definition of Wikipedia
|City of El Paso|
|— City —|
|El Paso County and the state of Texas|
|Metropolitan Area||El Paso-Las Cruces-Ciudad Juarez Metropolitan Area|
|• Mayor||John Cook|
|• City||250.5 sq mi (648.8 km2)|
|• Land||249.08 sq mi (645.11 km2)|
|• Water||1.46 sq mi (3.78 km2)|
|Elevation||3,740 ft (1,140 m)|
|• City||649,121 (19th)|
|• Density||2,446.7/sq mi (944.7/km2)|
|Time zone||MST (UTC-7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC-6)|
88500-88599 (PO Boxes)
|GNIS feature ID||1380946|
El Paso // is the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States of America, and lies in far West Texas. According to the 2010 census the city's population is 649,121. El Paso is the nineteenth most populous city in the United States of America and the sixth most populous city in the state of Texas. Its metropolitan area covers all of El Paso County, whose population in 2010 was 800,647.
El Paso stands on the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte), across the border from Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The two cities form a combined international metropolitan area, sometimes called El Paso–Juárez, with Juárez being the significantly larger of the two in population. They have a combined population of two million, two-thirds of which reside in Juárez. In 2010 El Paso was awarded an All-America City Award, the oldest community-recognition program in the United States.
El Paso is home to the University of Texas at El Paso (founded in 1914 as The Texas State School of Mines and Metallurgy, and later, Texas Western College; its current name dates from 1967) and the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso. Fort Bliss, one of the largest military complexes of the United States Army, lies to the east and northeast of the city, with training areas extending north into New Mexico, up to the White Sands Missile Range and neighboring Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo. El Paso is the first large city in the world to have a spaceport in the vicinity. Spaceport America, which lies 90 miles from El Paso, has seen the completion of several successful manned, suborbital flights. The Franklin Mountains extend into El Paso from the north and nearly divide the city into two sections; the western half forms the beginnings of the Mesilla Valley, and the eastern slopes connect in the central business district at the south end of the mountain range.
The El Paso region has seen human settlement for thousands of years, as evidenced by Folsom points from hunter-gatherers found at Hueco Tanks. The earliest known cultures in the region were maize farmers. At the time of the arrival of the Spanish the Manso, Suma, and Jumano tribes populated the area and were subsequently incorporated into the Mestizo culture, along with immigrants from central Mexico, captives from Comanchería, and genízaros of various ethnic groups. The Mescalero Apache roamed the region as well.
Spanish explorer Don Juan de Oñate was born in 1550 in Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico and was the first Mexico explorer known to have observed the Rio Grande near El Paso, in 1598, celebrating Thanksgiving Mass there on April 30, 1598 (several decades before the Pilgrims' Thanksgiving). However, it is thought that the four survivors of the Narváez expedition passed through the area in the mid-1530s. El Paso del Norte (the present day Ciudad Juárez), was founded on the south bank of the Río Bravo del Norte, (Rio Grande) in 1659 by Spanish conquistadors. In 1680 the small village of El Paso became the base for Spanish governance of the territory of New Mexico, remaining the largest settlement in New Mexico until its cession to the US in 1848, when Texas took it in 1850.
Present day El Paso City largely remained undeveloped during most of Spanish control. Instead, Spanish settlement was centered on El Paso del Norte (the present day Ciudad Juárez). Although, the Spanish Crown and the local authorities of El Paso del Norte had made several land concessions to bring agricultural production to the northern bank of the river in present day El Paso City, continual Indian raids and warfare overwhelmed any attempts. The Apache Wars and subsequent Comanche Wars left northern Mexico, then including present day New Mexico, Texas, Coahuila, in a state of perpetual instability. Consequently, present day Juárez remained the northern-most villa with the Río Bravo del Norte, (Rio Grande) and Apache attacks dissuading settlement and development north. The water of the river, the sand dunes to the south (médanos) and the fortifications at Paso del Norte and El Real de San Lorenzo, provided a natural defense against further raids although in some decades several thousand strong Apache armies made raids deep into Mexico, slaughtering the male population and enslaving the women and children. As a result, the Rio Grande proved a boundary line of actual Hispanic presence.
Nonetheless, in the early years of Spanish power, several attempts were made which successfully colonized areas north for some decades. Being a grassland then, the Hispanic civilian and military population, and the small community of Spanish friars and their Amerindian wards ranched the area and developed small scale but successful agriculture consisting of vineyards and fruits. However, in 1680, after the successful Pueblo Revolt that decimated the Spanish colonies in northern New Mexico, Paso del Norte became the base for Spanish governance of the territory of New Mexico with the present-day El Paso remaining a neutral battle-ground. From El Paso, the Spaniards led by Diego de Vargas, grouped to recolonize the Spanish territory centered on Santa Fe stretching from Socorro to Taos. The Bourbon reforms of the eighteenth century affected the Paso del Norte region, as New Spain's enlightened bureaucrats deemed the region—with a thriving population of over 10,000 by mid-century—capable of self-defense. Viceregal troops garrisoned in the Presidio of Paso del Norte were redeployed elsewhere on New Spain's frontier. New policies of Indian gifting helped to stabilize relations with the Apaches and Comanches, providing a respite to El Paso's agriculturalist population.
With the Mexican Constitution of 1824, part of present-day El Paso became the southernmost locality of the Territorio de Nuevo Mexico (modern New Mexico) and part of the newly-established state of Chihuahua. It communicated with Santa Fe and Mexico City by the Royal Road (Camino Real de Tierra Adentro). American spies, traders and fur trappers visited the area since 1804 and some intermarried with the area's Hispanic elite, as occurred with fur trapper, miner, and merchant Hugh Stephenson (1798–1870). Although there was no combat in the region during the Mexican Independence, Paso del Norte experienced the negative effects it had on its wine trade.
The Texas Revolution (1836) was not felt in the region as the area was never considered part of Texas until 1848. As early as the mid 1840s, alongside long extant Hispanic settlements such as the Rancho de Juan María Ponce de León, Anglo settlers like Simeon Hart and Hugh Stephenson began to establish themselves. Stephenson, who had married into the local Hispanic aristocracy, established the Rancho de San José de la Concordia, which became the nucleus of Anglo and Hispanic settlement within the limits of modern-day El Paso, in 1844. Given the reclamations of the Texas Republic that wanted a chunk of the Santa Fe trade, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo effectively made the settlements on the north bank of the river a formal American settlement, separate from Old El Paso del Norte on the Mexican side. The present Texas–New Mexico boundary placing El Paso on the Texas side was drawn in the Compromise of 1850.
El Paso County was established in March 1850, with San Elizario as the first county seat. The United States Senate fixed a boundary between Texas and New Mexico at the thirty-second parallel, thus largely ignoring history and topography. A military post called The Post opposite El Paso (meaning opposite El Paso del Norte, across the Rio Grande) was established in 1854. Further west, a settlement on Coons' Rancho called Franklin became the nucleus of the future El Paso, Texas. A year later pioneer Anson Mills completed his plan of the town, calling it El Paso.
During the Civil War, there was a Confederate presence in the area until it was captured by the Union California Column in 1862. It was then headquarters for the 5th Regiment California Volunteer Infantry until December 1864.
After the war was concluded, the town's population began to grow. El Paso was incorporated in 1873 and encompassed the small area communities that had developed along the river. With the arrival of the Southern Pacific, Texas and Pacific and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroads in 1881, the population boomed to 10,000 by the 1890 census attracting newcomers ranging from businessmen and priests, to gunfighters and prostitutes. El Paso became a violent and wild boomtown known as the "Six Shooter Capital" because of its lawlessness. Prostitution and gambling flourished until World War I, when the Department of the Army pressured El Paso authorities to crack down on vice (thus benefitting vice in neighboring Ciudad Juárez). The city developed into the premier manufacturing, transportation, and retail center of the U.S. Southwest.
The Mexican Revolution greatly impacted the city, bringing an influx of refugees—and capital—to the bustling boom town. Spanish-language newspapers, theaters, movie houses, and schools were established, many supported by a thriving Mexican refugee middle class. Large numbers of clerics, intellectuals, and businessmen took refuge in the city, particularly between 1913 and 1915. The population exceeded 100,000. The Jesuit Order established a network of schools catering to the children of the Mexican community, and the large number of refugee floating population was attended by various philanthropic organizations, including the National Catholic Welfare Fund.
Mining and other industries gradually developed in the area. The El Paso and Northeastern Railway was chartered in 1897, in order to help exploit the natural resources of surrounding ares, especially in southeastern New Mexico Territory. The Arizona and Southeastern Railroad was slowly extended towards El Paso (owned by the Phelps Dodge company), in order to allow the construction of a second copper refinery in El Paso to refine copper ore being produced in Arizona and southwestern New Mexico by Phelps Dodge. In 1901, the Arizona and Southeastern was renamed the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad, and the tracks finally reached El Paso in 1902. The 1920s and 1930s saw the emergence of major business development in the city partially enabled by Prohibition era bootlegging. The Depression era hit the city hard and population declined through the end of World War II. Following the war, military expansion in the area as well as oil discoveries in the Permian Basin (North America) helped to cause rapid economic expansion in the mid 1900s. Copper smelting, oil refining, and the proliferation of low wage industries (particularly garment making) led the city's growth. The expansion slowed again in the 1960s but the city has continued to grow in large part because of the increased importance of trade with Mexico.
El Paso is located at  It lies at the intersection of three states (Texas, New Mexico, and Chihuahua) and two countries (the USA and Mexico). It is the only major Texas city on Mountain Time. Ciudad Juárez used to be on Central Time, but both cities are now on Mountain Time.(31.790208, -106.423242).
The city's elevation is 3,800 feet (1,140 m) above sea level. North Franklin Mountain is the highest peak in the city at 7,192 feet (2,192 m) above sea level. The peak can be seen from 60 miles (100 km) in all directions. Additionally, this mountain range is home to the famous natural red-clay formation, the Thunderbird, from which the local Coronado High School gets its mascot's name. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 250.5 square miles (648.9 km²).
The 24,000-acre (9,700 ha) Franklin Mountains State Park is the largest urban park in the United States and resides entirely in El Paso, extending from the north and dividing the city into several sections along with Fort Bliss and El Paso International Airport.
The Rio Grande Rift, which passes around the southern end of the Franklin Mountains, is where the Rio Grande flows. The river defines the border between El Paso from Ciudad Juárez to the south and west until the river turns north of the border with Mexico, separating El Paso from Doña Ana County, New Mexico. Mt. Cristo Rey, a volcanic peak (an example of a pluton) rises within the Rio Grande Rift just to the west of El Paso on the New Mexico side of the Rio Grande. Other volcanic features include Kilbourne Hole and Hunt's Hole, which are Maar volcanic craters 30 miles (50 km) west of the Franklin Mountains.
Being in the westernmost tip of Texas, and due to the huge size of the state, El Paso is closer to four other state capitals (US and Mexican) than it is to its own capital of Austin, Texas (the other capitals being, Phoenix (Arizona), Santa Fe (New Mexico), neighboring Mexican city Chihuahua (Chihuahua), and Hermosillo (Sonora)).[not in citation given][dead link]
With the city limits are traditional suburban areas that are located on the far eastern and western edges.
Although New Mexican areas of Anthony, Sunland Park, and Chaparral lie adjacent to El Paso County, they are considered to be part of the Las Cruces, New Mexico metropolitan area by the United States Census Bureau. Both metro areas do however, share a large commuter population, and also a media market.
El Paso has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh) with very hot summers, usually with little or no humidity, and mild, dry winters. Rainfall averages 9.4 inches (240 mm) per year, much of which occurs during the summer from July through September and is predominantly caused by the monsoon. During this period, southerly and southeasterly winds carry moisture from the Pacific, the Gulf of California, and the Gulf of Mexico into the region. When this moisture moves into the El Paso area and places to the southwest, orographic lift from the mountains, combined with strong daytime heating, causes thunderstorms, some severe enough to produce flash flooding and hail, across the region.
The sun shines 302 days per year on average in El Paso, 83 percent of daylight hours, according to the El Paso Weather Bureau. It is from this that the city is nicknamed "The Sun City." Due to its dry climate, El Paso often experiences wind and dust storms during the spring, usually starting in March and lasting to early May. With an average wind speed of up to 30 miles per hour (50 km/h) with gusts that have been measured at over 75 miles per hour (120 km/h), these wind storms kick up large amounts of sand causing loss of visibility.
El Paso, at 3,800 feet (1,200 m) elevation, is also capable of receiving snow; weather systems have produced over a foot of snow on several occasions. In 1980, three major snowstorms produced over a foot of snow; one in February, another in April and the last one in December, producing a white Christmas for the city. A major snowstorm in December 1987 dumped over two feet (65 cm) of snow.
One example of El Paso's varying climate was the winter storm of early February 2011, which caused closures of schools, businesses, and City Hall. The snow stopped after about a day, but then because of below freezing temperatures El Paso utilities went into a crisis. The high temperature on February 2, 2011 was 2 °F (−16.7 °C), which is very rare for El Paso. Loss of desert vegetation, such as Mexican/California palm trees, oleanders, and iceplant to the cold weather was one of the results. Electric wires were broken, causing area blackouts. Many water utility pipes froze, causing areas of the city to be without water for several days. When the pipes thawed, water was unsafe to drink due to filtration systems not working, therefore schools were closed again.
Monthly means range from 45.1 °F (7.3 °C) in January to 83.3 °F (28.5 °C) in July, but the warmest highs are typically in June. There are 60 nights below freezing, 109 days at or above 90 °F (32 °C) and 20 days above 100 °F (38 °C) each year. The city's record high is 114 °F (46 °C), and its record low is −14 °F (−26 °C), with weather records for the area maintained by the National Weather Service since 1879.
Although the average annual rainfall is only about 9 inches (225 mm), many parts of El Paso are subject to occasional flooding during intense summer monsoonal thunderstorms. In late July and early August 2006, over 15 inches (380 mm) of rain fell in a week, overflowing all the flood-control reservoirs and causing major flooding city-wide. The city staff has estimated damage to public infrastructure as $21 million, and to private property (residential & commercial) as $77 million. Much of the damage was associated with development in recent decades in arroyos protected by flood-control dams and reservoirs, and the absence of any storm drain utility in the city to handle the flow of rain water.
|Climate data for El Paso, Texas (El Paso Airport), 1981-2010 normals|
|Record high °F (°C)||80
|Average high °F (°C)||58.3
|Average low °F (°C)||32.0
|Record low °F (°C)||−8
|Precipitation inches (mm)||.40
|Snowfall inches (cm)||.8
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||3.8||3.4||2.4||1.9||2.7||3.9||8.3||8.7||6.3||4.7||3.0||3.9||53|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||.6||.4||.1||.1||0||0||0||0||0||.1||.2||.8||2.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||254.2||265.6||325.5||348.0||384.4||384.0||359.6||334.8||303.0||297.6||258.0||244.9||3,759.6|
|Source no. 1: NOAA  The Weather Channel (extremes) |
|Source no. 2: HKO |
10 Tallest Buildings in El Paso
|1||Wells Fargo Plaza||296 feet (90 m)||21|
|2||Chase Tower||250 feet (76 m)||20|
|3||Plaza Hotel||239 feet (73 m)||19|
|4||Kayser Building||232 feet (71 m)||20|
|5||El Paso Natural Gas Company Building||208 feet (63 m)||18|
|6||Camino Real Hotel||205 feet (62 m)||17|
|7||Doubletree Hotel||202 feet (62 m)||17|
|8||O. T. Bassett Tower||196 feet (60 m)||15|
|9||El Paso County Courthouse||185 feet (56 m)||13|
|10||Anson Mills Building||145 feet (44 m)||12|
El Paso's tallest building, the Wells Fargo Plaza, was built in the early-1970s as State National Plaza. The black-windowed, 296-foot (90 m) building is famous for its 13 white horizonal lights (18 lights per row on the east and west sides of the building, and 7 bulbs per row on the north and south sides) that were lit at night. The tower did use a design of the United States flag during the 4th of July holidays as well as the American hostage crisis of 1980, and was lit continuously following the September 11 attacks in 2001 until around 2006. During the Christmas holidays, a design of a Christmas tree was used, and at times, the letters "UTEP" was used to support University of Texas at El Paso athletics. The tower is now only lit during the holiday months, or when special events take place in the city.
El Paso has historically been predominantly Hispanic. In the 1870s, a population of 23 Non-Hispanic whites and 150 Hispanics was reported. In 1916, the Census Bureau reported El Paso's population as 53% Hispanic and 44% non-Hispanic white.
According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, the racial composition of El Paso was as follows:
As of the census of 2010, there were 649,121 people, 216,694 households, and 131,104 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,263.0 people per square mile (873.7/km²). There were 227,605 housing units at an average density of 777.5 per square mile (300.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 80.84% White, 3.39% African American, 0.73% Native American, 1.18% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 11.00% from other races, and 3.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 86.62% of the population.
There are 182,063 households, out of which 42.4% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.6% were married couples living together, 18.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.5% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.07 and the average family size was 3.54.
In the city the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 19.2% from 45 to 64, and 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,124, and the median income for a family was $35,432. Males had a median income of $28,989 versus $21,540 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,388. About 19.0% of families and 22.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.8% of those under age 18 and 17.7% of those age 65 or over.
According to the 2006 United States Census Bureau population estimates, the El Paso metropolitan area had a population of 736,310. In 2010 CQ Press ranked El Paso safest city in the U.S. with a population over 500,000.
In 2010, many Mexicans fleeing drug violence in Ciudad Juarez settled in El Paso. Benjamin Sáenz, a novelist and a literature professor at the University of Texas at El Paso, said during that year that El Paso was "becoming a lot more Mexican and a lot less Chicano."
Located between the cities of El Paso and Socorro lies the sovereign Ysleta del Sur Pueblo Nation, with its own governing body. It is one of the three Federally-recognized Indian tribes in Texas.
The Tigua Indians have been at their present location since a successful Pueblo Revolt of 1680 that forced the Spaniards and New Spaniards (future Mexicans) to retreat south to present day Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua and El Paso. The tribe is led by a governor and a tribal council. Elections for tribal governor and tribal council are held once annually. As of January 2011, the governor is Frank Paiz.
The city government is officially non-partisan. Mayors and City Council members may not serve for more than ten years in their respective offices.
The city operates under a council-manager form of government, which combines the strong political leadership of elected officials, in the form of eight council members, with the strong managerial experience of an appointed local government manager. All power is concentrated in the elected council, which hires a professionally trained manager to carry out its directives and oversee the delivery of public services. Joyce Wilson was selected by the city council in 2004 as El Paso's first City Manager.
The current members of the El Paso City Council, who are elected every four years to staggered terms, are Emma Acosta (District 3; East Central), Susie Byrd (District 2), Steve Ortega (District 7; Mid Valley), and Carl Robinson (District 4; Northeast), whose terms will end in 2013, and Eddie Holguin (District 6; East Valley), Cortney Niland (District 8), Ann Lilly (District 1; Westside), and Dr. Mike Noe (District 5; Eastside), whose terms will end in 2015.
Lilly, Byrd, Ortega, and Holguin, and have been on the council since 2005. Acosta has been on the council since 2008, Robinson since 2009, and Niland and Noe since 2011. Due to the term limits clause of the City Charter, several council members will not be eligible in the next election: Byrd, Holguin, Lilly, and Ortega, as well as Mayor Cook.
The El Paso County Judge is Democrat Veronica Escobar, and the County Commissioners are as follows: Democrats Anna Perez (Precinct 1), Sergio Lewis (Precinct 2), Republican Dan Haggerty (Precinct 4), and Tania Chozet (Precinct 3). Escobar and Lewis were first elected to their position in 2010, and have been in office since 2011. Perez was first elected to her position in 2008, and has been in office since 2009. Haggerty was first elected to his position in 1994, and has been in office since 1995. Chozet was appointed to her position on March 5, 2012 after Willie Gandara, Jr., who was elected to that position in 2008, resigned on February 29, 2012 after being arrested on federal drug trafficking charges.
Perez did not seek re-election in 2012. Carlos Leon, a Democrat, and Bill Lenderman, a Republican, are the nominees for her seat. Chozet did not seek her own term. Chente Quintanilla and Vince Perez are in a runoff for the Democratic nomination; Fred Chavez is the Republican nominee. 
The El Paso County Sheriff is Richard Wiles, Democrat, since 2009.
El Paso City and County vote overwhelmingly Democratic, like most of the Texas–Mexico border area and urban Texas. The El Paso metropolitan area is represented in the Texas State House by Democrats Marisa Marquez, Chente Quintanilla, Naomi Gonzalez, and Joe Pickett, and Republican Dee Margo; and in the State Senate by José R. Rodríguez (D-El Paso). Quintanilla did not seek re-election in 2012 and the Democratic primary for his seat was won by Mary Edna Gonzalez; there was no Republican opponent, so she will replace Quintanilla in January 2013.
The El Paso metropolitan area is represented by Silvestre Reyes (D-El Paso), former chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, and Republican Quico Canseco (R-San Antonio) in the House of Representatives. The current U.S. Senators for Texas are Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Texas) and John Cornyn (R-Texas), however the El Paso area has heavily voted against them in Senatorial elections.
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El Paso is the Operational Headquarters of Helen of Troy Limited, a NASDAQ listed company that manufactures personal health care products under many labels such as OXO, Dr. Scholl's, Vidal Sassoon, Sunbeam, among others. Also headquartered in El Paso is Western Refining, listed on the New York Stock Exchange, and Spira Footwear, and Fred Loya Insurance, an insurance company.
Until 1996, El Paso was home to El Paso Natural Gas Company. It is now in Houston, Texas under the name El Paso Corporation. Farah Clothing Company was also headquartered in El Paso until 1998 when Farah along with other clothing manufacturing companies such as Levi's, moved their plants in search of cheaper labor. In the 1980s El Paso was known as the blue jeans capital of the world because it produced over 2 million pairs of jeans every week from different jean companies in El Paso. As of 2006, the only remaining companies in the clothing industry are Wrangler and a smaller company by the name of Border Apparel.
El Paso is an important entry point to the U.S. from Mexico. Once a major copper refining area, chief manufacturing industries in El Paso now include food production, clothing, construction materials, electronic and medical equipment, and plastics. Cotton, fruit, vegetables, livestock, and pecans are produced in the area. With El Paso's attractive climate and natural beauty, tourism has become a booming industry as well as trade with neighboring Ciudad Juárez.
Education is also a driving force in El Paso's economy. El Paso's three large school districts are among the largest employers in the area, employing more than 19,000 people between them. The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) has an annual budget of nearly $250 million and employs nearly 3,600 people. A 2002 study by the university's Institute for Policy and Economic Development stated that the University's impact on local businesses has resulted in $349 million.
The military installation of Fort Bliss is a major contributor to El Paso's economy. Fort Bliss began as a Cavalry post in 1848. Today, Fort Bliss is the site of the United States Army's Air Defense Artillery Center and produces approximately $80 million in products and services annually, with about $60 million of those products and services purchased locally. Fort Bliss' total economic impact on the area has been estimated at more than $1 billion, with 12,000 soldiers currently stationed at the Fort. During the 2005 round of Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC), Fort Bliss came out an enormous winner. By 2013, BRAC growth is expected to add almost 28,000 new troops, 16,000 new spouses, and 21,000 new children to the El Paso community. The growth is expected to create a strong economic ripple throughout the El Paso area. With the growth in Fort Bliss, the economy is expected to profit an additional $10 billion by 2012, and an additional $5 billion each year after that.
In addition to the military, the federal government has a strong presence in El Paso to manage its status and unique issues as a border region. The Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and the Customs and Border Protection Agency (CBP) all have agency operations in El Paso to regulate traffic and goods through ports of entry from Mexico. Including these agencies, government job growth in the area is expected to rise to 64,390 jobs by 2007. Many small businesses have been created with the growth of Fort Bliss. These companies support and provide many goods and services in areas as automotive, food and retail clothing. Another type of service provided by some companies are related directly to the Military itself such as Flags and Guidons, other areas that have flourished is the sewing and uniform companies
Call center operations make up 7 of the top 10 business employers in El Paso. With no signs of growth slowing in this industry, in 2005 the 14 largest call centers in El Paso employed more than 10,000 people. The largest of these in terms of employees are EchoStar, MCI[disambiguation needed]/GC Services, and West Telemarketing.
Analysts in the area say that job growth in 2005 will be in the form of health care, business and trade services, international trade, and telecommunications.
Items and goods produced: petroleum, metals, medical devices, plastics, machinery, automotive parts, food, defense-related goods, tourism, boots
All numbers are estimates as of 2006.
El Paso does not have any major league sports teams. El Paso is the second largest city without a major sports team (NBA basketball, MLB baseball, NFL football, NHL hockey) in the continental United States (Austin, TX is the largest such city). El Paso hosts the annual NCAA Hyundai Sun Bowl.
|This unreferenced section requires citations to ensure verifiability.|
|El Paso Diablos||Baseball||American Association of Independent Professional Baseball (South Division)||Cohen Stadium|
|Chivas El Paso Patriots||Soccer||USL Premier Development League||Patriot Stadium|
|El Paso Rhinos||Ice Hockey||Western States Hockey League||El Paso County Coliseum|
|UTEP Miners||Division I||Conference USA||Don Haskins Center|
UTEP owns the two largest stadiums in El Paso:
Other arenas in El Paso include:
Public school districts
The city of El Paso is served by:
Nearby areas are served by:
Colleges and universities
Two-year and vocational colleges
Four-year colleges & satellite campuses
Private and parochial schools
Other private schools include the following:
El Paso Public Library operates public libraries in El Paso with the main library located at the corner of Oregon and Franklin in Downtown El Paso and branches located all around the city.
El Paso has been home to these figures such as:
El Paso is served by El Paso International Airport, Amtrak via the historic Union Depot, Interstate 10, U.S. Highway 54 (known locally as "The Border Highway", "54", the "North-South Freeway" or officially as the Patriot Freeway), U.S. Highway 180 and U.S. Highway 62 (Montana Avenue), U.S. Highway 85 (Paisano Drive), Loop 375, Loop 478 (Copia Street-Pershing Drive-Dyer Street), numerous Texas Farm to Market Roads (a class of state highway commonly abbreviated to FM) and the city's original thoroughfare, State Highway 20, the eastern portion of which is known locally as Alameda Avenue (formerly U.S. Highway 80). Texas 20 also includes portions of Texas Avenue in Central El Paso, Mesa Street from Downtown to the West Side, and Doniphan Drive on the West Side. Northeast El Paso is connected to West El Paso by Transmountain Road. The city also shares 4 international bridges and one railbridge with Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. In 2009, El Paso was home to number 52, number 98 and number 100 of the 100 most congested roads in Texas, which are, respectively: North Zaragoza Road between Sun Fire Boulevard and Interstate 10; Lee Trevino Drive between Montana Avenue and Interstate 10; and Interstate 10 between Patriot Freeway and Loop 375.
El Paso County Transit makes trips with small capacity buses mainly in the Eastern El Paso area.
Historically, El Paso and Ciudad Juarez had a shared streetcar system with a peak electrified route mileage of 64 miles (103 km) in 1920. The first electrified line across the Rio Grande which opened on January 11, 1902 was preceded by a network that relied on animal labor. The system quickly spread into residential and industrial areas of El Paso. In 1913 a 12 miles (19 km) interurban line was built to Ysleta. At the close of 1943 the holding company of El Paso Electric sold its subsidiary the El Paso Electric Railway Company and its Mexican counterpart to one of National City Lines' subsidiaries. This resulted in the formation of El Paso City Lines whose domestic streetcar lines were replaced by buses in 1947. The international streetcar line which crossed the border via the Stanton Street Bridge continued to operate until 1973. In 1977 El Paso City Lines and two other bus companies were bought by the municipality and merged to form Sun City Area Transit (SCAT). In 1987 SCAT restyled itself Sun Metro.
In 2011, Sun Metro has been named the most Outstanding Public Transit System of the Year in all of North America for a mid-size transit system by the American Public Transportation Association.
The first bridge to cross the Rio Grande at El Paso del Norte was built in the time of Nueva España, over 250 years ago, from wood hauled in from Santa Fe. Today, this bridge is honored by the modern Santa Fe Street Bridge, and Santa Fe Street in downtown El Paso.
The main newspapers are the English language daily El Paso Times, founded in 1881; the Spanish language daily El Diario de El Paso, and the Spanish language online publication La Polaka. The now defunct El Paso Herald Post was also founded in 1881 as the El Paso Herald, which then merged with the El Paso Post in 1931. The paper was shut down in 1997.
El Paso was the largest city in the United States without a PBS television station within the city limits until 1978. El Paso viewers had to watch channel 22, KRWG from Las Cruces until 1978. In fact, the city had only three English-speaking channels and two Spanish-language channels (channel 2 and channel 5) from Juarez, and cable TV subscribers in the 1970s and 1980s could receive four Los Angeles independent channels: KTLA, KHJ, KTTV and KCOP. Over time, as more television stations signed on and more cable channels were added (and the internet expanded), the L.A. stations would disappear from the lineup. The last to be removed was KTLA in the Fall of 2006, when KVIA-TV opened its own CW station.
El Paso's current television stations are as shown in the table below:
KTSM TV reports that cellular phone users in El Paso are subject to International Calling fees (unless they disable roaming with their cellular phone providers).
El Paso, Texas has the following sister cities:
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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
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