Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is an Algonquian language spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories and Alberta to Labrador, making it the aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada.[1] Despite numerous speakers within this wide-ranging area, the only region where Cree has any official status is in the Northwest Territories, alongside eight other aboriginal languages.[2]

Contents

  Names

Endonyms are Nēhiyawēwin ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ (Plains Cree), Nīhithawīwin (Woods Cree), Nēhinawēwin and Nehirâmowin (Atikamekw), Nehilawewin (Western Montagnais, Piyekwâkamî dialect), Leluwewn (Western Montagnais, Betsiamites dialect), Innu-Aimûn (Eastern Montagnais), Iynu-Ayamûn (Southern Inland East Cree), Iyiyiw-Iyimiwin (Northern East Cree).

  Dialect criteria

The Cree dialect continuum can be divided by many criteria. Dialects spoken in northern Ontario and the southern James Bay, Lanaudière, and Mauricie regions of Quebec make a distinct difference between /ʃ/ (sh as in she) and /s/, while those to the west (where both are pronounced /s/) and east (where both are pronounced either /ʃ/ or /h/) do not. In several dialects, including northern Plains Cree and Woods Cree, the long vowels /eː/ and /iː/ have merged into a single vowel, /iː/. In the Quebec communities of Chisasibi, Whapmagoostui, and Kawawachikamach, the long vowel /eː/ has merged with /aː/.

However, the most transparent phonological variation between different Cree dialects are the reflexes of Proto-Algonquian *r in the modern dialects, as shown below:

Dialect Location Reflex
of *n
Word for "Native person"
← *elenyiwa
Word for "You"
← *kīla
Plains Cree SK, AB, BC, NT y iyiniw kiya
Woods Cree MB, SK ð/th iðiniw/ithiniw kīða/kītha
Swampy Cree ON, MB, SK n ininiw kīna
Moose Cree ON l ililiw kīla
Northern East Cree QC y īyiyū čīy ᒌ
Southern East Cree QC y iynū čīy ᒌ
Kawawachikamach Naskapi QC y iyyū čīy
Atikamekw QC r iriniw kīr
Western Innu QC l ilnū čīl
Eastern Innu QC, NL n innū čīn

The Plains Cree, speakers of the y dialect, refer to their language as nēhiyawēwin, whereas Woods Cree speakers say nīhithawīwin, and Swampy Cree speakers say nēhinawēwin. This is similar to the alternation in the Siouan languages Dakota, Nakota, and Lakota.

Another important phonological variation among the Cree dialects involves the palatalisation of Proto-Algonquian *k: East of the Ontario-Quebec border (except for Atikamekw), Proto-Algonquian *k has changed into /tʃ/ or /ts/ (ch as in cheese and ts as in Watson) before front vowels. See the table above for examples in the *kīla column.

Very often the Cree dialect continuum is divided into two languages: Cree and Montagnais. Cree includes all dialects which have not undergone the *k -> /tʃ/ sound change (BC–QC) while Montagnais encompasses the territory where this sound change has occurred (QC–NL). These labels are very useful from a linguistic perspective but are confusing as East Cree then qualifies as Montagnais. For practical purposes, Cree usually covers the dialects which use syllabics as their orthography (including Atikamekw but excluding Kawawachikamach Naskapi), the term Montagnais then applies to those dialects using the Latin script (excluding Atikamekw and including Kawawachikamach Naskapi). The term Naskapi typically refers to Kawawachikamach (y-dialect) and Natuashish (n-dialect).

  Dialect groups

The Cree dialects can be broadly classified into nine groups. From west to east:

ISO-3 ISO-3 name Linguasphere Linguasphere name dialect type additional comments
cre Cree (generic) 62-ADA-a Cree
cwd Woods Cree
(Nīhithawīwin)
62-ADA-ab Woods Cree th / k / s / ī Also known as "Woods/Rocky Cree". In this dialect ē has merged into ī.
crk Plains Cree 62-ADA-aa Plains Cree y / k / s / ī (northern)
y / k / s / e (southern)
Divided to Southern Plains Cree (Nēhiyawēwin) and Northern Plains Cree (Nēhiyawēmowin). In the Northern dialect, ē has merged into ī.
crw Swampy Cree
(Nēhinawēwin)
62-ADA-ac Swampy Cree, West
(Ininīmowin)
n / k / s / e Also known as "West Main Cree." In the western dialect, š has merged with s.
62-ADA-ad Swampy Cree, East (Ininiwi-Išikišwēwin) n / k / s\š / e
crm Moose Cree
(Ililīmowin)
62-ADA-ae Moose Cree l / k / s\š / e Also known as "West Main Cree." "Central Main Cree," "West Shore Cree," or "York Cree."
crl Northern East Cree
(Īyiyū Ayimūn)
62-ADA-af Cree, East y / č / s\š / ā Also known as "James Bay Cree" or "East Main Cree". The long vowels ē and ā have merged in the northern dialect but are distinct in the southern. Southern East Cree is divided between coastal (southwestern) and inland (southeastern) varieties. Also, the inland southern dialect has lost the distinction between s and š. Here, the inland southern dialect falls in line with the rest of the Naskapi groups where both phonemes have become š. Nonetheless, the people from the two areas easily communicate.
crj Southern East Cree
(Īnū Ayimūn)
62-ADA-ag Cree, Southeast y / č / s\š / e (coastal)
y / č / š~s / e (inland)
62-ADA-b Innu
nsk Naskapi 62-ADA-ba Mushau Innuts
62-ADA-baa Koksoak y / č / š~s / ā Western Naskapi (Kawawachikamach)
62-ADA-bab Davis Inlet n / č / š~s / ā Eastern Naskapi (Mushuau Innu or Natuashish)
moe Montagnais 62-ADA-bb Uashau Innuts + Bersimis
62-ADA-bbe Pointe Bleue l / č / s\š / e Western Montagnais (Leluwewn); also known as the "Betsiamites dialect"
62-ADA-bbd Escoumains
62-ADA-bbc Bersimis
62-ADA-bbb Uashaui Innuts n / č / s\š / e Western Montagnais (Nehilawewin), but sometimes called "Central Montagnais" or "Piyekwâkamî dialect"
62-ADA-bba Mingan n / č / s\š / e Eastern Montagnais (Innu-aimûn)
62-ADA-c Atikamekw
atj Atikamekw
(Nehirâmowin)
62-ADA-ca Manawan r / k / s\š / e
62-ADA-cb Wemotaci
62-ADA-cc Opitciwan

  Phonology

This table is made to show all possible consonant phonemes that may be included in a Cree language.

Consonant phonemes
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop p t t͡s t͡ʃ k
Fricative ð s ʃ h
Approximant ɹ j w
Lateral l

  Syntax

Like many Native American languages, Cree features a complex polysynthetic morphology and syntax. A common grammatical feature in Cree dialects, in terms of sentence structure, is non-regulated word order. Word order is not governed by a specific set of rules or structure; instead, “subjects and objects are expressed by means of inflection on the verb”.[3] Subject, Verb, and Object (SVO) in a sentence can vary in order, for example, SVO, VOS, OVS, and SOV.[3][4]

Obviation is also a key aspect of the Cree language(s). In a sense, the obviative can be defined as any third-person ranked lower on a hierarchy of discourse salience than some other (proximate) discourse-participant. “Obviative animate nouns, [in the Plains Cree dialect for instance], are marked by [a suffix] ending –a, and are used to refer to third persons who are more peripheral in the discourse than the proximate third person”.[5] For example:

Sam wâpam-ew Susan-a
Sam see-3SG Susan-3OBV
"Sam sees Susan"

The suffix -a marks Susan as the obviative, or ‘fourth’ person, the person furthest away from the discourse.[3]

Another distinct feature of the Cree language is what could be understood as gender, similar to the French language’s genders of male and female nouns. Cree defines nouns as being animate or inanimate. There is no distinct rule governing the classification of animacy or inanimacy, rather, it is learned through immersive language acquisition.[3] A Cree word can be very long, and express something that takes a series of words in English. For example, the Plains Cree word for "school" is kiskinohamātowikamikw, "know.CAUS.APPLICATIVE.RECIPROCAL.place" or the "knowing-it-together-by-example place".

  Written Cree

  Writing systems

Cree dialects, except for those spoken in eastern Quebec and Labrador, are traditionally written using Cree syllabics, a variant of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, but can be written with the Latin script as well. Both writing systems represent the language phonetically. Cree is always written from left to right horizontally.[6] The easternmost dialects are written using the Latin script exclusively. The dialects of Plains Cree, Woods Cree, and Swampy Cree use Western Cree syllabics and the dialects of East Cree, Moose Cree, and Naskapi use Eastern Cree syllabics. In this syllabic system, each symbol, which represents a consonant, can be written four ways, each direction representing its corresponding vowel.[6] Some dialects of Cree have up to seven vowels, so additional diacritics are placed after the syllabic to represent the corresponding vowels. Finals represent stand-alone consonants.[6]

The following tables show the syllabaries of Eastern and Western Cree dialects, respectively:


Speakers of various Cree dialects have begun creating dictionaries to serve their communities. Some projects, such as the Cree Language Resource Project (CLRP), are developing an online bilingual Cree dictionary for the Cree language.

  Punctuation

Cree does not use the period (.) at the end of sentences when syllabics are used. Instead, either a full-stop glyph (᙮) or a double m-width space is used between words to signal the transition from one sentence to the next. In addition, Cree does not use the question mark (?). For instance, in the Plains Cree dialect, to indicate a question, the suffix -cî can be included in the sentence:[3]

John mîcisow
3rd person sing--interrogative marker--past tense marker--verb--3rd person suffix
Did John eat?

Additionally, interrogatives (where, when, what, why, who) can be used.[3]

  Contact languages

Cree is also a component language in two contact languages, Michif and Bungi. Both languages were spoken by members of the Métis, the Voyageurs, and European settlers of Western Canada and parts of the Northern United States.

Michif is a mixed language which combines Cree with French. For the most part, Michif uses Cree verbs, question words, and demonstratives while using French nouns. Michif is unique to the Canadian prairie provinces as well as to North Dakota and Montana in the United States.[7] Michif is still spoken in central Canada and in North Dakota.

Bungi is a dialect of Scottish English with substrate influences from Cree and Ojibwe.[8] Some French words have also been incorporated into its lexicon. This language flourished at and around the Red River Settlement (modern day location of Winnipeg, Manitoba) by the mid to late 1900s.[9] Bungi is now virtually extinct.[8]

Many Cree words also became the basis for words in the Chinook Jargon trade language used until some point after contact with Europeans.[citation needed]

Cree has also been incorporated into two other mixed languages within Canada. The Oji-Cree language (also Severn Ojibwe), spoken in parts of Manitoba and western Ontario, is a mixed language of Cree and Ojibwe, and the Nehipwat language, which is a blending of Cree with Assiniboine. Nehipwat is found only in a few southern Saskatchewan reserves and is now nearing extinction. Nothing is known of its structure.[10]

  Legal status

  A Quebec stop sign in Cree/English/French

The social and legal status of Cree varies across Canada. Cree is one of the eleven official languages of the Northwest Territories, but is only spoken by a small number of people there in the area around the town of Fort Smith.[2] It is also one of two principal languages of the new regional government of James Bay in Quebec, the other being French.[11]

In many areas, it is a vibrant community language spoken by large majorities and taught in schools through immersion and second-language programmes. In other areas, its use has declined dramatically. Cree is one of the least endangered aboriginal languages in North America, but is nonetheless at risk since it possesses little institutional support in most areas.

  See also

  References

  1. ^ a b Statistics Canada: 2006 Census
  2. ^ a b Northwest Territories Official Languages Act, 1988 (as amended 1988, 1991–1992, 2003)
  3. ^ a b c d e f Thunder,Dorothy
  4. ^ Dahlstrom, introduction
  5. ^ Dahlstrom pp. 11
  6. ^ a b c Ager, Simon: Omniglot, Cree Syllabary
  7. ^ Bakker and Papen p. 295
  8. ^ a b Bakker and Papen p. 304
  9. ^ Carter p. 63
  10. ^ Bakker and Papen p. 305
  11. ^ Agreement on Governance in the Eeyou Istchee James Bay Territory Between the Crees of Eeyou Istchee and the Gouvernement du Québec, 2012

  Bibliography

  External links

   
               

 

All translations of Cree_Language


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