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Dwarf planet

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The Dwarf Planet Eris

A dwarf planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), is a celestial body orbiting the Sun that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity but has not cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals and is not a satellite.[1][2] More explicitly, it has to have sufficient mass to overcome its compressive strength and achieve hydrostatic equilibrium. It should not be confused with a minor planet.

The term dwarf planet was adopted in 2006 as part of a three-way categorization of bodies orbiting the Sun,[3] brought about by an increase in discoveries of trans-Neptunian objects that rivaled Pluto in size, and finally precipitated by the discovery of an even larger object, Eris.[4] This classification states that bodies large enough to have cleared the neighbourhood of their orbit are defined as planets, while those that are not massive enough to be rounded by their own gravity are defined as small solar system bodies. Dwarf planets come in between. The definition officially adopted by the IAU in 2006 has been both praised and criticized, and has been disputed by scientists such as Alan Stern.[5][6]

The IAU currently recognizes five dwarf planets—Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris.[7] However, only two of these bodies, Ceres and Pluto, have been observed in enough detail to demonstrate that they fit the definition. Eris has been accepted as a dwarf planet because it is more massive than Pluto. The IAU subsequently decided that unnamed trans-Neptunian objects with an absolute magnitude less than +1 (and hence a mathematically delimited minimum diameter of 838 km[8]) are to be named under the assumption that they are dwarf planets. The only two such objects known at the time, Makemake and Haumea, went through this naming procedure and were declared to be dwarf planets.

It is suspected that at least another 40 known objects in the Solar System are dwarf planets,[9] and estimates are that up to 200 dwarf planets may be found when the entire region known as the Kuiper belt is explored, and that the number might be as high as 2,000 when objects scattered outside the Kuiper belt are considered.[9]

The classification of bodies in other planetary systems with the characteristics of dwarf planets has not been addressed,[10] although if they were detectable they would not be considered planets.[11]

Contents

History of the concept

Before the discoveries of the early 21st century, astronomers had no strong need for a formal definition of a planet. With the discovery of Pluto in 1930, astronomers considered the Solar System to have nine planets, along with thousands of significantly smaller bodies such as asteroids and comets. For almost 50 years Pluto was thought to be larger than Mercury,[12][13] but with the discovery in 1978 of Pluto's moon Charon, it became possible to measure the mass of Pluto accurately and it was determined that its actual mass was much smaller than the initial estimates.[14] It was roughly one-twentieth the mass of Mercury, which made Pluto by far the smallest planet. Although it was still more than ten times as massive as the largest object in the asteroid belt, Ceres, it was one-fifth that of Earth's Moon.[15] Furthermore, having some unusual characteristics such as large orbital eccentricity and a high orbital inclination, it became evident it was a completely different kind of body from any of the other planets.[16]

In the 1990s, astronomers began to find objects in the same region of space as Pluto (now known as the Kuiper belt), and some even farther away.[17] Many of these shared some of the key orbital characteristics of Pluto, and Pluto started being seen as the largest member of a new class of objects, plutinos. This led some astronomers to stop referring to Pluto as a planet. Several terms including minor planet, subplanet, and planetoid started to be used for the bodies now known as dwarf planets.[18][19] By 2005, three other bodies comparable to Pluto in terms of size and orbit (Quaoar, Sedna, and Eris) had been reported in the scientific literature.[20] It became clear that either they would also have to be classified as planets, or Pluto would have to be reclassified.[21] Astronomers were also confident that more objects as large as Pluto would be discovered, and the number of planets would start growing quickly if Pluto were to remain a planet.[22]

In 2006, Eris (then known as 2003 UB313) was determined to be slightly larger than Pluto, and some reports unofficially referred to it as the tenth planet.[23] As a consequence, the issue became a matter of intense debate during the IAU General Assembly in August 2006.[24] IAU's initial draft proposal included Charon, Eris, and Ceres in the list of planets. After many astronomers objected to this proposal, an alternative was drawn up by Uruguayan astronomer Julio Ángel Fernández, in which he created a median classification for objects large enough to be round but that had not cleared their orbits of planetesimals. Dropping Charon from the list, the new proposal also removed Pluto, Ceres, and Eris, since they have not cleared their orbits.[25]

The IAU's final resolution preserved this three-category system for the celestial bodies orbiting the Sun. Fernández suggested calling these median objects planetoids,[26][27] but the IAU's division III plenary session voted unanimously to call them dwarf planets.[3] The resolution read, in full:

The IAU ... resolves that planets and other bodies, except satellites, in our Solar System be defined into three distinct categories in the following way:

(1) A planet1 is a celestial body that (a) is in orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (c) has cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit.
(2) A “dwarf planet” is a celestial body that (a) is in orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape2, (c) has not cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit, and (d) is not a satellite.
(3) All other objects3, except satellites, orbiting the Sun shall be referred to collectively as “Small Solar System Bodies.”

Footnotes:
1 The eight planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
2 An IAU process will be established to assign borderline objects either dwarf planet or other status.
3 These currently include most of the Solar System asteroids, most Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), comets, and other small bodies.

Although there were concerns about the classification of planets in other solar systems,[10] this issue was not resolved; it was proposed instead to decide this only when such objects will start being observed.[25]

The 2006 IAU's Resolution 6a[28] recognizes Pluto as "the prototype of a new category of trans-Neptunian objects". The name and precise nature of this category were not specified but left for the IAU to establish at a later date; in the debate leading up to the resolution, the members of the category were variously referred to as plutons and plutonian objects but neither name was carried forward.[3] On June 11, 2008, the IAU Executive Committee announced a name, plutoid, and a definition: all trans-Neptunian dwarf planets are plutoids.[29] On July 18, 2008, the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature reclassified the object then known as (136472) 2005 FY9 as a dwarf planet, and renamed it Makemake.[30]

Characteristics

Planetary discriminants[31]
BodyMass (ME*)
Λ/ΛE**
µ***
Mercury0.0550.012 69.1 × 104
Venus0.8151.081.35 × 106
Earth1.001.001.7 × 106
Mars0.1070.006 11.8 × 105
Ceres0.000 158.7 × 10−90.33
Jupiter317.78 5106.25 × 105
Saturn95.23081.9 × 105
Uranus14.52.512.9 × 104
Neptune17.11.792.4 × 104
Pluto0.002 21.95 × 10−80.077
Haumea0.000 671.72 × 10–90.02
Makemake0.000 671.45 × 10–90.02[32]
Eris0.002 83.5 × 10−80.10

*ME in Earth masses.
**Λ/ΛE = M²/P × PE/M2E.
***µ = M/m, where M is the mass of the body,
and m is the aggregate mass of all the other bodies
that share its orbital zone.

Orbital dominance

Alan Stern and Harold F. Levison introduced a parameter Λ (lambda), expressing the probability of an encounter resulting in a given deflection of orbit.[5] The value of this parameter in Stern's model is proportional to the square of the mass and inversely proportional to the period. Following the authors, this value can be used to estimate the capacity of a body to clear the neighbourhood of its orbit. A gap of five orders of magnitude in Λ was found between the smallest terrestrial planets and the largest asteroids and Kuiper belt objects (third column of the planetary discriminants table to the right).[31]

Using this parameter, Steven Soter and other astronomers argued for a distinction between dwarf planets and the other eight planets based on their inability to "clear the neighbourhood around their orbits": planets are able to remove smaller bodies near their orbits by collision, capture, or gravitational disturbance, while dwarf planets lack the mass to do so.[5] Soter went on to propose a parameter he called the planetary discriminant, designated with the symbol µ (mu), that represents an experimental measure of the actual degree of cleanliness of the orbital zone (where µ is calculated by dividing the mass of the candidate body by the total mass of the other objects that share its orbital zone).[31] There are several other schemes that try to differentiate between planets and dwarf planets,[5] but the 2006 definition uses this concept.[3]

Size and mass

When an object achieves hydrostatic equilibrium, also known as gravitational relaxation, there are no gravitational imbalances in its surface. A global layer of liquid placed on this surface (assuming for argument's sake it would remain a liquid) would form a liquid surface of the same shape, apart from small-scale surface features such as craters and fissures. This does not mean the body is a sphere; the faster a body rotates, the more oblate or even scalene it becomes, but such forces affect a liquid surface as well. The extreme example of a non-spherical body in hydrostatic equilibrium is Haumea, which is twice as long along its major axis as it is at the poles.

The relative masses of the five known dwarf planets, plus Charon. The mass of Makemake is a rough estimate.
The same six masses, relative to the Earth's Moon.

The upper and lower size and mass limits of dwarf planets have not been specified by the IAU. There is no defined upper limit, and an object larger or more massive than Mercury that has not "cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit" would be classified as a dwarf planet.[33] The lower limit is determined by the requirements of achieving a hydrostatic equilibrium shape, but the size or mass at which an object attains this shape depends on its composition and thermal history. The original draft of the 2006 IAU resolution redefined hydrostatic equilibrium shape as applying "to objects with mass above 5 × 1020 kg and diameter greater than 800 km",[10] but this was not retained in the final draft.[3]

Empirical observations suggest that the lower limit may vary according to the composition of the object. For example, in the asteroid belt, Ceres, with a diameter of 975 km, is the only object presently known to be self-rounded, while 2 Pallas at approximately 600 km appears to be partially but incompletely differentiated. Therefore, it has been suggested that the limit where other rocky-ice bodies like Ceres become rounded might be somewhere around 900 km.[9] The rocky body Vesta, at 530 km appears to have achieved equilibrium, only to have it disrupted by a massive impact after it solidified. More icy bodies like trans-Neptunian objects have less rigid interiors and therefore more easily relax under their self-gravity into a rounded shape.[9] The smallest icy body known to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium is Mimas, while the largest irregular one is Proteus; both average slightly more than 400 km (250 mi) in diameter. Mike Brown (a leading researcher in this field and discoverer of Eris) suggests that the lower limit for an icy dwarf planet is therefore likely to be somewhere under 400 km.[9]

It is also not clear to what extent deviations from perfect equilibrium are to be tolerated, or whether having achieved equilibrium is sufficient for inclusion. All solid bodies in the solar system, such as Iapetus with its equatorial ridge and Mars with its shield volcanoes, deviate to some extent. This may be a critical for the consideration of the asteroid 4 Vesta, which may deviate from equilibrium due to a large impact that removed part of one hemisphere.

Current members

Haumea with its moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka (artist's conception)
Makemake (artist's conception)
Eris (through the Hubble Space Telescope)
Ceres (through the Hubble Space Telescope)
Pluto (approximate true color)

As of 2008, the IAU has classified five celestial bodies as dwarf planets. Two of these, Ceres and Pluto, are known to qualify as dwarf planets through direct observation. The other three, Eris, Haumea, and Makemake, are thought to be dwarf planets from mathematical modeling—or in the case of Eris, because it is larger than Pluto—and qualify for the classification under IAU naming rules based on their magnitudes.[7][28]

  1. Ceres – discovered on January 1, 1801 (45 years before Neptune), considered a planet for half a century before reclassification as an asteroid. Classified as a dwarf planet on September 13, 2006.
  2. Pluto – discovered on February 18, 1930, classified as a planet for 76 years. Reclassified as a dwarf planet on August 24, 2006.
  3. Eris – discovered on January 5, 2005. Called the "tenth planet" in media reports. Accepted as a dwarf planet on September 13, 2006.
  4. Makemake – discovered on March 31, 2005. Accepted as a dwarf planet on July 11, 2008.
  5. Haumea – discovered on December 28, 2004. Accepted as a dwarf planet on September 17, 2008.

No space probes have visited any of the dwarf planets. This will change if NASA's Dawn and New Horizons missions reach Ceres and Pluto, respectively, as planned in 2015.[34][35] Dawn is also slated to orbit and observe another potential dwarf planet, Vesta, in 2011.

Orbital attributes of dwarf planets[36]
NameRegion of
Solar System
Orbital
radius (AU)
Orbital period
(years)
Mean orbital
speed (km/s)
Inclination
to ecliptic
(°)
Orbital
eccentricity
Planetary
discriminant
CeresAsteroid belt2.774.6017.88210.590.0800.33
PlutoKuiper belt39.48248.094.66617.140.2490.077
HaumeaKuiper belt43.34285.44.48428.190.189 ?
MakemakeKuiper belt45.79309.94.41928.960.159 ?
ErisScattered disc67.675573.43644.190.4420.10
Physical attributes of dwarf planets
NameEquatorial
diameter
relative to
the Moon
Equatorial
diameter
(km)
Mass
relative to
the Moon
Mass
( × 1021 kg)
Density
( × 103g/m³)
Surface
gravity
(m/s2)
Escape
velocity

(km/s)
Axial
inclination
Rotation
period

(days)
MoonsSurface
temp.
(K)
Atmosphere
Ceres[37][38]28.0%974.6±3.21.3%0.952.080.270.51~3°0.380167none
Pluto[39][40]68.7%2306±3017.8%13.052.00.581.2119.59°-6.39344transient
Haumea[41][42]33.1%1150+250−1005.7%4.2 ± 0.12.6–3.3~0.44~0.84232 ± 3 ?
Makemake[41][43]43.2%1500+400−200~5%?~4?~2?~0.5~0.80~30transient?
Eris[41][44]74.8%2400±10022.7%16.72.3~0.81.3~0.3142transient?

Candidates

After Ceres, the next most massive body in the asteroid belt, Vesta, might also be classified as a dwarf planet, as its shape appears to deviate from hydrostatic equilibrium only because of a large impact that occurred after it solidified;[45] the definition of dwarf planet does not specifically address this issue. The Dawn probe scheduled to enter orbit around Vesta in 2011 may help clarify matters.[34]

The status of Charon (currently regarded as a satellite of Pluto) remains uncertain, as there is currently no clear definition of what distinguishes a satellite system from a binary (double planet) system. The original draft resolution (5)[10] presented to the IAU stated that Charon could be considered a planet because:

  1. Charon independently would satisfy the size and shape criteria for a dwarf planet status (in the terms of the final resolution);
  2. Charon revolves with Pluto around a common barycentre located between the two bodies (rather than within one of the bodies) because Charon's mass is not insignificant relative to that of Pluto.[46]

This definition, however, was not preserved in the IAU's final resolution and it is unknown if it will be included in future debates.

Illustration of the relative sizes, albedos, and colours of the largest Trans-Neptunian objects

Many Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are thought to have icy cores and therefore would require a diameter of perhaps 400 km (250 mi) – only about 3% of that of Earth – to relax into gravitational equilibrium, making them dwarf planets of the plutoid class.[9] Although only rough estimates of the diameters of these objects are available, as of August 2006, it was believed that another 42 bodies beyond Neptune (besides Pluto and Eris) were likely dwarf planets.[9][47] A team is investigating another 30 such objects, and believe that the total number will eventually prove to be about 200 in the Kuiper belt, and many more beyond it.[9]

Tancredi & Favre (2008) attempt to estimate which TNOs are likely to qualify, based on both direct measurements and lightcurve data. They propose that nine of the candidates be considered dwarf planets.[48] Six of these have been estimated by one researcher or another to be at least 900 km in diameter, the size of the smallest known dwarf planet, Ceres, as has a tenth candidate, 2002 AW197. These ten prime candidates are:

Prime plutoid candidates[49]
NameCategoryEstimated diameter (km)Magnitude
(H)
Mass
( × 1020 kg)
Orbital
radius
(AU)
by [9]by [50]by [51]by [52]
Orcusplutino
(1 moon)
1,1009099461,5006.2–7.039.12
Pluto39.48
Ixionplutino9805706501,065~5.839.65
Huyaplutino4804800.8–1.6?39.76
Varunacubewano780874500900~5.942.90
2002 TX300Haumean
cubewano
8007091.6–3.743.11
Haumea43.34
Quaoarcubewano
(1 moon)
1,2901,2608441,20010–2643.58
Makemake45.79
2002 AW197cubewano940793735890~5.247.30
2002 TC3025:2 SDO7101,2001,1500.7855.02
Eris67.67
1996 TL66SDO632460–6902.6?82.90
Sednadetached object1,8001,500< 1,600< 1,50017–61486.0

Additionally, more-recently discovered 2007 OR10 should probably be seen as a prime candidate, as Mike Brown estimates its size to be between that of Sedna and Quaoar[53].

Ellipsoidal moons

A total of 19 known moons are massive enough to have relaxed into a rounded shape under their own gravity. These bodies have no significant physical differences from the dwarf planets, but are not considered members of that class because they do not directly orbit the Sun. They are Earth's moon, the four Galilean moons of Jupiter (Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), seven moons of Saturn (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Titan, and Iapetus), five moons of Uranus (Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon), one moon of Neptune (Triton), and one moon of Pluto (Charon).

Contention

In the immediate aftermath of the IAU definition of dwarf planet, a number of scientists expressed their disagreement with the IAU resolution.[5] Campaigns included car bumper stickers and T-shirts.[54] Mike Brown (the discoverer of Eris) agrees with the reduction of the number of planets to eight.[55]

NASA has announced that it will use the new guidelines established by the IAU.[56] However, Alan Stern, the director of NASA's mission to Pluto, rejects the current IAU definition of planet, both in terms of defining dwarf planets as something other than a type of planet, and in using orbital characteristics (rather than intrinsic characteristics) of objects to define them as dwarf planets.[57] Thus, as of January 2008, he and his team still refer to Pluto as the ninth planet,[58]while accepting the characterization of dwarf planet for Ceres and Eris.

See also

References

  1. ^ "IAU 2006 General Assembly: Result of the IAU Resolution votes". International Astronomical Union. 2006. http://www.iau.org/iau0603.414.0.html. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  2. ^ "Dwarf Planets". NASA. http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Dwarf&Display=OverviewLong. Retrieved 2008-01-22. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Definition of a Planet in the Solar System: Resolutions 5 and 6" (PDF). IAU 2006 General Assembly (International Astronomical Union). 2006-08-24. http://www.iau.org/static/resolutions/Resolution_GA26-5-6.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  4. ^ "The Outer Planets", 2007, The Universe program (rebroadcast 2008-09-29, 18-19:00 hrs EDST) The History Channel.
  5. ^ a b c d e Rincon, Paul (2006-08-25). "Pluto vote 'hijacked' in revolt". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/5283956.stm. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  6. ^ Jorge Salazar (2009-11-30). "Alan Stern: ‘A Chihuahua is still a dog, and Pluto is still a planet'". EarthSky (Earthsky Interviews). http://www.earthsky.org/interviewpost/space/alan-stern-%E2%80%98a-chihuahua-is-still-a-dog-and-pluto-is-still-a-planet. Retrieved 2009-12-08. 
  7. ^ a b "Dwarf Planets and their Systems". Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN). 2008-07-11. http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/append7.html#DwarfPlanets. Retrieved 2008-07-13. 
  8. ^ Dan Bruton. "Conversion of Absolute Magnitude to Diameter for Minor Planets". Department of Physics & Astronomy (Stephen F. Austin State University). http://www.physics.sfasu.edu/astro/asteroids/sizemagnitude.html. Retrieved 2008-06-13. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Brown, Michael E.. "The Dwarf Planets". California Institute of Technology, Department of Geological Sciences. http://web.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/dwarfplanets/. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  10. ^ a b c d "The IAU draft definition of "planet" and "plutons"". International Astronomical Union. 2006-08-16. http://www.iau.org/public_press/news/release/iau0601/. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  11. ^ "Working Group on Extrasolar Planets of the International Astronomical Union". International Astronomical Union. 2001. http://www.dtm.ciw.edu/boss/definition.html. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  12. ^ Mager, Brad. "Pluto Revealed". discoveryofpluto.com. http://www.discoveryofpluto.com/pluto06.html. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  13. ^ Cuk, Matija; Masters, Karen (2007-09-14). "Is Pluto a planet?". Cornell University, Astronomy Department. http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=624. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  14. ^ Buie, Marc W.; William M. Grundy, Eliot F. Young, Leslie A. Young and S. Alan Stern (2006). "Orbits and Photometry of Pluto's Satellites: Charon, S/2005 P1, and S/2005 P2" (abstract page). The Astronomical Journal 132 (132): 290–98. doi:10.1086/504422. http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1538-3881/132/1/290. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  15. ^ Jewitt, David; Delsanti, Audrey (2006) (PDF). The Solar System Beyond The Planets in Solar System Update : Topical and Timely Reviews in Solar System Sciences (PDF). Springer. doi:10.1007/3-540-37683-6. ISBN 978-3-540-37683-5. http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/faculty/jewitt/papers/2006/DJ06.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  16. ^ Weintraub, David A. (2006). Is Pluto a Planet? A Historical Journey through the Solar System. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press. pp. 1–272. ISBN 978-0-691-12348-6. 
  17. ^ Phillips, Tony; Phillips, Amelia (2006-09-04). "Much Ado about Pluto". PlutoPetition.com. http://www.plutopetition.com/unplanet.php. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  18. ^ "Planetoids Beyond Pluto". Astrobiology Magazine. 2004-12-30. http://www.astrobio.net/news/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=1366. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  19. ^ "Hubble Observes Planetoid Sedna, Mystery Deepens". NASA's Hubble Space Telescope home site. 2004-04-14. http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2004/14/. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  20. ^ Brown, Michael E.. "The Discovery of Eris, the Largest Known Dwarf Planet". California Institute of Technology, Department of Geological Sciences. http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/planetlila/. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  21. ^ Brown, Michael E. (2004). "What is the definition of a planet?". California Institute of Technology, Department of Geological Sciences. http://web.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/sedna/index.html#planets. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  22. ^ Brown, Mike (2006-08-16). "War of the Worlds". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/16/opinion/16brown.html. Retrieved 2008-02-20. 
  23. ^ "Astronomers Measure Mass of Largest Dwarf Planet". NASA's Hubble Space Telescope home site. 2007-06-14. http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2007/24/full/. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  24. ^ Brown, Michael E.. "What makes a planet?". California Institute of Technology, Department of Geological Sciences. http://www.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/whatsaplanet/. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  25. ^ a b Britt, Robert Roy (2006-08-19). "Details Emerge on Plan to Demote Pluto". Space.com. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/060819_new_proposal.html. Retrieved 2006-08-18. 
  26. ^ Bailey, Mark E.. "Comments & discussions on Resolution 5: The definition of a planet - Planets Galore". Dissertatio cum Nuncio Sidereo, Series Tertia - official newspaper of the IAU General Assembly 2006. Astronomical Institute Prague. http://astro.cas.cz/nuncius/appendix.html. Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  27. ^ "Dos uruguayos, Julio Fernández y Gonzalo Tancredi en la historia de la astronomía:reducen la cantidad de planetas de 9 a 8 ...&Anotaciones de Tancredi" (in Spanish). Science and Research Institute, Mercedes, Uruguay. http://www.ici.edu.uy/perfilASTRO.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-11. 
  28. ^ a b "IAU 2006 General Assembly: Result of the IAU Resolution votes". http://www.iau.org/public_press/news/release/iau0603. 
  29. ^ "Plutoid chosen as name for Solar System objects like Pluto". Press release. http://www.iau.org/public_press/news/release/iau0804/. 
  30. ^ "Minor Planets, Dwarf Planets". IAU. http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/iau/Headlines.html. Retrieved 2009-09-12. 
  31. ^ a b c Soter, Steven (2006-08-16). "What is a Planet?". The Astronomical Journal 132: 2513–19. doi:10.1086/508861. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0608359. Retrieved 2008-01-22. 
  32. ^ Calculated using the estimate for the mass of the Kuiper belt found in Iorio, 2007 of 0.033 Earth masses
  33. ^ Indeed, Mike Brown has set out to find such an object. ("Julia Sweeney and Michael E. Brown". Hammer Conversations: KCET podcast. 2007. http://www.pluggd.tv/audio/channels/kcet_podcast__hammer_conversations/episodes/2h10l. Retrieved 2008-06-28. )
  34. ^ a b Russel, C.T.; Capaccioni, F.; Coradini, A.; et al. (2006). "Dawn Discovery mission to Vesta and Ceres: Present status". Advances in Space Research 38: 2043–48. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2004.12.041. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdSpR..38.2043R. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  35. ^ Britt, Robert Roy (2003). "Pluto Mission a Go! Initial Funding Secured". Space.com. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/pluto_horizons_030225.html. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  36. ^ Bowell, Ted. "The Asteroid Orbital Elements Database". Lowell Observatory. ftp://ftp.lowell.edu/pub/elgb/astorb.html. Retrieved 2008-02-12. 
  37. ^ Thomas, P.C; Parker J.Wm.; McFadden, L.A.; et al. (2005). "Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape". Nature 437: 224–26. doi:10.1038/nature03938. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.437..224T. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  38. ^ Calculated based on the known parameters. APmag and AngSize generated with Horizons (Ephemeris: Observer Table: Quantities = 9,13,20,29)
  39. ^ Williams, D.R. (2006-09-07). "Pluto Fact Sheet". NASA. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/plutofact.html. Retrieved 2007-03-24. 
  40. ^ Buie, M. W.; Grundy, W.M.; Young, E.F.; Young, L.A.; Stern, S.A. (2006). "Orbits and photometry of Pluto's satellites: Charon, S/2005 P1, and S/2005 P2". Astronomical Journal 132: 290. doi:10.1086/504422. arΧiv:astro-ph/0512491. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2006AJ....132..290B&db_key=AST&data_type=HTML&format=&high=444b66a47d27727. 
  41. ^ a b c Stansberry, J.; Grundy, W.; Brown, M.; et al. (2007) (abstract). Physical Properties of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects: Constraints from Spitzer Space Telescope. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0702538. 
  42. ^ Rabinowitz, David L.; Barkume, K.M.; Brown, E.M. et al. (2006). "Photometric Observations Constraining the Size, Shape, and Albedo of 2003 EL61, a Rapidly Rotating, Pluto-Sized Object in the Kuiper Belt". The Astrophysical Journal 639 (2): 1238–1251. doi:10.1086/499575. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0509401. 
  43. ^ J. Licandro, N. Pinilla-Alonso, M. Pedani, et al. (2006). "The methane ice rich surface of large TNO 2005 FY9: a Pluto-twin in the trans-neptunian belt?". Astronomy and Astrophysics 445 (L35-L38): L35. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200500219. http://www.aanda.org/index.php?option=article&access=doi&doi=10.1051/0004-6361:200500219. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  44. ^ Brown, Michael E.; Schaller, Emily L. (2007). "The Mass of Dwarf Planet Eris". Science 316 (5831): 1585. doi:10.1126/science.1139415. PMID 17569855. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/316/5831/1585. 
  45. ^ Thomas, Peter C.; Binzelb, Richard P.; Gaffeyc, Michael J.; Zellnerd, Benjamin H.; Storrse, Alex D.; Wells, Eddie (1997). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Vesta: Spin Pole, Size, and Shape from HST Images"]. Icarus 128 (1): 88–94. doi:10.1006/icar.1997.5736. 
  46. ^ the footnote in the original text reads: For two or more objects comprising a multiple object system.... A secondary object satisfying these conditions i.e. that of mass, shape is also designated a planet if the system barycentre resides outside the primary. Secondary objects not satisfying these criteria are "satellites". Under this definition, Pluto's companion Charon is a planet, making Pluto-Charon a double planet.
  47. ^ Britt, Robert Roy (2006-08-16). "Nine Planets Become 12 with Controversial New Definition". Space.com. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/060816_planet_definition.html. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
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  49. ^ All bodies with estimated diameters of 900 km or more, with 3 additional prime suspects (Huya, 2002 TX300, 1996 TL66) cited in Tancredi & Favre. "Which are the dwarfs in the Solar system?". Asteroids, Comets, Meteors. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/acm2008/pdf/8261.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 
  50. ^ Johnston, Robert (2007-11-24). "List of Known Trans-Neptunian Objects". Johnston's Archive.net. http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/astro/tnoslist.html. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  51. ^ Barucci, M.A.; Stansberry, John; Grundy, Will; Brown, Mike; Cruikshank, Dale; Spencer, John; Trilling, David; Margot, Jean-Luc (2007). "Physical Properties of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects: Constraints from Spitzer Space Telescope". The Solar System beyond Neptune (University of Arizona Press). http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0702538. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  52. ^ David C. Jewitt. "Kuiper Belt: The 1000 km Scale KBOs". University of Hawaii, Institute for Astronomy. http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/faculty/jewitt/kb.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  53. ^ Brown, Michael E.. "Snow White Needs A Bailout". Mike Brown's Planets. http://www.mikebrownsplanets.com/2009/03/snow-white-needs-bailout.html. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  54. ^ Chang, Alicia (2006-08-25). "Online merchants see green in Pluto news". Associated Press (USA Today). http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/space/2006-08-25-pluto-memorabilia_x.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-25. 
  55. ^ Brown, Michael E.. "The Eight Planets". California Institute of Technology, Department of Geological Sciences. http://web.gps.caltech.edu/~mbrown/eightplanets/. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  56. ^ "Hotly-Debated Solar System Object Gets a Name". NASA press release. 2006-09-14. http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/solarsystem/erisf-20060914.html. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  57. ^ Stern, Alan (2006-09-06). "Unabashedly Onward to the Ninth Planet". New Horizons Web Site. http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/overview/piPerspectives/piPerspective_09_06_2006.php. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  58. ^ Stern, Alan (2008-01-17). "Happy Birthday New Horizons! Two Years on the Road to the Ninth Planet". New Horizons Web Site. http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/overview/piPerspectives/piPerspective_01_17_2008.php. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 

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