Energy policy of China
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The energy policy in China reflects various aspects of energy policy of the People's Republic of China. The country is currently the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gas according to a Dutch research agency. However, China's per capita emissions is still far behind developed countries. In addition, China is also the world's leading renewable energy producer.
Energy security of China
China's recent dependence on foreign sources of energy is not a specific threat for China's energy security (its need to guarantee energy supply), since the world energy market is not corrupt against China's pursuit of growth and prosperity. The key issue is actually internal: growing internal consumption without energy efficiency improvements really threatens China's growth and the world oil market, Chinese imports being an important new determinant encouraging oil's price rises on the world market, and thus worrying all developed countries. The international community is strongly advocating a move toward both energy efficiency and more transparency in China's quest of Energy worldwide, to confirm China's long term responsibility. Energy efficiency is the only way to avoid Chinese razzia on oil, both at the expense of industrialized and industrializing countries, and to the benefit of unclean states or already rogue states which international communities are not especially willing to strengthen. As such, international projects and technologies transfer are on going.
Environment and carbon emissions
On June 19, 2007, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency announced that a preliminary study indicated that China's greenhouse gas emissions for 2006 had exceeded those of the United States for the first time. The agency calculated that China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuels increased by 9% in 2006, while those of the United States fell by 1.4%, compared to 2005. The study used energy and cement production data from British Petroleum which they believed to be 'reasonably accurate', while warning that statistics for rapidly changing economies such as China are less reliable than data on OECD countries.
The Initial National Communication on Climate Change of the People's Republic of China calculated that carbon dioxide emissions in 2004 had risen to approximately 5.05 billion metric tons, with total greenhouse gas emissions reaching about 6.1 billion metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent.
In 2002, China ranked 2nd (after the United States) in the list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions, with emissions of 3.3 billion metric tons, representing 14.5% of the world total. However, due to its huge population size, it only ranked 99 in the list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita, with emissions of 3.2 metric tons per person (compared to 19.8 metric tons per person in the United States). In addition, it has been estimated that around 1/3 of China's carbon emissions in 2005 were due to manufacturing exported goods.
Energy use and carbon emissions by sector
In the industrial sector, six industries — electricity generation, steel, non-ferrous metals, construction materials, oil processing and chemicals — account for nearly 70% of energy use.
In the construction materials sector, China produced about 44% of the world's cement in 2006. Cement production produces more carbon emissions than any other industrial process, accounting for around 4% of global carbon emissions.
National Action Plan on Climate Change
Although China has been taking action on climate change for some years, with the publication on Monday 4 June 2007 of China's first National Action Plan on Climate Change, China became the first developing country to publish a national strategy addressing global warming. The plan does not include targets for carbon dioxide emission reductions, but it has been estimated that, if fully implemented, China's annual emissions of greenhouse gases would be reduced by 1.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2010, although other commentators put the figure at 0.950 billion metric tons.
Publication was officially announced during a meeting of the State Council, which called on governments and all sectors of the economy to implement the plan, and for the launch of a public environmental protection awareness campaign.
The National Action Plan includes increasing the proportion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources and from nuclear power, increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power stations the use of cogeneration, and the development of coal-bed and coal-mine methane.
In addition, the one child policy in China has successfully slowed down the population increase, preventing 300 million births, which is equal to 1.3 billion tons of CO2 emissions based on average world per capita emissions of 4.2 tons at 2005 level. 
In 2006, China's total annual electricity output was 2.83 trillion kWh, and the annual consumption was 2.82 trillion kWh (second largest in the world). The total installed electricity generating capacity was 622 GW in 2006, and hit 710 GW by the end of 2007.  China is undertaking substantial long distance transmission projects with record breaking capacities and has the goal of achieving an integrated nationwide grid in the period between 2015 and 2020.
China currently generates around two thirds of its electricity from coal-fired power stations. It is progressing with the construction of 562 new coal-fired plants over the next few years. In June 2007 it was reported that an average of two new plants were being opened every week.
China is the world leading renewable energy producer, with an installed capacity of 152 GW. China has been investing heavily in the renewable energy field in recent years. In 2007, the total renewable energy investment is $12 billion USD, second only to Germany, and expected to be the world No 1 by 2009. China is currently the largest producer of wind turbines and solar panels. Approximately 7% of China's energy was from renewable sources in 2006, a figure targeted to rise to 10% by 2010 and to 16% by 2020. The major renewable energy source in China is hydropower. Total hydro-electric output in China in 2006 was 416 billion kWh. China is already the country with the most hydro-electric capacity in the world, and the Three Gorges Dam is projected to be the largest hydro-electric power station in the world with a total capacity of 22.5 GW.
In 2006, China had 9 nuclear power units with a total electric capacity of 6.99 GW and total output of 54.8 billion kWh, accounting for only 1.9% country's total electricity output. China plans to increase its nuclear power capacity and nuclear power percentage in the total electricity output to 70 GW and 4% respectively by 2020. Plans are to increase this to 160 GW (16%) by 2030.
Following the completion of the similar Township Electrification Program in 2005, the Village Electrification Program plans to provide renewable electricity to 3.5 million households in 10,000 villages by 2010. This is to be followed by full rural electrification using renewable energy by 2015.
China is the world top coal producer and the third in coal reserve. It is approximately self suffient in coal with a production of 2.38 billion ton and a consumption of 2.37 billion ton in 2006.  China used to be a major coal exporter but its export is decreasing and it may become a net importer soon.
Although China is still a major crude oil producer, it became an oil importer in the 1990s. In 2002, annual crude petroleum production was 1,298,000,000 barrels, and annual crude petroleum consumption was 1,670,000,000 barrels. In 2006, it imported 145 million tons of crude oil, accounting for 47% of its total oil consumption.  Three state-owned oil companies -- Sinopec, CNPC, and CNOOC, dominate its domestic market.
China announced on 20 June 2008 plans to raise petrol, diesel and aviation kerosene prices. This decision appears to reflect a need to reduce the unsustainably high level of subsidies these fuels attract, given the global trend in the price of oil. 
Renewable energy sources
Although a majority of the renewable energy in China is from hydropower, other renewable energy sources are in rapid development. In 2006, a total of 10 billion US dollars had been invested in renewable energy, second only to Germany. 
In 2006, 16 million tons of corn have been used to produce ethanol. However, because food prices in China rose sharply during 2007, China has decided to ban the further expansion of the corn ethanol industry.
On February 7, a spokesman for the State Forestry Administration announced that 130,000 square kilometres (50,000 square miles) would be devoted to biofuel production. Under an agreement reached with PetroChina in January 2007, 400 square kilometres of Jatropha curcas is to be grown for biodiesel production. Local governments are also developing oilseed projects. There are concerns that such developments may lead to serious environmental damage.
China has become the world largest consumer of solar energy. It is the largest producer of solar water heaters, accounting for 60 percent of the world’s solar hot water heating capacity, and the total installed heaters is estimated at 30 million households. Solar PV production in China is also in rapid development. In 2007, 0.82 GW Solar PV is produced, second only to Japan. 
As the stimulus plan of "Golden Sun" announced by the government in 2009, several developments and projects became part of the milestones for the development of solar technology in China such as the agreement signed by LDK for a 500MW solar project, new thin film solar plant developed by Anwell Technologies in Henan province using its own proprietary solar technology and the solar power plant project in a desert teamed up with First Solar and Ordos City. The effort to drive the renewable energy use in China was further assured after the speech of the Chinese President given at the UN climate summit on 22 Sept 2009 in New York, pledging that China will adopt plans targeting to use 15% of its energy from renewable sources within a decade. 
China's total wind power capacity is at 2.67 gigawatts (GW) in 2006. The Chinese government had planned 5 GW of wind generation capacity by 2010, and 30 GW capacity by 2020. But the 5 GW goal was met as early as in 2007. By the end of 2007, China's 202 wind projects had a total capacity of 6.05 GW, with an annual growth rate of 95%.  The 2010 goal was then revised to 10 GW and 2020 goal to 100 GW . However, by 2008, the wind power capacity in China already reached 12.2 GW, which ranks 4th in the world, only after U.S., Germany, and Spain. Experts estimated that China's wind capacity may reach the 20 GW landmark by 2010, which is called the "Wind Three Gorges".
General Work Plan for Energy Conservation
The General Work Plan for Energy Conservation and Pollutant Discharge Reduction aims to cut energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (energy intensity) by 20% over the course of the 11th five-year plan which ends in 2010, as well as cutting the discharge of major pollutants by 10%. The plan was issued in 2007 after the 4% reduction in energy intensity targeted for 2006 was missed, and all companies and local and national government have been asked to submit detailed plans for compliance before June 30, 2007. In 2006 the reduction achieved was 1.23%.
Implementation will involve a variety of measures, including increased use of renewable energy, revised pricing for primary energy sources and electricity, export restrictions on energy intensive and highly polluting products, and tax incentives for pollution-reduction projects. Central and local government will switch to low-energy lighting, and will be compelled to purchase only the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly electrical products.
Officials have been warned that violating energy conservation and environmental protection laws will lead to criminal proceedings, while failure to achieve targets will be taken into account in the performance assessment of officials and business leaders.
Space heating and air conditioning
A State Council circular issued on June 3, 2007, restricts the temperature of air conditioning in public buildings to no lower than 26oC in summer (78.8oF), and no higher than 20oC (68oF) in winter. The sale of inefficient air conditioning units has also been outlawed.
The Chinese results from the 1st Annual World Environment Review, published on June 5, 2007 revealed that, in a sample of 1024 people (50% male):
- 88% are concerned about climate change.
- 97% think their Government should do more to tackle global warming.
- 63% think that China is too dependent on fossil fuels.
- 56% think that China is too reliant on foreign oil.
- 91% think that a minimum 25% of electricity should be generated from renewable energy sources.
- 61% are concerned about nuclear power.
- 79% are concerned about carbon dioxide emissions from developing countries.
- 62% think it appropriate for developed countries to demand restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions from developing countries.
Another survey published in August 2007 by China Youth Daily and the British Council sampled 2,500 Chinese with an average age of 30.1. It showed that 80% of young Chinese are concerned about global warming.
- Climate change in China
- Environment of China
- China Energy Conservation Investment Corporation
- Low-carbon economy
- Peak oil
- Category:Energy by country
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- China Energy Conservation Association
- National Action Plan on Climate Change—National Development and Reform Commission
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- Cleaner Production in China—Current and comprehensive information source on China's campaign to reduce pollution.
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