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definition - David_Hockney

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David Hockney

David Hockney

We Two Boys Together Clinging (1961)
Born (1937-07-09) 9 July 1937 (age 74)
Bradford, England
Nationality English
Field Painting, Printmaking, Photography, Set design
Training Bradford School of Art (1953–1957)
Royal College of Art (1959–1962)
Movement Pop art
Awards John Moores Painting Prize (1967)
Companion of Honour (1997)
Royal Academician
Order of Merit (2012)

David Hockney, OM, CH, RA, (born 9 July 1937) is an English painter, draughtsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer, who is based in Bridlington, Yorkshire and Kensington, London.[1]

An important contributor to the Pop art movement of the 1960s, he is considered one of the most influential British artists of the twentieth century.[2][3]



Hockney was born in Bradford, England on 9 July 1937 to Laura and Kenneth Hockney and was educated first at Wellington Primary School, then Bradford Grammar School, Bradford College of Art and the Royal College of Art in London, where he met R. B. Kitaj. While he was there Hockney said he felt at home, he took pride and success in his work here. While a student at the Royal College of Art, Hockney was featured in the exhibition Young Contemporaries – alongside Peter Blake – that announced the arrival of British Pop art. He was associated with the movement, but his early works also display expressionist elements, not dissimilar to certain works by Francis Bacon. Sometimes, as in We Two Boys Together Clinging (1961), named after a poem by Walt Whitman, these works make reference to his love for men. From 1963, Hockney was represented by the art dealer John Kasmin. In 1963 Hockney visited New York, making contact with Andy Warhol. A subsequent visit to California, where he lived for many years, inspired Hockney to make a series of paintings of swimming pools in Los Angeles, using the comparatively new acrylic medium and rendered in a highly realistic style using vibrant colours. In 1967, his painting, Peter Getting Out Of Nick's Pool, won the John Moores Painting Prize at the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. He made prints, portraits of friends, and stage designs for the Royal Court Theatre, Glyndebourne, La Scala and the Metropolitan Opera in New York City.

Hockney's older sister, Margaret, who lives in Yorkshire, is an artist of still life photos.

Hockney was born with synesthesia; he sees synesthetic colours to musical stimuli. In general, this does not show up in his painting or photography artwork very much. However, it is a common underlying principle in his construction of stage sets for various ballets and operas, where he bases the background colours and lighting upon his own seen colours while listening to the music of the theatre piece he is working on.


  The "joiners"

David Hockney has also worked with photography, or, more precisely, photocollage. Using varying numbers of Polaroid snaps or photolab-prints of a single subject Hockney arranged a patchwork to make a composite image.[4] One of his first photomontages was of his mother. Because these photographs are taken from different perspectives and at slightly different times, the result is work that has an affinity with Cubism, which was one of Hockney's major aims – discussing the way human vision works. Some of these pieces are landscapes such as Pearblossom Highway #2,[2][5] others being portraits, e.g. Kasmin 1982,[6] and My Mother, Bolton Abbey, 1982.[7]

Hockney created these photomontage works mostly between 1970 and 1986. He referred to them as "joiners".[8] He began this style of art by taking Polaroid photographs of one subject and arranging them into a grid layout. The subject would actually move while being photographed so that the piece would show the movements of the subject seen from the photographer's perspective. In later works Hockney changed his technique and moved the camera around the subject instead.

Hockney's creation of the "joiners" occurred accidentally. He noticed in the late sixties that photographers were using cameras with wide-angle lenses to take pictures. He did not like such photographs because they always came out somewhat distorted. He was working on a painting of a living room and terrace in Los Angeles. He took Polaroid shots of the living room and glued them together, not intending for them to be a composition on their own. Upon looking at the final composition, he realized it created a narrative, as if the viewer was moving through the room. He began to work more and more with photography after this discovery and even stopped painting for a period of time to exclusively pursue this new style of photography. Frustrated with the limitations of photography and its 'one eyed' approach,[9] he later returned to painting.

  Later works

  A Bigger Splash, 1967, Tate Collection, London.

In 1974, Hockney was the subject of Jack Hazan's film, A Bigger Splash (named after one of Hockney's swimming pool paintings from 1967).

In 1976, at Atelier Crommelynck, David Hockney created a portfolio of twenty etchings called The Blue Guitar: Etchings By David Hockney Who Was Inspired By Wallace Stevens Who Was Inspired By Pablo Picasso.[10] The etchings refer to themes of a poem by Stevens, "The Man With The Blue Guitar". The portfolio was published by Petersburg Press in October 1977. That year, Petersburg also published a book, in which the images were accompanied by the poem's text.[11]

Hockney was commissioned to design the cover and a series of pages for the December 1985 issue of the French edition of Vogue. Consistent with his interest in cubism and admiration for Pablo Picasso, Hockney chose to paint Celia Birtwell (who appears in several of his works) from different views, as if the eye had scanned her face diagonally.

In December 1985, Hockney was commissioned to draw with the Quantel Paintbox, a computer program that allowed the artist to sketch directly onto the screen. Using this program was similar to drawing on the PET film for prints, with which he'd had much experience. The resulting work was featured in a BBC series profiling a number of artists.

His artwork was used on the front cover of the 1989 British Telecom telephone directory for Bradford.

  A Bigger Grand Canyon, 1998, National Gallery of Australia.

His A Bigger Grand Canyon, a series of 60 paintings that combined to produce one enormous picture, was bought by the National Gallery of Australia for $4.6 million.

On 21 June 2006, his painting of The Splash fetched £2.6 million – a record for a Hockney painting.[12]

In October 2006 the National Portrait Gallery in London organized one of the largest ever displays of Hockney's portraiture work, including 150 of his paintings, drawings, prints, sketchbooks and photocollages from over five decades. The collection ranged from his earliest self-portraits to work completed in 2005.[13] Hockney himself assisted in displaying the works, and the exhibition, which ran until January 2007, proved to be one of the most successful in the gallery's history.

  The BMW 'art car' decorated by Hockney in 1995.

In June 2007, Hockney's largest painting, Bigger Trees Near Warter, which measures 15x40', was hung in the Royal Academy's largest gallery in their annual Summer Exhibition.[14] This work "is a monumental-scale view of a coppice in Hockney's native Yorkshire, between Bridlington and York. It was painted on 50 individual canvases, mostly working in situ, over five weeks last winter."[15] In 2008, he donated this work to the Tate Gallery in London, saying: "I thought if I'm going to give something to the Tate I want to give them something really good. It's going to be here for a while. I don't want to give things I'm not too proud of...I thought this was a good painting because it's of England...it seems like a good thing to do".[16]

Since 2009, Hockney has painted hundreds of portraits, still lifes and landscapes using the Brushes iPhone[17] and iPad[18] application, often sending them to his friends.[18] His show Fleurs fraîches (Fresh Flowers) was held at La Fondation Pierre Bergé in Paris. A Fresh-Flowers exhibit opened in 2011 at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, featuring over 100 of Hockney's drawings on 25 iPads and 20 iPods.[19]

The Royal Academy is showing an exhibition of Hockney's work called 'A Bigger Picture' from 21 January 2012 to 9 April 2012.[20] The exhibition includes over 150 works by the artist, many of which take entire walls in the gallery's brightly lit rooms. A Bigger Picture is dedicated to landscapes, especially trees, including tree tunnels.[21] Works include oil paintings and watercolors inspired by Hockney's native Yorkshire. Around 50 drawings were created on an iPad [22] and then printed on paper for the exhibition. Hockney stated in a 2012 interview "It’s about big things. You can make paintings bigger. We’re also making photographs bigger, videos bigger, all to do with drawing." [23]

Many of Hockney's works are now housed in Salts Mill, in Saltaire, near his home town of Bradford.

  The Hockney-Falco thesis

In the 2001 television programme and book, Secret Knowledge, Hockney posited that the Old Masters used camera obscura techniques, utilized with a concave mirror, which allowed the image of the subject to be projected onto the surface of the painting. Hockney argues that this technique migrated gradually to Italy and most of Europe, and is the reason for the photographic style of painting we see in the Renaissance and later periods of art.

  Public life

A conscientious objector, Hockney worked as a medical orderly in hospitals as his National Service 1957–59.[24]

He was made a Companion of Honour in 1997[25] and is also a Royal Academician.[26]

Hockney was offered a knighthood in 1990 but he declined the offer before accepting an Order of Merit in January 2012.[27][28] He was awarded The Royal Photographic Society's Progress medal in 1988[29] and Centenary medal in 2003.[30]

Hockney serves on the advisory board of the political magazine Standpoint,[31] and contributed original sketches for its launch edition, in June 2008.[32]

He is a staunch pro-tobacco campaigner and was invited to guest-edit the Today programme on 29 December 2009 to air his views on the subject.[33]

In October 2010, he and a hundred other leading artists signed an open letter to the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, Jeremy Hunt protesting against cutbacks in the arts.[34]

  In popular culture

David Hockney was the inspiration of artist Billy Pappas in the documentary film Waiting for Hockney, which debuted at the Tribeca Film Festival in 2008.[35]

A biography of Hockney David Hockney: A Rake's Progress by writer/photographer Christopher Simon Sykes covering the years 1937–1975 appeared in 2012.[36]

  See also


  1. ^ Karen Wright,"Brushes with Hockney," Intelligent Life, Summer 2010, retrieved, 19 August 2011.
  2. ^ a b J. Paul Getty Museum. David Hockney. Retrieved 13 September 2008.
  3. ^ "David Hockney A Bigger Picture". Royal Academy of Arts. http://www.royalacademy.org.uk/exhibitions/hockney/about-the-exhibition/. Retrieved 18 January 2012. 
  4. ^ Walker, John. (1992) "Joiners". Glossary of Art, Architecture & Design since 1945, 3rd. ed.
  5. ^ Image of Pearblossom Highway
  6. ^ Image of Kasmin 1982
  7. ^ Image of photocollage My Mother, Bolton Abbey, 1982
  8. ^ Hockney on Photography: Conversations with Paul Joyce (1988) ISBN 0-224-02484-1
  9. ^ Hockney on Art – Paul Joyce ISBN 1-4087-0157-X
  10. ^ Hockney, Davis (1976-1977). "The Old Guitarist' From The Blue Guitar". British Council; Visual Arts. Petersburg Press. http://collection.britishcouncil.org/whats_on/exhibition/11/15872/object/42133. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  11. ^ Hockney, David; Stevens, Wallace (January 1, 1977). The Blue Guitar: Etchings By David Hockney Who Was Inspired By Wallace Stevens Who Was Inspired By Pablo Picasso. Petersburg Ltd. ISBN 978-0902825031. http://www.amazon.com/Blue-Guitar-Etchings-Hockney-Inspired/dp/0902825038. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  12. ^ Hockney painting sells for £2.6m
  13. ^ Meredith Etherington-Smith (15 August 2006). "A David Hockney Moment". ARTINFO. http://www.artinfo.com/news/story/19262/a-david-hockney-moment/. Retrieved 17 April 2008. 
  14. ^ Bigger Trees near Warter as seen in the Royal Academy, June 2007
  15. ^ Charlotte Higgins, Hockney's big gift to the Tate: a 40ft landscape of Yorkshire's winter trees, The Guardian, 8 April 2008 [1]
  16. ^ Simon Crerar "David Hockney donates Bigger Trees Near Warter to Tate", The Times, 7 April 2008.
  17. ^ Lawrence Weschler, "David Hockney's iPhone Passion, The New York Review of Books, 22 October 2009
  18. ^ a b Gayford, Martin. "David Hockney’s IPad Doodles Resemble High-Tech Stained Glass" Bloomberg, 26 April 2010.
  19. ^ Katz, Brigit (21 November 2011). "Freshly pressed". The Varsity. http://thevarsity.ca/articles/49917. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 
  20. ^ Royal Academy
  21. ^ Nairn, Olivia (29 February 2012). "David Hockney RA: A Bigger Picture". Creatures of Culture. http://www.creaturesofculture.com/2012/02/david-hockney-ra-bigger-picture.html. Retrieved 4 March 2012. 
  22. ^ Stuff-Review, "Why we love tech: David Hockney’s ‘A Bigger Picture’ is contemporary art done on an iPad"
  23. ^ Brooklyn Rail, interview between David Hockney and Will Corwin
  24. ^ "Search". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/arts/an-unrepentant-david-hockney/article2210686/. 
  25. ^ http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchUK/Honours/CompanionsofHonour.aspx
  26. ^ http://www.royalacademy.org.uk/academicians/painters/david-hockney-ra,179,AR.html
  27. ^ "David Hockney appointed to Order of Merit". BBC Magazine (BBC News). 1 January 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-16376999. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  28. ^ Appointments to the Order of Merit, 1 January 2012 – the official website of The British Monarchy
  29. ^ http://www.rps.org/annual-awards/Progress-Medal
  30. ^ http://www.rps.org/annual-awards/Centenary-Medal
  31. ^ Standpoint staff (2009). "Standpoint Advisory Board". Social Affairs Unit Magazines. http://www.standpointmag.co.uk/about-us. 
  32. ^ Standpoint staff (2008). "David Hockney – Exclusive sketches for his new Tate masterpiece". Social Affairs Unit Magazines Ltd. http://standpointmag.co.uk/magazine/26. 
  33. ^ BBC press office (2009). "Radio 4's Today announces this year's guest editors". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2009/12_december/10/today.shtml. 
  34. ^ Peter Walker, "Turner prize winners lead protest against arts cutbacks," The Guardian, 1 October 2010.
  35. ^ IMDB, "Waiting for Hockney (2008)"
  36. ^ http://nyjournalofbooks.com/review/david-hockney-rakes-progress

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