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definitions - Crow

crow (n.)

1.black birds having a raucous call

2.an instance of boastful talk"his brag is worse than his fight" "whenever he won we were exposed to his gasconade"

3.the cry of a cock (or an imitation of it)

Crow (n.)

1.a Siouan language spoken by the Crow

2.a small quadrilateral constellation in the southern hemisphere near Virgo

3.a member of the Siouan people formerly living in eastern Montana

crow (v. intr.)

1.express pleasure verbally"She crowed with joy"

2.dwell on with satisfaction

3.(fledgling)utter shrill sounds"The cocks crowed all morning"

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Merriam Webster

CrowCrow (krō), v. i. [imp. Crew (krṳ) or Crowed (krōd); p. p. Crowed (Crown (krōn), Obs.); p. pr. & vb. n. Crowing.] [AS. crāwan; akin to D. kraijen, G. krähen, cf. Lith. groti to croak. √24. Cf. Crake.]
1. To make the shrill sound characteristic of a cock, either in joy, gayety, or defiance. “The cock had crown.” Bayron.

The morning cock crew loud. Shak.

2. To shout in exultation or defiance; to brag.

3. To utter a sound expressive of joy or pleasure.

The sweetest little maid,
That ever crowed for kisses.
Tennyson.

To crow over, to exult over a vanquished antagonist.

Sennacherib crowing over poor Jerusalem. Bp. Hall.

CrowCrow, n. [AS. crāwe a crow (in sense 1); akin to D. kraai, G. krähe; cf. Icel. krāka crow. So named from its cry, from AS. crāwan to crow. See Crow, v. i. ]


1. (Zoöl.) A bird, usually black, of the genus Corvus, having a strong conical beak, with projecting bristles. It has a harsh, croaking note. See Caw.

☞ The common crow of Europe, or carrion crow, is Corvus corone. The common American crow is Corvus Americanus. See Carrion crow, and Illustr., under Carrion.

2. A bar of iron with a beak, crook, or claw; a bar of iron used as a lever; a crowbar.

Get me an iron crow, and bring it straight
Unto my cell.
Shak.

3. The cry of the cock. See Crow, v. i., 1.

4. The mesentery of a beast; -- so called by butchers.

Carrion crow. See under Carrion. -- Crow blackbird (Zoöl.), an American bird (Quiscalus quiscula); -- called also purple grackle. -- Crow pheasant (Zoöl.), an Indian cuckoo; the common coucal. It is believed by the natives to give omens. See Coucal. -- Crow shrike (Zoöl.), any bird of the genera Gymnorhina, Craticus, or Strepera, mostly from Australia. -- Red-legged crow. See Crough. -- As the crow flies, in a direct line. -- To pick a crow, To pluck a crow, to state and adjust a difference or grievance (with any one).

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Crow

Crow (n.)

Corvus

crow (v. intr.)

gloat, triumph

crow (v. intr.) (fledgling)

babble  (enfant), babble away  (enfant), babble on  (enfant), coo  (enfant), gurgle  (enfant)

see also - Crow

phrases

analogical dictionary



Crow (n.)


crow[ClasseHyper.]

crow (n.)



 

propos, ce qu'on dit (paroles ou écrits) (fr)[Classe]

attitude, comportement orgueilleux (fr)[Classe]

affectation; mawkishness[Classe]

tale; fib; lie; falsehood; falsity; untruth[Classe]

faire le malin (fr)[Classe]

boast about; boast of; pride o.s. in; pride o.s. on; take pride in[Classe]

(boaster; braggart), (boast about; boast of; pride o.s. in; pride o.s. on; take pride in), (grandiloquence)[Thème]

bluff (fr)[Thème]

(challenge)[Thème]

(fearlessness; spirit; pluck; valiance; valour; valor; valiancy; courage; courageousness; bravery; braveness; fortitude; gallantry; grit; guts; heart; intrepidity; nerve; pluckiness; spunk; daring; backbone; moxie; sand; gumption)[Thème]

factotum[Domaine]

SubjectiveAssessmentAttribute[Domaine]

speech act - display, exhibit, expose, feature, show - emit, let loose, let out, utter - amplify, exaggerate, hyperbolise, hyperbolize, magnify, overdraw, overstate[Hyper.]

blow, blow one's own trumpet, bluster, boast, brag, gas, gasconade, shoot a line, swash, tout, vaunt - ostentation - fanfare, flash, ostentation - flaunt - exhibitionist, show-off - bluff, boast, brag, bragging, crow, crowing, gasconade, line-shooting, swaggering, vaporing - bluster, bravado, braveness, bravery, bravura, gallantry - boast, boasting, jactitation, self-praise - bluster, braggadocio, rhodomontade, rodomontade - vaunt - big mouth, blowhard, boaster, braggart, bragger, line-shooter, vaunter - blusterer, loudmouth - epicaricacy, glee, gloat, gloating, schadenfreude[Dérivé]

flash, show[Analogie]

proud[Similaire]

crow (n.)





crow (v. intr.)


Wikipedia - see also

Wikipedia

Crow

                   
Crow
American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Corvidae
Genus: Corvus
Linnaeus, 1758

Crows /kr/ form the genus Corvus in the family Corvidae. Ranging in size from the relatively small pigeon-size jackdaws (Eurasian and Daurian) to the Common Raven of the Holarctic region and Thick-billed Raven of the highlands of Ethiopia, the 40 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents (except South America) and several offshore and oceanic islands (except for a few, which included Hawaii, which had the Hawaiian crow that went extinct in the wild in 2002). In Europe the word "crow" is used to refer to the Carrion Crow or the Hooded Crow, while in North America it is used for the American Crow or the Northwestern Crow.

The crow genus makes up a third of the species in the Corvidae family. Crows appear to have evolved in Asia from the corvid stock, which had evolved in Australia. A group of crows is called a flock or, more poetically, a murder,[1] But the term “murder of crows” mostly reflects a time when groupings of many animals had colorful and poetic names. For example, other “group” names include: an ostentation of peacocks, a parliament of owls, a knot of frogs, and a skulk of foxes.[2]

Recent research has found some crow species capable not only of tool use but of tool construction as well.[3] Crows are now considered to be among the world's most intelligent animals.[4] The Jackdaw and the European Magpie have been found to have a nidopallium approximately the same relative size as the functionally equivalent neocortex in chimpanzees and humans, and significantly larger than is found in the gibbon.[5]

Contents

  Description

  in flight
  Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) scavenging on a dead shark at a beach in Kumamoto, Japan

Corvus species are all black or black with little white or gray plumage. They are stout with strong bills and legs. The sexes are not very different in appearance.

  Evolutionary history and systematics

Crows are believed to have evolved in central Asia and radiated out into North America, Africa, Europe, and Australia.

The latest evidence[6] regarding the crow's evolution indicates descent within the Australasian family Corvidae. However, the branch that would produce the modern groups such as jays, magpies and large predominantly black Corvus had left Australasia and were concentrated in Asia by the time the Corvus evolved. Corvus has since re-entered Australia (relatively recently) and produced five species with one recognized sub-species.[citation needed]

The genus was originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae.[7] The name is derived from the Latin corvus meaning "raven".[8]

  An Indian crow

The type species is the Common Raven (Corvus corax); others named in the same work include the Carrion Crow (C. corone), the Hooded Crow (C. cornix), the Rook (C. frugilegus), and the Jackdaw (C. monedula). The genus was originally broader, as the Magpie was designated C. pica before later being moved into a genus of its own. There are now considered to be at least 42 extant species in this genus, and at least 14 extinct species have been described.

There is not a good systematic approach to the genus at present. In general, it is assumed that the species from a geographical area are more closely related to each other than to other lineages, but this is not necessarily correct. For example, while the Carrion/Collared/House Crow complex is certainly closely related to each other, the situation is not at all clear regarding the Australian/Melanesian species. Furthermore, as many species are similar in appearance, determining actual range and characteristics can be very difficult, such as in Australia where the five (possibly six) species are almost identical in appearance.[citation needed]

  Closeup of the upper body of a Jackdaw (Corvus monedula)

The fossil record of crows is rather dense in Europe, but the relationships among most prehistoric species are not clear.

A surprisingly high number of species have become extinct after human colonization, especially of island groups such as New Zealand, Hawaii and Greenland.[citation needed]

  Species

  Behavior

  Calls

Crows make a wide variety of calls or vocalizations. Whether the crows' system of communication constitutes a language is a topic of debate and study. Crows have also been observed to respond to calls of other species; this behavior is, it is presumed, learned because it varies regionally. Crows' vocalizations are complex and poorly understood. Some of the many vocalizations that crows make are a "Koww", usually echoed back and forth between birds, a series of "Kowws" in discrete units, counting out numbers, a long caw followed by a series of short caws (usually made when a bird takes off from a perch), an echo-like "eh-aw" sound, and more. These vocalizations vary by species, and within each species vary regionally. In many species, the pattern and number of the numerical vocalizations have been observed to change in response to events in the surroundings (i.e. arrival or departure of crows). Crows can hear sound frequencies lower than those that humans can hear, which complicates the study of their vocalizations.[citation needed]

  Intelligence

As a group, crows show remarkable examples of intelligence. Crows and ravens often score very highly on intelligence tests. Certain species top the avian IQ scale.[9] Wild hooded crows in Israel have learned to use bread crumbs for bait-fishing.[10] Crows will engage in a kind of mid-air jousting, or air-"chicken" to establish pecking order. Crows have been found to engage in feats such as sports,[11] tool use, the ability to hide and store food across seasons, episodic-like memory, and the ability to use individual experience in predicting the behavior of environmental conspecifics.[12]

One species, the New Caledonian Crow, has also been intensively studied recently because of its ability to manufacture and use its own tools in the day-to-day search for food. These tools include "knives" cut from stiff leaves and stiff stalks of grass.[13] Another skill involves dropping tough nuts into a trafficked street and waiting for a car to crush them open.[14][15] On October 5, 2007, researchers from the University of Oxford, England presented data acquired by mounting tiny video cameras on the tails of New Caledonian Crows. It turned out that they use a larger variety of tools than previously known, plucking, smoothing, and bending twigs and grass stems to procure a variety of foodstuffs.[16][17] Crows in Queensland, Australia have learned how to eat the toxic cane toad by flipping the cane toad on its back and violently stabbing the throat where the skin is thinner, allowing the crow to access the non-toxic innards; their long beaks ensure that all of the innards can be removed.[18][19]

Recent research suggests that crows have the ability to recognize one individual human from another by facial features.[20]

  Diet

Crows are omnivorous, and their diet is very diverse. They will eat almost anything, including other birds, fruits, nuts, mollusks, earthworms, seeds, frogs, eggs, nestlings, mice and carrion. The origin of placing scarecrows in grain fields resulted from the crow’s incessant damaging and scavenging, although crows assist farmers by eating insects otherwise attracted to their crops.[21]

  Life span and disease

Crows reach sexual maturity around the age of 3 years for females and 5 years for males. Some crows may live to the age of 20, and the oldest known American crow in the wild was almost 30 years old.[22]

The oldest captive crow documented died at age 59.[23]

The American crow is highly susceptible to the recently introduced North American strain of West Nile virus.[24] American crows typically die within one week of acquiring the disease and very few survive exposure; a local increase in crow mortality is an indicator of possible West Nile Virus activity.[citation needed]

  Conservation status

  The Hawaiian Crow or ʻalala (Corvus hawaiiensis) is nearly extinct; only a few dozen birds survive in captivity. The Hawaiian Crow is listed as "extinct in the wild" by the US fish and wildlife services.
  Indian Crow

Two species of crow have been listed as endangered by the US fish and wildlife services: The Hawaiian Crow and the Mariana Crow.[25] The American Crow, despite having its population reduced by 45% since 1999 by the West Nile Virus, is considered a Species of Least Concern.

  Hunting

In the United States it is legal to hunt crows[citation needed] in all states usually from around August to the end of March and anytime if they are causing a nuisance or health hazard. There is no bag limit when taken during the "crow hunting season." According to the US Code of Federal Regulations, crows may be taken without a permit in certain circumstances. USFWS 50 CFR 21.43 (Depredation order for blackbirds, cowbirds, grackles, crows and magpies) states that a Federal permit is not required to control these birds "when found committing or about to commit depredations upon ornamental or shade trees, agricultural crops, livestock, or wildlife, or when concentrated in such numbers and manner as to constitute a health hazard or other nuisance," provided

  • that none of the birds killed or their parts are sold or offered for sale,
  • that anyone exercising the privileges granted by this section shall permit any Federal or State game agent free and unrestricted access over the premises where the operations have been or are conducted and will provide them with whatever information required by the officer, and
  • that nothing in the section authorizes the killing of such birds contrary to any State laws and that the person needs to possess whatever permit as may be required by the State.

In the UK, the crow is considered a pest when in a large community and under certain conditions can be shot under a number of general licences issued by Natural England.[citation needed]

  In human culture

The Common Raven, Australian Raven and Carrion Crow have been blamed for killing weak lambs and are often seen eating freshly dead corpses probably killed by other means. Rooks have been blamed for eating grain in the UK and Brown-necked Raven for raiding date crops in desert countries.[26]

In Auburn, New York (USA), 25,000 to 50,000 American Crows (C. brachyrhynchos) have taken to roosting in the small city's large trees during winter since around 1993.[27] In 2003, a controversial, organized crow hunt proved ineffective at reducing their numbers and the problem (concerns for public health and the sheer noise of so many crows) continues.[28]

At a Technology Entertainment Design conference in March 2008, Joshua Klein presented the potential use of a vending machine for crows. He suggested the crows could be trained to pick up waste and the vending machine would be designed to give a reward in exchange for the trash.[29]

Crows have also been known to imitate the human voice, just like parrots. Crows that have been trained to "speak" are considered valuable in parts of East Asia, as crows are a sign of luck.[citation needed]

Some people have adopted crows as pets.[citation needed]

Though humans cannot generally tell individual crows apart, crows have been shown to have the ability to visually recognize individual humans, and to transmit information about "bad" humans by squawking.[30]

  Myth and spirituality

  The Twa Corbies by Arthur Rackham

Charles Dickens memorably described the crow as "that sedate and clerical bird" in The Mystery of Edwin Drood. He named it a rook, a common confusion.

In Irish mythology, crows are associated with Morrigan, the goddess of war and death.[31] The god Bran the Blessed whose names means 'crow' or 'raven' is associated with corvids and death. His severed head is said to be buried under the Tower of London facing toward France, a possible origin for the keeping of ravens in the Tower, which are said to protect the fortunes of Britain. In Cornish folklore crows and particularly magpies are again associated with death and the 'otherworld', and must always be greeted with respect. The origin of 'counting crows' as augury is British; however the British versions rather count magpies - their black and white pied colouring reflecting the realms of both the living and the dead.

In Norse mythology, Huginn and Muninn are a pair of ravens that fly all over the world, Midgard, and bring the god Odin information.

In Australian Aboriginal mythology, Crow is a trickster, culture hero and ancestral being. Legends relating to Crow have been observed in various Aboriginal language groups and cultures across Australia; these commonly include stories relating to Crow's role in the theft of fire, the origin of death and the killing of Eagle's son.

  Crow on a branch, Maruyama Ōkyo (1733–1795)

In the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Chaldean myth, the character Utnapishtim releases a dove and a raven to find land, however, the dove merely circles and returns. Only then does Utnapishtim send forth the raven, who does not return. Utnapishtim extrapolates from this that the raven has found land, which is why it hasn't returned.[32]

According to Ovid's Metamorphoses, in classical Greek mythology, when the crow told the god Apollo that his lover Coronis was cheating on him with a mortal, he became very angry, and part of that anger was directed at the crow, whose feathers he turned from white to black.[33]

In the Story of Bhusunda, a chapter of the Yoga Vasistha, a very old sage in the form of a crow, Bhusunda, recalls a succession of epochs in the earth's history, as described in Hindu cosmology. He survived several destructions, living on a wish-fulfilling tree on Mount Meru.[34] Crows are also considered ancestors in Hindiusm and during Śrāddha the practice of offering food or pinda to crows is still in vogue.[35]

Crows are mentioned often in Buddhism, especially Tibetan disciplines. The Dharmapala (protector of the Dharma) Mahakala is represented by a crow in one of his physical/earthly forms. Avalokiteśvara/Chenrezig, who is reincarnated on Earth as the Dalai Lama, is often closely associated with the crow because it is said that when the first Dalai Lama was born, robbers attacked the family home. The parents fled and were unable to get to the infant Lama in time. When they returned the next morning expecting the worst, they found their home untouched, and a pair of crows were caring for the Dalai Lama. It is believed that crows heralded the birth of the First, Seventh, Eighth, Twelfth and Fourteenth Lamas, the latter being the current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso.[citation needed]

In Japanese mythology, a three-legged crow called Yatagarasu (八咫烏?, "eight-hand-crow")[36] is depicted.[37]

In Korean mythology, there is a three-legged crow known as Samjokgo (hangul: 삼족오; hanja: 三足烏). During the period of the Goguryeo Kingdom, the Samjogo was a highly regarded symbol of power, thought superior to both the dragon and the Korean phoenix.[citation needed]

In Chinese mythology, the world originally had ten suns embodied as ten crows, which rose in the sky one at a time. When all ten decided to rise at once, the effect was devastating to crops, so the gods sent their greatest archer Houyi, who shot down nine crows and spared only one. Having a "crow beak" is a symbolic expression that one is being a jinx.[citation needed]

Compendium of Materia Medica states that crows are kind birds that feed their old and weakened parents; this is often cited as a fine example of filial piety.[citation needed]

  Indian Crow

Ancient Greek authors tell how a jackdaw, being a social creature, may be caught with a dish of oil that it falls into while looking at its own reflection.[38] The Roman poet Ovid saw them as a harbinger of rain (Amores 2,6, 34).[39] In Greek legend, a princess Arne was bribed with gold by King Minos of Crete, and was punished for her avarice by being transformed into an equally avaricious jackdaw, who still seeks shiny things.[40] In Aesop's Fables, the jackdaw embodies stupidity in one tale, by starving while waiting for figs on a fig tree to ripen, and vanity in another - the daw sought to become king of the birds with borrowed feathers, but was shamed when they fell off.[39] Pliny notes how the Thessalians, Illyrians and Lemnians cherished jackdaws for destroying grasshoppers' eggs. The Veneti are fabled to have bribed the jackdaws to spare their crops.[38] Another ancient Greek and Roman adage runs, "The swans will sing when the jackdaws are silent," meaning that educated or wise people will speak after the foolish become quiet.[41] In reality, corvids are among the most intelligent birds in the world, and this traditional association with ignorance is quite inaccurate.

  See also

  References

  1. ^ "Murder of Crows, etc.". Word-detective.com. http://www.word-detective.com/2009/02/22/murder-of-crows-etc. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  2. ^ "PBS Nature Critters". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/a-murder-of-crows/crow-facts/5965/. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
  3. ^ Winkler, Robert (August 8, 2002). "Crow Makes Wire Hook to Get Food". National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/08/0808_020808_crow.html. Retrieved 6 February 2011. 
  4. ^ "A Murder of Crows". Nature. PBS video. 2010-10-24. http://video.pbs.org/video/1621910826/#. Retrieved 6 February 2011. "New research indicates that crows are among the brightest animals in the world." 
  5. ^ Rogers, Lesley J.; Kaplan, Gisela T. (2004). Comparative vertebrate cognition: are primates superior to non-primates?. New York, New York: Springer. p. 9. ISBN 0-306-47727-0. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=e021s7atsicC&pg=PA9&dq=Comparative+vertebrate+cognition:+are+primates+superior+to+non-primates?+jackdaw&hl=en&sa=X&ei=68KzT8aDHc6WmQW2kvycBQ&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  6. ^ "Phylogeny and diversification of the largest avian radiation - Barker et al., 10.1073/pnas.0401892101 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences". Pnas.org. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0401892101v1. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  7. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus, C (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii). p. 824. http://dz1.gdz-cms.de/index.php?id=img&no_cache=1&IDDOC=265100. 
  8. ^ Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5 ed.). London: Cassell Ltd.. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0. 
  9. ^ Rincon, Paul (2005-02-22). "Science/Nature | Crows and jays top bird IQ scale". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4286965.stm. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  10. ^ ד"ר אורן חסון: יחסים, אהבה, זוגיות, תקשורת בין-אישית (English)[unreliable source?]
  11. ^ [1] Crow tubing upon a slide (video)
  12. ^ Prior H. et al. (2008). "Mirror-Induced Behavior in the Magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of Self-Recognition". PLoS Biology (Public Library of Science) 6 (8): e202. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060202. PMC 2517622. PMID 18715117. http://biology.plosjournals.org/archive/1545-7885/6/8/pdf/10.1371_journal.pbio.0060202-L.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  13. ^ New Caledonian Crow#Tool making
  14. ^ Shettleworth, Sara J. (2010). Cognition, Evolution, and Behavior. Oxford University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-19-531984-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=-Qs1qGys0AwC&pg=PA3. 
  15. ^ See also the video "Red light runners", from the BBC's The Life of Birds
  16. ^ "Crows Bend Twigs Into Tools", Discovery Channel
  17. ^ See also the video "Crow bars", from the BBC's The Life of Birds
  18. ^ Katrina Bolton (2007-09-15). "Toads fall victim to crows in NT - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/09/15/2033759.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  19. ^ "Cane Toad (Bufo marinus)". Ozanimals.com. http://www.ozanimals.com/Frog/Cane-Toad/Bufo/marinus.html. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  20. ^ Nijhuis, Michelle (August 25, 2008). "Friend or Foe? Crows Never Forget a Face, It Seems". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/26/science/26crow.html. Retrieved 6 February 2011. 
  21. ^ http://www.crowbusters.com/facts.htm
  22. ^ "FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT CROWS", by Dr. K.J. McGowan, Cornell Lab of Ornithology
  23. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/07/AR2006070700860.html
  24. ^ "Why West Nile virus kills so many crows", Penn State Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics
  25. ^ "Pacific Region Endangered Species, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service". Fws.gov. 2011-06-23. http://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/endangered/recovery/5yearactive.html. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  26. ^ Goodwin D. (1983). Crows of the World. Queensland University Press, St Lucia, Qld. ISBN 0-7022-1015-3. 
  27. ^ "Auburn NY Crow Roost and lighting changes". Cnylinks.com. http://www.cnylinks.com/crows/. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  28. ^ "The Citizen, Auburn NY". Auburnpub.com. 2002-06-14. http://www.auburnpub.com/articles/2003/02/03/opinion/our_view/ourview01.txt. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  29. ^ Klein, Joshua (2008). "The amazing intelligence of crows". TED conference. http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/joshua_klein_on_the_intelligence_of_crows.html. Retrieved 9 July 2008. 
  30. ^ The Crow Paradox by Robert Krulwich. Morning Edition, National Public Radio. 27 July 2009.
  31. ^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). "Crows and ravens". The Oxford companion to world mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=kQFtlva3HaYC&pg=PA86. 
  32. ^ Kovacs, Maureen Gallery (1989). The epic of Gilgamesh. Stanford University Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-8047-1711-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=YYxEd9c0EUYC&pg=PA102. 
  33. ^ Dixon-Kennedy, Mike (1998). "Coronis/Corvus". Encyclopedia of Greco-Roman mythology. ABC-CLIO. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-57607-129-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=2U7okUE3PIcC&pg=PA93. 
  34. ^ Cole, Juan R.I. Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism: The Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria.
  35. ^ The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2001-07-26. http://www.hindu.com/2001/07/26/stories/13261289.htm. 
  36. ^ Picken, Stuart D.B. (1994). Essentials of Shinto: an analytical guide to principal teachings. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-313-26431-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=yA3_QqC6pPgC&pg=PA96. 
  37. ^ Como, Michael (2009). Weaving and binding: immigrant gods and female immortals in ancient Japan. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 100–103. ISBN 978-0-8248-2957-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=-UNEhdX6ePMC&pg=PA100. 
  38. ^ a b D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, A Glossary of Greek Birds. Oxford, 1895. p. 89.
  39. ^ a b de Vries, Ad (1976). Dictionary of Symbols and Imagery. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. p. 275. ISBN 0-7204-8021-3. 
  40. ^ Graves, R (1955). "Scylla and Nisus". Greek Myths. London: Penguin. p. 308. ISBN 0-14-001026-2. 
  41. ^ Collected Works of Erasmus: Adages: Ivi1 to Ix100. Translated by Roger A. Mynors. University of Toronto Press, 1989. p. 314.

  Further reading

  External links

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All translations of Crow


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The English word games are:
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Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

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