Emirate of Granada
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|History of al-Andalus|
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1238–1492 Emirate of Granada
The Emirate of Granada was established in 1228, after the Almohad dynasty was defeated by the Christians at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Almohad prince Idris had left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, then ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the longest lasting Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula - the Nasrids.
With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Cordoba in 1236, the Nasrids aligned themselves with Ferdinand III of Castile, officially becoming a tributary state in 1238. The state officially became the Kingdom of Granada in 1238. The Nasrid emirs and kings were responsible for building most of the palaces in the Alhambra. The taifa became a vassal state of the Christian kingdom of Castile for the next 250 years. The Nasrid emirs and kings paid tribute to the Christian kings and collaborated with them in their battle against rebellious Muslims under Christian rule.
Initially the kingdom of Granada linked the commercial routes from Europe with those of the Maghreb. The kingdom constantly shrank due to repeated Castilian invasions however, and by 1492, Granada controlled only a small territory on the Mediterranean coast. Arabic was the official language, and was the mother tongue of the majority of the population.
Granada was held as a vassal to Castile over many decades, and provided trade links to the Muslim world, particularly the gold trade with the sub-saharan areas south of Africa. The Nasrids provided troops for Castile and was a source of mercenary fighters from North Africa. However, Portugal discovered direct African trade routes by sailing around the coast of West Africa. Thus Granada became less and less important for Castile, and with the union of Castile and Aragon in 1479, those kingdoms set their sights on annexing Granada and Navarre.
The Granada War began in 1482. On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim leader, Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil to the Spanish, surrendered complete control of Granada, to Ferdinand and Isabella, Los Reyes Católicos ("The Catholic Monarchs"), after the city was besieged.
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- (Arabic) بنو نصر/النصريون/بنو الأحمر في غرناطة Les Nasrides, Les Banû al-Ahmar à Grenade