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David Foster Wallace

                   
  David Foster Wallace
David Foster Wallace
Born (1962-02-21)February 21, 1962
Ithaca, New York
Died September 12, 2008(2008-09-12) (aged 46)
Claremont, California
Pen name David Foster
Occupation Novelist, short story writer, essayist, college professor
Nationality United States
Period 1987–2008
Genres Literary fiction, nonfiction
Literary movement Postmodern literature, hysterical realism, metamodernism
Notable work(s) Infinite Jest

David Foster Wallace (February 21, 1962 – September 12, 2008) was an award-winning American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and professor at Pomona College in Claremont, California. He was widely known for his 1996 novel Infinite Jest.[4][5] In 2005, Time magazine included the novel in its list of the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to the present.[6]

Los Angeles Times book editor David Ulin called Wallace "one of the most influential and innovative writers of the last 20 years."[4] Wallace's unfinished novel, The Pale King, was published in 2011, and in 2012 was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. A biography of Wallace by D. T. Max, titled Every Love Story Is a Ghost Story, will be published in September 2012.[7]

Contents

  Biography

  Personal

Wallace was born in Ithaca, New York, to James Donald Wallace and Sally Foster Wallace. In his early childhood, Wallace lived in Champaign, Illinois. In fourth grade, he moved to Urbana and attended Yankee Ridge school and Urbana High School. As an adolescent, Wallace was a regionally ranked junior tennis player.

He attended his father's alma mater, Amherst College, and majored in English and philosophy, with a focus on modal logic and mathematics. His philosophy senior thesis on modal logic, titled Richard Taylor's 'Fatalism' and the Semantics of Physical Modality (described in James Ryerson's 2008 New York Times essay "Consider the Philosopher"[8]) was awarded the Gail Kennedy Memorial Prize.[9] His other senior thesis, written for his English major, would later become his first novel.[10] Wallace graduated summa cum laude for both theses in 1985, and in 1987 received a Master of Fine Arts in creative writing from the University of Arizona.

Though he made little mention of it in his writing, Wallace belonged to a church wherever he lived.[11]

  Family

Wallace's father was James D. Wallace, who accepted a teaching job at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the fall of 1962 after finishing his graduate course work in philosophy at Cornell University. He received his PhD from Cornell in 1963 and is now Emeritus Professor at Urbana-Champaign. Wallace's mother, Sally Foster Wallace, attended graduate school in English Composition at the University of Illinois and became a professor of English at Parkland College — a community college in Champaign — where she won a national Professor of the Year award in 1996. Wallace's younger sister, Amy Wallace Havens of Tucson, Arizona, has practiced law since 2005.

In the early 1990s, Wallace had a relationship with the poet and memoirist Mary Karr (The Liars' Club). Wallace married painter Karen L. Green on December 27, 2004.[12][13] Dogs played an important role in Wallace's life;[14] he was very close to his two dogs, Bella and Werner,[13] had spoken of opening a dog shelter,[14] and according to Jonathan Franzen "had a predilection for dogs who'd been abused, and [were] unlikely to find other owners who were going to be patient enough for them."[13]

  Death

Wallace committed suicide by hanging himself on September 12, 2008.[15] In an interview with The New York Times, Wallace's father reported that Wallace had suffered from depression for more than 20 years and that antidepressant medication had allowed him to be productive.[12] When he experienced severe side effects from the medication, Wallace attempted to wean himself from his primary antidepressant, phenelzine.[13] On his doctor's advice, Wallace stopped taking the medication in June 2007,[12] and the depression returned. Wallace received other treatments, including electroconvulsive therapy. When he returned to phenelzine, he found it had lost its effectiveness.[13] In the months before his death, his depression became severe.[12]

Numerous gatherings were held to honor Wallace after his death, including memorial services at Pomona College, Amherst College, University of Arizona, and on October 23, 2008, at NYU — the latter with speakers including his sister, Amy Wallace Havens; his agent, Bonnie Nadell; Gerry Howard, the editor of his first two books; Colin Harrison, editor at Harper's Magazine; Michael Pietsch, the editor of Infinite Jest and Wallace's later work; Deborah Treisman, fiction editor at The New Yorker; as well as authors Don DeLillo, Zadie Smith, George Saunders, Mark Costello, Donald Antrim, and Jonathan Franzen.[16]

  Writing and other media

  Career

  David Foster Wallace giving a reading for Booksmith at San Francisco's All Saints Church in 2006

Wallace's first novel, 1987's The Broom of the System, garnered national attention and critical praise. Caryn James of The New York Times called it a successful "manic, human, flawed extravaganza," "emerging straight from the excessive tradition of Stanley Elkin's Franchiser, Thomas Pynchon's V., John Irving's World According to Garp."[17] Wallace moved to Boston, Massachusetts, for graduate school in philosophy at Harvard University, but soon abandoned it. In 1991 he began teaching literature as an adjunct professor at Emerson College in Boston.

In 1992, at the behest of colleague and supporter Steven Moore, Wallace obtained a position in the English department at Illinois State University. He had begun work on his second novel, Infinite Jest, in 1991, and submitted a draft to his editor in December 1993. After the publication of excerpts throughout 1995, the book was published in 1996.

Wallace published short fiction in Might, GQ, Playboy, The Paris Review, Harper's Magazine, Mid-American Review, Conjunctions, Esquire, Open City, Timothy McSweeney's Quarterly Concern, The New Yorker, and Science.

In 1997, Wallace received a MacArthur Fellowship, as well as the Aga Khan Prize for Fiction, awarded by editors of The Paris Review for one of the stories in Brief Interviews — "Brief Interviews with Hideous Men #6" — which had appeared in the magazine.

In 2002, he moved to Claremont, California, to become the first Roy E. Disney Professor of Creative Writing and Professor of English at Pomona College. He taught one or two undergraduate courses per semester, and focused on his writing.

In May 2005, Wallace delivered the commencement address to the graduating class at Kenyon College. The speech was published as a book in 2009 under the title This Is Water.[18]

Bonnie Nadell was Wallace's literary agent through his entire career.[19] Michael Pietsch was his editor on Infinite Jest.[20]

In March 2009, Little, Brown and Company announced that it would publish the manuscript of an unfinished novel, The Pale King, that Wallace was working on at the time of his death. The Pale King was pieced together by editor Michael Pietsch from pages and notes the author left behind.[21][22] Several excerpts from it were published in the New Yorker and other magazines. The Pale King was published on April 15, 2011, and received generally positive reviews.[23]

In March 2010, it was announced that Wallace's personal papers and archives – drafts of books, stories, essays, poems, letters, and research, including the handwritten notes for Infinite Jest — had been purchased by the University of Texas at Austin and will reside at the University's Harry Ransom Center.[24]

  Themes and styles

Wallace's fiction is often concerned with irony. His essay "E Unibus Pluram: Television and U.S. Fiction,"[25] originally published in the small-circulation Review of Contemporary Fiction in 1993, proposes that television has an ironic influence on fiction writing, and urges literary authors to eschew TV's shallow rebelliousness: "I want to convince you that irony, poker-faced silence, and fear of ridicule are distinctive of those features of contemporary U.S. culture (of which cutting-edge fiction is a part) that enjoy any significant relation to the television whose weird pretty hand has my generation by the throat. I'm going to argue that irony and ridicule are entertaining and effective, and that at the same time they are agents of a great despair and stasis in U.S. culture, and that for aspiring fictionists they pose terrifically vexing problems." Wallace used many forms of irony, but focused on individuals' continued longing for earnest, unselfconscious experience and communication in a media-saturated society.[26] Literary critic Adam Kirsch said that Wallace's "self-conscious earnestness" and "hostility to irony defined a literary generation."[27]

Wallace's novels often combine various writing modes or voices, and incorporate jargon and vocabulary (sometimes invented) from a wide variety of fields. His writing featured self-generated abbreviations and acronyms, long multi-clause sentences, and a notable use of explanatory footnotes and endnotes — often nearly as expansive as the text proper. He used endnotes extensively in Infinite Jest and footnotes in "Octet" as well as in the great majority of his nonfiction after 1996. On the Charlie Rose show in 1997, Wallace claimed that the notes were used to disrupt the linearity of the narrative, to reflect his perception of reality without jumbling the entire structure. He suggested that he could have instead jumbled up the sentences, "but then no one would read it."[28]

According to Wallace, "fiction’s about what it is to be a fucking human being," and he expressed a desire to write "morally passionate, passionately moral fiction" that could help readers "become less alone inside."[29] In his Kenyon College commencement address, he describes the human condition of daily crises and chronic disillusionment and warns against solipsism,[30] invoking compassion, mindfulness, and existentialism:[31]

The really important kind of freedom involves attention, and awareness, and discipline, and effort, and being able truly to care about other people and to sacrifice for them, over and over, in myriad petty little unsexy ways, every day.... The only thing that's capital-T True is that you get to decide how you're going to try to see it. You get to consciously decide what has meaning and what doesn't.... The trick is keeping the truth up-front in daily consciousness.

  Nonfiction work

Wallace covered Senator John McCain's 2000 presidential campaign[32] and the September 11 attacks for Rolling Stone; cruise ships[33] (in what became the title essay of his first nonfiction book), state fairs, and tornadoes for Harper's Magazine; the US Open tournament for TENNIS Magazine; the director David Lynch and the pornography industry for Premiere magazine; the tennis player Michael Joyce for Esquire; the special-effects film industry for Waterstone's magazine; conservative talk radio host John Ziegler for The Atlantic Monthly;[34] and a Maine lobster festival for Gourmet magazine. He also reviewed books in several genres for the Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The New York Times, and The Philadelphia Inquirer. In the November 2007 issue of The Atlantic, which commemorated the magazine's 150th anniversary, Wallace was among the authors, artists, politicians and others who wrote short pieces on "the future of the American idea."

  Other media

Twelve of the interviews from Brief Interviews With Hideous Men were adapted into a stage play in 2000, the first theatrical adaptation of Wallace's work. The play, Hideous Men, adapted and directed by Dylan McCullough, premiered at the New York International Fringe Festival in August 2000.

A filmed adaptation of Brief Interviews, directed by John Krasinski, was released in 2009 and premiered at the Sundance Film Festival.[35] The film stars Julianne Nicholson and an ensemble cast including Christopher Meloni, Rashida Jones, Timothy Hutton, Josh Charles, Will Forte and Corey Stoll.[36]

Brief Interviews was also adapted by director Marc Caellas as a play called Brief Interviews With Hideous Writers, which premiered at Fundación Tomás Eloy Martinez in Buenos Aires on November 4, 2011.[37]

The short story "Tri-Stan: I Sold Sissee Nar to Ecko" from Brief Interviews With Hideous Men was adapted by composer Eric Moe[38] into a 50-minute operatic piece, to be performed with accompanying video projections.[39] The piece was described as having "subversively inscribed classical music into pop culture."[40]

The Simpsons episode "A Totally Fun Thing That Bart Will Never Do Again" (first aired April 29, 2012) is loosely based on Wallace's essay "A Supposedly Fun Thing I'll Never Do Again". The Simpson family takes a cruise, and Wallace appears in the background of a scene, wearing a tuxedo T-shirt while eating in the ship's dining room; Wallace recounts having worn such a T-shirt "at formal suppers".

  Awards

  • Inclusion of "Good Old Neon" in The O. Henry Prize Stories 2002
  • John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowship, 1997–2002
  • Lannan Foundation Residency Fellow, July–August 2000
  • Named to Usage Panel, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 4th Edition et seq., 1999
  • Inclusion of "The Depressed Person" in Prize Stories 1999: The O. Henry Awards
  • Illinois State University, Outstanding University Researcher, 1998 and 1999[41]
  • Aga Khan Prize for Fiction for the story "Brief Interviews With Hideous Men #6", 1997
  • Time magazine's Best Books of the Year (Fiction), 1996
  • Salon Book Award (Fiction), 1996
  • Lannan Literary Award (Fiction), 1996
  • Inclusion of "Here and There" in Prize Stories 1989: The O. Henry Awards
  • Whiting Writers' Award, 1987

  Selected bibliography

  Novels

  Short story collections

  Nonfiction

  Further reading

  • Benzon, Kiki. "Darkness Legible, Unquiet Lines: Mood Disorders in the Fiction of David Foster Wallace." Creativity, Madness and Civilization. Ed. Richard Pine. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2007: 187–198.
  • Boswell, Marshall. Understanding David Foster Wallace. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2003. ISBN 1-57003-517-2
  • Bresnan, Mark. "The Work of Play in David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest." Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 50:1 (2008), 51–68.
  • Burn, Stephen. "Generational Succession and a Source for the Title of David Foster Wallace's The Broom of the System." Notes on Contemporary Literature 33.2 (2003), 9–11.
  • Burn, Stephen. David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest: A Reader's Guide. New York, London: Continuum, 2003 (= Continuum Contemporaries) ISBN 0-8264-1477-X
  • Carlisle, Greg. "Elegant Complexity: A Study of David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest." Austin, L.A.: Sideshow Media Group Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9761465-3-7
  • Cioffi, Frank Louis. "An Anguish Becomes Thing: Narrative as Performance in David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest." Narrative 8.2 (2000), 161–181.
  • Delfino, Andrew Steven. "Becoming the New Man in Post-Postmodernist Fiction: Portrayals of Masculinities in David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest and Chuck Palahniuk's Fight Club. MA Thesis, Georgia State University.
  • Dowling, William, and Bell, Robert. A Reader's Companion to Infinite Jest. Xlibris, 2004. ISBN 1-4134-8446-8 ([1])
  • Esposito, Scott, et al. Who Was David Foster Wallace? A Symposium on the Writing of David Foster Wallace
  • Ewijk, Petrus van. "'I' and the 'Other': The relevance of Wittgenstein, Buber and Levinas for an understanding of AA's Recovery Program in David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest." English Text Construction 2.1 (2009), 132–145.
  • Goerlandt, Iannis and Luc Herman. "David Foster Wallace." Post-war Literatures in English: A Lexicon of Contemporary Authors 56 (2004), 1–16; A1-2, B1-2.
  • Goerlandt, Iannis. "Fußnoten und Performativität bei David Foster Wallace. Fallstudien." Am Rande bemerkt. Anmerkungspraktiken in literarischen Texten. Ed. Bernhard Metz & Sabine Zubarik. Berlin: Kulturverlag Kadmos, 2008: 387–408.
  • Goerlandt, Iannis. "'Put the book down and slowly walk away': Irony and David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest." Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 47.3 (2006), 309–328.
  • Goerlandt, Iannis. "'Still steaming as its many arms extended': Pain in David Foster Wallace's Incarnations of Burned Children." Sprachkunst 37.2 (2006), 297–308.
  • Harris, Jan Ll.'Addiction and the Societies of Control: David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest'', paper delivered at Figuring Addictions/Rethinking Consumption conference, Institute for Cultural Research, Lancaster University, April 4–5, 2002
  • Harris, Michael. "A Sometimes Funny Book Supposedly about Infinity: A Review of Everything and More." Notices of the AMS 51.6 (2004), 632–638. (full pdf-text)
  • Holland, Mary K. "'The Art's Heart's Purpose': Braving the Narcissistic Loop of David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest." Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 47.3 (2006), 218–242.
  • Jacobs, Tim. "The Fight: Considering David Foster Wallace Considering You". Rain Taxi Review of Books. Online Edition, Part Two. Winter 2009.
  • Jacobs, Timothy. "The Brothers Incandenza: Translating Ideology in Fyodor Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov and David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest." Contemporary Literary Criticism Vol. 271. Ed. Jeffrey Hunter. New York: Gale, 2009.
  • Jacobs, Timothy. "The Brothers Incandenza: Translating Ideology in Fyodor Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov and David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 49.3 (2007): 265–292.
  • Jacobs, Timothy. "American Touchstone: The Idea of Order in Gerard Manley Hopkins and David Foster Wallace." Comparative Literature Studies 38.3 (2001): 215–231.
  • Jacobs, Timothy. "David Foster Wallace's The Broom of the System." Ed. Alan Hedblad. Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction. Detroit: Gale Research Press, 2001. 41–50.
  • Jacobs, Timothy. "David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest." The Explicator 58.3 (2000): 172–175.
  • Kelly, Adam. "David Foster Wallace: the Death of the Author and the Birth of a Discipline." Irish Journal of American Studies Online 2 (2010). Link.
  • LeClair, Tom. "The Prodigious Fiction of Richard Powers, William T. Vollmann, and David Foster Wallace." Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 38.1 (1996), 12–37.
  • Lipsky, David. Although of Course You End Up Becoming Yourself: A Road Trip with David Foster Wallace. New York: Broadway, 2010.
  • Mason, Wyatt. "Don't like it? You don't have to play." London Review of Books 26.22 (2004). http://www.lrb.co.uk/v26/n22/maso02_.html
  • Morris, David. "Lived Time and Absolute Knowing: Habit and Addiction from Infinite Jest to the Phenomenology of Spirit." Clio: A Journal of Literature, History and the Philosophy of History 30 (2001), 375–415.
  • Nichols, Catherine. "Dialogizing Postmodern Carnival: David Foster Wallace's Infinite Jest." Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 43.1 (2001), 3–16.
  • Rother, James. "Reading and Riding the Post-Scientific Wave. The Shorter Fiction of David Foster Wallace." Review of Contemporary Fiction 13.2 (1993), 216–234. ISBN 1-56478-123-2
  • Tysdal, Dan. "Inarticulation and the Figure of Enjoyment: Raymond Carver's Minimalism Meets David Foster Wallace's 'A Radically Condensed History of Postindustrial Life.'" Wascana Review of Contemporary Poetry and Short Fiction 38.1 (2003), 66–83.

  See also

  References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Lopate, Leonard (interviewer) (March 4, 1996). "David Foster Wallace (radio interview)". The Leonard Lopate Show. WNYC. http://www.wnyc.org/shows/lopate/1996/mar/04/. Retrieved September 14, 2011. 
  2. ^ Lipsky, David. Although of Course You End Up Becoming Yourself: A Road Trip with David Foster Wallace. New York: Broadway, 2010.
  3. ^ "Interviews – Neal Stephenson – Powell's Books". Powells.com. February 16, 2011. http://www.powells.com/authors/nealstephenson.html?utm_source=overview&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=rss_overview&utm_content=Neal%20Stephenson&PID=12. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "Writer David Foster Wallace found dead". The Los Angeles Times, Claire Noland and Joel Rubin. September 14, 2008. http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-wallace14-2008sep14,0,7461856.story. 
  5. ^ "Writer David Foster Wallace Dies". The Wall Street Journal, AP. September 14, 2008. Archived from the original on September 22, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080922015140/http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122136457102232845.html. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  6. ^ Grossman, Lev; Lacayo, Richard (October 16, 2005). "TIME's Critics pick the 100 Best Novels, 1923 to present". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/2005/100books/the_complete_list.html 
  7. ^ "David Foster Wallace Biography Snapped Up by Viking". London: The Guardian, Alison Flood, June 22, 2009. June 22, 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/jun/22/david-foster-wallace-biography. 
  8. ^ Ryerson, James (December 14, 2008). "Consider the Philosopher". The New York Times,. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/14/magazine/14wwln-Wallace-t.html?_r=2&ref=magazine. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Our Alumni , Amherst College". Cms.amherst.edu. November 17, 2007. https://cms.amherst.edu/academiclife/departments/philosophy/alumni. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  10. ^ "In Memoriam: David Foster Wallace '85 , Amherst College". Amherst.edu. September 14, 2008. https://www.amherst.edu/aboutamherst/news/memoriam/node/65728. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  11. ^ "The Ferocious Morality of David Foster Wallace". PopMatters. April 20, 2011. http://www.popmatters.com/pm/feature/139756-the-ferocious-morality-of-david-foster-wallace/P1. 
  12. ^ a b c d "David Foster Wallace, Influential Writer, Dies at 46". The New York Times, Bruce Weber, September 14, 2008. September 15, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/15/books/15wallace.html?em. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  13. ^ a b c d e Lipsky, Dave (October 30, 2008, Issue 1064). "The Lost Years & Last Days of David Foster Wallace". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090503103755/http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/23638511/the_lost_years__last_days_of_david_foster_wallace. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  14. ^ a b "The Unfinished". The New Yorker, D.T. Max, March 9, 2009. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/03/09/090309fa_fact_max?currentPage=all. 
  15. ^ Carlson, Scott (September 14, 2008). "David Foster Wallace, Postmodern Novelist and Writing Teacher, Is Dead at 46". Chronicle of Higher Education. http://chronicle.com/article/David-Foster-Wallace/41608. Retrieved May 30, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Jonathan Franzen Remembers David Foster Wallace". The Observer, Adam Begley, October 27, 2008. http://www.observer.com/2008/o2/books/our-critics-tip-sheet-current-reading-jonathan-franzen-remembers-david-foster-wallace-. 
  17. ^ The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/03/16/reviews/wallace-r-broom.html. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  18. ^ Bissell, Tom (April 26, 2009). "Great and Terrible Truths". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/26/books/review/Bissell-t.html. Retrieved December 8, 2010. 
  19. ^ Neyfakh, Leon (September 17, 2008). "Remembering David Foster Wallace: 'David Would Never Stop Caring' Says Lifelong Agent". The New York Observer,. http://www.observer.com/2008/arts-culture/david-foster-wallaces-agent. 
  20. ^ Neyfakh, Leon (September 19, 2008). "Infinite Jest Editor Michael Pietsch of Little, Brown on David Foster Wallace". The New York Observer,. http://www.observer.com/2008/media/little-brown-publisher-michael-pietsch-his-writer-david-foster-wallace. 
  21. ^ Michiko Kakutani (March 31, 2011). "Maximized Revenue, Minimized Existence". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/01/books/the-pale-king-by-david-foster-wallace-book-review.html. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  22. ^ Associated Press (March 1, 2009). "Unfinished novel by Wallace coming next year". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/books/news/2009-03-01-wallace-novel_N.htm. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  23. ^ Willa Paskin (April 5, 2011). "David Foster Wallace’s The Pale King Gets Thoughtful, Glowing Reviews". New York Magazine. http://www.vulture.com/2011/04/david_foster_wallace.html. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  24. ^ Cohen, Patricia (March 9, 2010). "David Foster Wallace Papers Are Bought". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/09/books/09arts-DAVIDFOSTERW_BRF.html. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  25. ^ Wallace, David Foster. "E Unibus Pluram: Television and U.S. Fiction". Review of Contemporary Fiction 13 (2): 151–194. 
  26. ^ "A Reader's Companion to Infinite Jest". Rci.rutgers.edu. http://rci.rutgers.edu/%7Ewcd/jestcomp.htm. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  27. ^ Kirsch, Adam. "The Importance of Being Earnest – David Foster Wallace was the voice of his generation, for better and for worse". The New Republic. http://www.tnr.com/article/books/magazine/92794/david-lipsky-foster-wallace-pale-king?passthru=MDM0Y2MyNDQ2ZDc1OWIxYjFmZmY4OWMwNTA1Yzc1Yzg. Retrieved August 5, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Charlie Rose – Jennifer Harbury & Robert Torricelli / David Foster Wallace". Google. http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=7171768127610835594&q=david+foster+wallace. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  29. ^ by D. T. Max (January 7, 2009). "David Foster Wallace's struggle to surpass Infinite Jest". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/03/09/090309fa_fact_max. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  30. ^ Krajeski, Jenna. This is Water, The New Yorker, September 22, 2008.
  31. ^ "David Foster Wallace on Life and Work". The Wall Street Journal. September 19, 2008. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122178211966454607.html. 
  32. ^ Wallace, David Foster (April 13, 2000). "The Weasel, Twelve Monkeys and The Shrub."". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090519105330/http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/story/18420304/the_weasel_twelve_monkeys_and_the_shrub/1. Retrieved April 2, 2012.  "The Weasel, Twelve Monkeys and The Shrub" was parodied in a Slate article titled "David Foster Wallace: Ain't McCain Grand". See Wyman, Bill (April 4, 2000) "David Foster Wallace: Ain't McCain grand?" Salon.
  33. ^ Wallace, David Foster (January 1996). "Shipping Out" (PDF). Harper's Magazine. http://www.harpers.org/media/pdf/dfw/HarpersMagazine-1996-01-0007859.pdf. 
  34. ^ Wallace, David Foster (April, 2005) "Host." The Atlantic Monthly
  35. ^ Lee, Chris (January 19, 2009). "John Krasinski, 'Brief Interviews With Hideous Men'". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/la-et-krasinski19-2009jan19,0,364630.story. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  36. ^ "John Krasinski conducts Brief Interviews With Hideous Men". TotalFILM.com. September 19, 2006. http://www.totalfilm.com/movie_news/john_krasinski_conducts_brief_interviews_with_hideous_men. 
  37. ^ . http://www.revistaenie.clarin.com/escenarios/teatro/Entrevistas_breves_con_escritores_repulsivos-Fundacion_TEM_0_583141891.html. 
  38. ^ "DFW + Me = An ‘Arranged’ Marriage of Music and Fiction". Eric Moe. http://fictionwritersreview.com/essays/dfw-me-an-arranged-marriage-of-music-and-fiction. Retrieved October 19, 2011. 
  39. ^ "Tri-Stan". Eric Moe. http://www.ericmoe.net/tristan.html. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  40. ^ Midgette, Anne (April 2, 2005). "A Menu of Familiar Signposts and a One-Woman Opera". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/02/arts/music/02sequ.html. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  41. ^ Pomona College, http://www.pomona.edu, Faculty Directory, Archived September 2008, last updated October 13, 2005.

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Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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