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definition - Energy Drink

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Energy drink

                   
  A variety of energy drinks in a typical retail fridge display in Quebec City, Canada.

An energy drink is a type of beverage which strives to boost mental or physical energy. There are a myriad of brands and varieties of energy drinks. They traditionally contain large amounts of caffeine and other stimulants. Many also contain sugar or other sweeteners, and may or may not be carbonated.

Coffee, tea and other naturally caffeinated beverages are usually not considered energy drinks. Soft drinks such as cola, may contain caffeine, but are also not energy drinks. Some alcoholic beverages, such as Four Loko, contain caffeine and other stimulants and are marketed as energy drinks. However, after pressure[1] in the United States, caffeinated alcoholic beverages are de facto banned.

Contents

  History

In the UK, Lucozade Energy was originally introduced in 1929 as a hospital drink for "aiding the recovery;" in the early 1980s, it was promoted as an energy drink for "replenishing lost energy."

One of the first energy drinks introduced in America was Dr. Enuf whose origins date back to 1949, when a Chicago businessman named William Mark Swartz was urged by coworkers to formulate a soft drink fortified with vitamins as an alternative to sugar sodas full of empty calories. He developed an "energy booster" drink containing B vitamins, caffeine and cane sugar. After placing a notice in a trade magazine seeking a bottler, he formed a partnership with Charles Gordon of Tri-Cities Beverage to produce and distribute the soda.[2] Dr. Enuf is still being manufactured in Johnson City, TN and sold sparsely throughout the nation.

In Japan, the energy drink dates at least as far back as the early 1960s, with the release of the Lipovitan. However, most such products in Japan bear little resemblance to soft drinks, and are sold instead in small brown glass medicine bottles or cans styled to resemble such containers. These "eiyō dorinku" (literally, "nutritional drinks") are marketed primarily to salaryman.

In 1985, Jolt Cola was introduced in the United States. Its marketing strategy centered on the drink's caffeine content, billing it as a means to promote wakefulness. The initial slogan was, "All the sugar and twice the caffeine."[3]

In 1995, PepsiCo launched Josta, the first energy drink introduced by a major US beverage company (one that had interests outside just energy drinks), but Pepsi discontinued the product in 1999.[citation needed]

  Red Bull cans

In Europe, energy drinks were pioneered by the S. Spitz Company and a product named Power Horse, before the business savvy of Dietrich Mateschitz, an Austrian entrepreneur, ensured his Red Bull product became far better known, and a worldwide best seller. Mateschitz developed Red Bull based on the Thai drink Krating Daeng, itself based on Lipovitan. Red Bull is the dominant brand in the US after its introduction in 1997, with a market share of approximately 47%.[4]

In New Zealand and Australia, the current leading energy drinks product in those markets V was introduced by Frucor Beverages.[citation needed]

By 2001, the US energy drink market had grown to nearly 8 million per year in retail sales. Over the next 5 years, it grew an average of over 50% per year, totaling over $3 billion in 2005.[5] Diet energy drinks are growing at nearly twice that rate within the category, as are 16-ounce sized energy drinks. The energy drink market became a $5.4 billion dollar market in 2007, and both Goldman Sachs and Mintel predicted that it would hit $10 billion by 2010. Major companies such as Pepsi, Coca-Cola, Molson, and Labatt have tried to match smaller companies' innovative and different approach, with marginal success.[citation needed]

Energy drinks are typically attractive to young people. Approximately 66% percent of its drinkers are between the ages of 13 and 35 years old, with males being approximately 65% of the market.[5] A 2008 statewide Patient Poll conducted by the Pennsylvania Medical Society's Institute for Good Medicine found that: 20% of respondents ages 21–30 had used energy drinks in high school or college to stay awake longer to study or write a paper; 70% of respondents knew someone who had used an energy drink to stay awake longer to study or work.[6] Energy drinks are also popular as drink mixers.

  Effect is the best selling German made energy drink. Since the invention of energy drinks, there are now various energy drinks from around the world.

UK supermarkets have launched their own brands of energy drinks at lower prices than the major soft drink manufacturers. These are mostly produced by Canadian beverage maker Cott. Tesco supermarkets sell 'Kx"'(used to be known as 'Kick') in 250 mL cans and 1 L bottles, Sainsbury's sell 'Blue Bolt' in similar packaging, Asda sell 'Blue Charge' in similar packaging and Morrison's sell 'Source' in 250 mL cans. Cott sells a variety of other branded energy drinks to independent retailers in various containers.[citation needed]

Since 2002 there has been a growing trend for packaging energy drink in bigger cans. Since in many countries, including the US and Canada, there is a limitation on the maximum caffeine per serving in energy drinks, this allows manufacturers to include a greater amount of caffeine by including multiple servings per container. Popular brands such as Red Bull, Hype Energy Drinks and Monster have increased the amount of ounces per can. Conversely, the emergence of energy shots has gone the opposite way with much smaller packaging.[citation needed]

In 2007, energy drink powders and effervescent tablets were introduced, in the form of a tablet or powder that can be added to water to create an energy drink. These can offer a more portable option to cans and shots.[citation needed]

As of 2009, the industry has moved towards the use of natural stimulants and reduced sugar.[citation needed]

  Ingredients

Energy drinks generally contain methylxanthines (including caffeine), B vitamins, and herbs. Other commonly used ingredients are carbonated water, guarana, yerba mate, açaí, and taurine, plus various forms of ginseng, maltodextrin, inositol, carnitine, creatine, glucuronolactone, and ginkgo biloba. Some contain high levels of sugar, and many brands offer artificially sweetened 'diet' versions. A common ingredient in most energy drinks is caffeine (often in the form of guarana or yerba mate). Caffeine is the stimulant that is found in coffee and tea. Energy drinks contain about three times the amount of caffeine as cola.[7] Twelve ounces of Coca-Cola Classic contains 35 mg of caffeine, whereas a Monster Energy Drink contains 120 mg of caffeine.[8]

  Energy shots

Energy shots are a specialized kind of energy drink. Whereas most energy drinks are generally sold in cans or bottles, energy shots are usually sold in 50ml bottles. Energy shots can contain the same total amount of caffeine, vitamins or other functional ingredients as their larger siblings, and therefore they may be considered concentrated forms of energy drinks. The marketing of energy shots generally focuses on their convenience and availability as a low-calorie "instant" energy drink that can be taken in one swallow (or "shot"), as opposed to energy drinks that encourage users to drink an entire can (which may contain 250 calories or more)[9].

  Effects

  Energy drinks are sometimes sold in resealable bottles.

A variety of physiological and psychological effects have been attributed to energy drinks and their ingredients. Two studies reported significant improvements in mental and cognitive performances as well as increased subjective alertness.[10] Excess consumption of energy drinks may induce mild to moderate euphoria primarily caused by stimulant properties of caffeine and may also induce agitation, anxiety, irritability and insomnia.[11][12] During repeated cycling tests in young healthy adults an energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance.[13] It has been suggested that reversal of caffeine withdrawal is a major component of the effects of caffeine on mood and performance.[14]

Restorative properties were shown by a combination of caffeine and the sugar glucose in an energy drink,[15] and some degree of synergy between the cognition-modulating effects of glucose and caffeine was also suggested.[16] In one experiment, a glucose-based energy drink (containing caffeine, taurine and glucuronolactone) was given to eleven tired participants being tested in a driving simulator. Lane drifting and reaction times were measured for two hours post-treatment and showed significant improvement.[17]

Two articles concluded that the improved information processing and other effects could not be explained in terms of the restoration of plasma caffeine levels to normal following caffeine withdrawal.[18][19]

  Monster Energy portfolio - left to right: Assault, Khaos, M-80, Original, Lo-Carb, Mixxd, Absolutely Zero.

Caution is warranted even for healthy adults who choose to consume energy drinks. Consumption of a single energy drink will not lead to excessive caffeine intake; however, consumption of two or more drinks in a single day, can.[20][21] Other stimulants such as ginseng are often added to energy drinks and may enhance the effects of caffeine,[22] and ingredients such as guarana themselves contain caffeine. Adverse effects associated with caffeine consumption in amounts greater than 400 mg include nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness, increased urination, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), and dyspepsia. Consumption also has been known to cause pupil dilation when taken with certain antidepressants or SSRIs.[20][21] Most mainstream energy drinks do not provide electrolytes, and have a higher likelihood of an energy "crash-and-burn" effect. Caffeine in energy drinks can excrete water from the body to dilute high concentrations of sugar entering the blood stream, leading to dehydration. If the body is dehydrated by 1%, performance is decreased by up to 10%.[23]

In the US, energy drinks have been linked with reports of nausea, abnormal heart rhythms and emergency room visits.[24] The drinks may cause seizures due to the "crash" following the energy high that occurs after consumption.[25] Caffeine dosage is not required to be on the product label for food in the United States, unlike drugs, but some advocates are urging the FDA to change this practice.[26]

Dr. Marcie Schneider, an adolescent medicine specialist in Greenwich, Connecticut, has said, "These drinks have no benefit, no place in the diet of kids."[27]

  Attempts to ban

The popular energy drink Red Bull was banned in France after the death of an 18-year-old Irish athlete, Ross Cooney, who died within hours after playing a basketball game and consuming four cans of it. This ban was challenged in the European Court of Justice in 2004.[28] The French Scientific Committee (J.D. Birkel) concluded that Red Bull had an excessive amount of caffeine.[28] Norway also banned Red Bull for a while, although the ban has recently been revoked. The United Kingdom investigated the drink, but only issued a warning against its use by children and pregnant women.[28] In the Philippines, Red Bull was also banned because of the suspected effects of infertility for men.

In 2009, a school in Hove, England requested that local shops do not sell energy drinks to students. Headteacher Malvina Sanders added that "This was a preventative measure, as all research shows that consuming high-energy drinks can have a detrimental impact on the ability of young people to concentrate in class." The school has negotiated for their local branch of Tesco to display posters asking students not to ask for the products.[29]

Similar measures were taken by a school in Oxted, also in England which banned students from consuming drinks and sent letters to parents. This was featured on the regional news programme BBC South East Today.

New Mexico Military Institute, a military high school and junior college located in Roswell, New Mexico, does not allow sales of energy drinks at the campus "Cadet Store" after an incident of a young Cadet drinking too many drinks in one period and having to be hospitalized.[citation needed]

On June 7th, 2012, the parliament of Latvia approved changes in the legislation of sale of consumable goods, to prohibit sale of energy drinks to persons under the age of 18.[30]

  Caffeinated alcoholic energy drinks

Energy drinks such as Red Bull are often used as mixers with alcoholic beverages producing mixed drinks such as Vodka Red Bull which are similar to but stronger than rum and coke with respect to the amount of caffeine that they contain.[31] They are also sold in a wide variety of formulations such as Four Loko and Joose which combine caffeine and alcohol.[32][33] Fruit flavored caffeinated energy drinks in flavors such as watermelon, lemonade and cranberry-lemonade are cheap with a fruity taste. Packaged in 24 ounce cans, they are wildly popular with young people.[34] Four Loko, a product of Phusion Projects, was originally promoted through young employees who were hired to introduce the product to their peer group.[35]

Through separate mechanisms, energy drinks act as stimulants, and alcohol as depressants. Mixing a depressant with a stimulant sends mixed signals to the nervous system and can cause cardiac problems such as heart arrhythmia. In addition, energy drinks can lessen some of the subjective effects of alcohol while making the drinker feel more stimulated and less fatigued.[31] However, they may be unable to counteract some of the psychomotor impairments of alcohol intoxication.[36][37] Consequently, the mix can be particularly hazardous as energy drinks can mask the influence of alcohol and a person may misinterpret their actual level of intoxication.[31][38] In fact, people who drink mixers are more likely than non-mixers to drink more alcohol, and are also more likely to suffer alcohol-related consequences such as injury or being an intoxicated driver, even after adjusting for the number of drinks. Although people decide to drink energy drinks with alcohol with the intent of counteracting alcohol intoxication, another large majority do so to hide the taste of alcohol.[39] Researchers at the Human Performance Laboratory have suggested people refrain from mixing such powerful stimulants with alcohol, they believe it might cause cardiopulmonary or cardiovascular failures.[40] As of November 10, 2010 caffeinated alcoholic energy drinks had been banned in Washington and Michigan in the United States.[41][42] The bans followed a widely publicized incident which resulted in hospitalization in the Fall of 2010 of college students who had consumed several cans of Four Loko caffeinated alcoholic beverage.[43] Utah, which has state controlled liquor retail outlets, after studying them, never permitted the sale of caffeinated alcoholic energy drinks.[44] The products will no longer be delivered to Oklahoma after December 3, 2010[45] and delivery to retailers has been suspended in New York.[35]

On November 17, 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration warned four companies, Charge Beverages Corp., New Century Brewing Co., Phusion Projects, and United Brands Company Inc, that the caffeine added to their malt alcoholic beverages is an "unsafe food additive" and said that further action, including seizure of their products, may occur under federal law.[46] In a press release, the FDA states "there is evidence that the combinations of caffeine and alcohol in these products pose a public health concern." They also state that concerns have been raised that caffeine can mask some of the sensory cues individuals might normally rely on to determine their level of intoxication. Warning letters were issued to each of the four companies requiring them to provide to the FDA in writing within 15 days of the specific steps the firms will be taking.

Manufacturers have argued that drinking a caffeinated alcoholic energy drink is indistinguishable from drinking a couple of glasses of wine followed by a couple of cups of coffee.[35]

  Anti-energy drinks

Several beverages have been marketed in the 2000s as "anti-energy", "chill out", or "relaxation" drinks, including Lava Cola, Slow Cow, Drank, iChill, Marley's Mellow Mood, Mary Jane's Relaxing Soda, Chill,Calm, Malava Kava, V.i.B. (meaning "vacation in a bottle"), and Jones Gaba.[47][48] They are growing in popularity, with sales doubling from 2008 to 2010, and expected to more than double again by 2014.[49] They contain ingredients such as theanine and melatonin.[50]

  Hidden risk

In November 2010, the University of Texas Medical School at Houston reported that energy drinks contain more caffeine than a strong cup of coffee[citation needed], and that the caffeine combined with other ingredients (sometimes not reported correctly on labels) such as guarana, amino acid taurine, other herbs, vitamins and minerals may interact. Energy drinks consumed with alcohol may affect heart rates, blood pressure and even mental states. The caffeine content of energy drinks range from 80–300 mg per 16-oz serving whereas a 16-oz cup of coffee can contain 70–200 mg.[citation needed]

Water or lower-octane sports drinks which contain electrolytes, some minerals and carbohydrate are better choice to reduce the possibility of dehydration and increase in blood pressure.[51]

Health experts say caffeine prevents sleepiness and delays the feeling of drunkenness normally experienced when drinking alcohol, causing some people to continue drinking after they normally would have stopped.[52] Both caffeine and alcohol are diuretics, so mixing energy drinks with alcohol can cause severe dehydration, possibly leading to vomiting, nausea, and other health problems in the long term.[53]

In 2008, Anheuser-Busch agreed to take caffeine out of energy drinks that contain alcohol, after 11 state attorneys general charged the brewer was marketing them to underage drinkers. This action was also followed by MillerCoors in the same year.[54]

A study published in May 2012 stated that citric acid in energy drinks can be as harmful to teeth as sugar. They are worried about teens, of which 30 to 50 percent of whom are estimated to consume energy drinks, will lose enamel from their teeth. Of the 9 energy drinks and 13 sport drinks tested, all have caused enamel loss, but energy drinks took off much more enamel from teeth than sport drinks. There are no regulations to declare the precise amount of citric acid and the American Beverage Association says drinks can't be blamed for damage to teeth.[55]

  See also


  References

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  2. ^ [1] Sauceman, Fred W. The Place Setting, p.89-97 (2009)
  3. ^ [2], Official Jolt website, 10 Nov 2011.
  4. ^ Soda With Buzz, Forbes, Kerry A. Dolan, 03.28.05
  5. ^ a b Mintel Energy Drink Report 2006, 07.05.06
  6. ^ Energy Drinks – Busting Your Health for the Buzz Newswise, Retrieved on September 21, 2008.
  7. ^ Maureen Salamon (April 18, 2011). "Study: Alcohol-energy drink combo riskier than booze alone". USA Today. http://yourlife.usatoday.com/health/story/2011/04/Study-Alcohol-energy-drink-combo-riskier-than-booze-alone/46250606/1?csp=34news&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+usatoday-NewsTopStories+%28News+-+Top+Stories%29. 
  8. ^ Heckman, Melanie. "Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in Foods: A Comprehensive Review on Consumption, Functionality, Safety, and Regulatory Matters.". Journal of Food and Science. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=2f9ec7a2-7cc2-403b-8dc4-f55a21f23c48%40sessionmgr14&vid=6&hid=12. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  9. ^ “Little competition: energy shots aim for big” profits
  10. ^ Howard, MA; Marczinski, CA (2010). "Acute effects of a glucose energy drink on behavioral control". Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 18 (6): 553–61. DOI:10.1037/a0021740. 
  11. ^ Alford, C; Cox, H; Wescott, R (2001). "The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood". Amino Acids 21 (2): 139–50. DOI:10.1007/s007260170021. PMID 11665810. 
  12. ^ Van Den Eynde, F; Van Baelen, PC; Portzky, M; Audenaert, K (2008). "The effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance". Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie 50 (5): 273–81. PMID 18470842. 
  13. ^ Forbes, SC; Candow, DG; Little, JP; Magnus, C; Chilibeck, PD (2007). "Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance". International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 17 (5): 433–44. PMID 18046053. 
  14. ^ Yeomans, MR; Ripley, T; Davies, LH; Rusted, JM; Rogers, PJ (2002). "Effects of caffeine on performance and mood depend on the level of caffeine abstinence". Psychopharmacology 164 (3): 241–9. DOI:10.1007/s00213-002-1204-1. PMID 12424547. 
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  18. ^ Seidl, R; Peyrl, A; Nicham, R; Hauser, E (2000). "A taurine and caffeine-containing drink stimulates cognitive performance and well-being". Amino Acids 19 (3-4): 635–42. DOI:10.1007/s007260070013. PMID 11140366. 
  19. ^ Warburton, DM; Bersellini, E; Sweeney, E (2001). "An evaluation of a caffeinated taurine drink on mood, memory and information processing in healthy volunteers without caffeine abstinence". Psychopharmacology 158 (3): 322–8. DOI:10.1007/s002130100884. PMID 11713623. 
  20. ^ a b Winston, AP et al. (2005). "Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 11 (6): 432. DOI:10.1192/apt.11.6.432. http://apt.rcpsych.org/cgi/reprint/11/6/432. 
  21. ^ a b [3][dead link]
  22. ^ Loeb, Heather (2009). Do the Ingredients in Energy Drinks Work?. MensHealth.com. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
  23. ^ page 12-13 "Sport Diet Dilemmas". WINForum.org. http://www.winforum.org/PES-pdf/coaches_school.pdf. page 12-13. Retrieved 2009-11-11. 
  24. ^ Taste for Quick Boost Tied to Taste for Risk
  25. ^ Iyadurai, S; Chung, S (2007). "New-onset seizures in adults: Possible association with consumption of popular energy drinks". Epilepsy & Behavior 10 (3): 504. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2007.01.009. PMID 17349826. 
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  27. ^ . Toronto. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health/energy-drinks-should-be-regulated-like-tobacco-and-alcohol-report-argues/article1905922/?cmpid=rss1. [dead link]
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  30. ^ "Plenary agenda of the Latvian parliament, June 7, 2012". http://titania.saeima.lv/LIVS11/saeimalivs11.nsf/webSasaiste?OpenView&restricttocategory=248/Lp11. 
  31. ^ a b c Marczinski, CA; Fillmore, MT; Bardgett, ME; Howard, MA (2011). "Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on behavioral control: Risks for college students consuming trendy cocktails". Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 35 (7): xxx-xxx. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01464.x. 
  32. ^ FDA (Last Updated: 11/03/2010). "List of Manufacturers of Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodIngredientsPackaging/ucm190448.htm. Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
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  34. ^ Bruni, Frank (October 30, 2010). "Caffeine and Alcohol: Wham! Bam! Boozled.". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/31/weekinreview/31bruni.html. Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
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  41. ^ FDA (Nov. 13, 2009). "FDA To Look Into Safety of Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages Agency Sends Letters to Nearly 30 Manufacturers". Press release. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm190427.htm. Retrieved 11 November 2010. 
  42. ^ Goodnough, Abby (November 10, 2010). "Second State Bans Caffeinated Alcoholic Drinks". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/11/us/11drinks.html. Retrieved November 11, 2010. 
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  44. ^ Evensen, Jay (October 27, 2010). "Utah a step ahead on Four Loko". http://www.deseretnews.com/blog/33/10010391/Perspectives-on-the-news-Utah-a-step-ahead-on-Four-Loko.html. 
  45. ^ Colberg, Sonya (November 9, 2010). "Oklahoma panel bans deliveries of Four Loko after Dec. 3". http://newsok.com/commission-bans-delivery-of-alcoholic-energy-drinks/article/3511462. 
  46. ^ "FDA Warning Letters issued to four makers of caffeinated alcoholic beverages". November 17, 2010. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm234109.htm. Retrieved 17 Nov 2010. 
  47. ^ Morning Edition (2009-12-30). "What To Drink When You Want Less Energy". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122043011. Retrieved 2010-03-22. 
  48. ^ Eric Wahlgren, Adios, Red Bull? Anti-energy drinks seek to soothe frazzled Americans, DailyFinance, October 7, 2009
  49. ^ Eunju Lie (2011-07-19). "Relaxation drinks see energetic growth in U.S.". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/07/19/us-beverages-relax-idUSTRE76I6ZH20110719. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  50. ^ Jennifer Nelson, M.S., R.D. and Katherine Zeratsky, R.D. (2010-03-06). "Relaxation drinks: Does calm come in a can?". Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/relaxation-drinks/MY01227. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  51. ^ "Popular energy drinks have hidden risks". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/assets/print?aid=USTRE6AE0BU20101115. 
  52. ^ http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2010-11-18/business/os-caffeine-alcohol-mix-20101118_1_alcoholic-energy-drink-alcohol-and-caffeine-older-drinkers
  53. ^ "ALCOHOL AND ENERGY DRINKS WARNING". September 21, 2011. http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/272715/Alcohol-and-energy-drinks-warning/. 
  54. ^ Washington state bans "blackout in a can" drinks http://www.reuters.com/assets/print?aid=USTRE6A95KB20101110
  55. ^ "Energy Drinks Can Take Teeth On An Irreversible Acid Trip". May 3, 2012. http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/05/02/151868879/energy-drinks-can-take-teeth-on-an-irreversible-acid-trip. 

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All translations of Energy Drink


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