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definitions - Error

error (n.)

1.a minor inadvertent mistake usually observed in speech or writing or in small accidents or memory lapses etc.

2.a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention"he made a bad mistake" "she was quick to point out my errors" "I could understand his English in spite of his grammatical faults"

3.(baseball) a failure of a defensive player to make an out when normal play would have sufficed

4.inadvertent incorrectness

5.departure from what is ethically acceptable

6.a misconception resulting from incorrect information

7.part of a statement that is not correct"the book was full of errors"

8.(computer science) the occurrence of an incorrect result produced by a computer

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Merriam Webster

ErrorEr"ror (?), n. [OF. error, errur, F. erreur, L. error, fr. errare to err. See Err.]
1. A wandering; a roving or irregular course. [Obs.]

The rest of his journey, his error by sea. B. Jonson.

2. A wandering or deviation from the right course or standard; irregularity; mistake; inaccuracy; something made wrong or left wrong; as, an error in writing or in printing; a clerical error.

3. A departing or deviation from the truth; falsity; false notion; wrong opinion; mistake; misapprehension.

His judgment was often in error, though his candor remained unimpaired. Bancroft.

4. A moral offense; violation of duty; a sin or transgression; iniquity; fault. Ps. xix. 12.

5. (Math.) The difference between the approximate result and the true result; -- used particularly in the rule of double position.

6. (Mensuration) (a) The difference between an observed value and the true value of a quantity. (b) The difference between the observed value of a quantity and that which is taken or computed to be the true value; -- sometimes called residual error.

7. (Law.) A mistake in the proceedings of a court of record in matters of law or of fact.

8. (Baseball) A fault of a player of the side in the field which results in failure to put out a player on the other side, or gives him an unearned base.

Law of error, or Law of frequency of error (Mensuration), the law which expresses the relation between the magnitude of an error and the frequency with which that error will be committed in making a large number of careful measurements of a quantity. -- Probable error. (Mensuration) See under Probable. -- Writ of error (Law), an original writ, which lies after judgment in an action at law, in a court of record, to correct some alleged error in the proceedings, or in the judgment of the court. Bouvier. Burrill.

Syn. -- Mistake; fault; blunder; failure; fallacy; delusion; hallucination; sin. See Blunder.

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definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Error

see also - Error

error (n.)

erroneous

phrases

-1963 Dick Ellsworth card error • 2000 Years of Human Error • 404 error • Abbe error • Administrative error • Approximation error • Artifact (error) • Baden 9 Kreuzer error • Baronies created by error • Base-rate error • Basis set superposition error • Berkson error model • Bit Error Rate Test • Bit Error Rate Tester • Bit error • Block Error Rate • Block error • Burst error • Bus error • C2 error • Category error • Circular error probable • Clarke Error Grid • Clerical error • Cockpit error • Compilation error • Concatenated error correction codes • Concentricity error • Consensus error grid • Defendant in error • Descartes' Error • Description error • Discretization error • E18 error • End of an Error • Error (EP) • Error (band) • Error (baseball) • Error (disambiguation) • Error 33 • Error 74 • Error Detection and Handling • Error Safe • Error account • Error amplifier • Error amplifier (electronics) • Error bar • Error card • Error code • Error correction mode • Error correction model • Error detection and correction • Error diffusion • Error floor • Error guessing • Error handling • Error handling testing • Error hiding • Error in Evolution • Error in the System • Error management theory • Error message • Error messages • Error of Free Will • Error screen • Error tolerant • Error tolerant design • Error vector magnitude • Error-correcting codes with feedback • Error-correction • Error-tolerant design • Experimentwise error rate • Exponential error • FX.25 Forward Error Correction • Fatal System Error • Fatal error • Focus error • Forecast error • Forward error correction • Framing error • Framing error (disambiguation) • Fundamental attribution error • Generalization error • Global War on Error • Group attribution error • HMS Glasgow error • Harmless error • Healthcare error • Healthcare error proliferation model • Hispanicus error • Human Error • Human Error (House) • Human Error (album) • Human Error (artist) • Human Error (punk rock band) • Human error • Human error assessment and reduction technique • Human error model • ID-Ten-T Error • Inborn error of lipid metabolism • Inborn error of metabolism • Inborn error of steroid metabolism • Instrument error • Invert error • Invincible error • Jamaica 1sh inverted-frame error • Latent human error • Law of error • Lexicographic error • Local truncation error • Logic error • Margin for Error • Margin of Error (The Wire episode) • Margin of error • Mean absolute error • Mean absolute percentage error • Mean percentage error • Mean square error • Mean square quantization error • Measurement error • Medical error • Mendelian error • Microphone error • Minimal error • Minimal error machine • Modulation error ratio • Network error • Night Of Error • Non-sampling error • Numerical error • Obi-Wan error • Observational error • Off-by-one error • One sided error • One sided error machine • One-sided error • One-sided error machine • Paid in Error • Parallax Error Beheads You • Permanent Fatal Error • Pilot error • Position error • Postage stamp design error • Postage stamp error • Preventable medical error • Probability of error • Pseudo bit error ratio • Quantization error • Random error • Refractive error • Relative standard error • Remote Error Indication • Replication error phenotype • Reprojection error • Reversible error • Round-off error • Runtime error 200 • STOP error • Scale error • Scrivener's error • Seat allocation error and degree of negation • Secure error messages in software systems • Semantic error • Soft error • Software for protein model error verification • Speech error • Standard error • Standard error (disambiguation) • Substitution failure is not an error • Syntax error • System Error • Systematic error • Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction • Terminal Error (film) • The End of an Error • Time-Limited Error Recovery • Tracking error • Transcription error • Trial and Error (1962 film) • Trial and Error (1997 film) • Trial and Error (book) • Trial and error • Trial and error (disambiguation) • Trilogy of Error • Truncation error • Two sided error • Two sided error machine • Two-sided error • Two-sided error machine • Type I error • Type III error • Type IV error • Typographical error • Ultimate attribution error • Unidirectional error • User error • Volusia error • War On Error • Windows Error Reporting

analogical dictionary

 

MESH root[Thème]

error [MeSH]










Wikipedia - see also

Wikipedia

Error

                   

The word error entails different meanings and usages relative to how it is conceptually applied. The concrete meaning of the Latin word "error" is "wandering" or "straying". Unlike an illusion, an error or a mistake can sometimes be dispelled through knowledge (knowing that one is looking at a mirage and not at real water does not make the mirage disappear). For example, a person who uses too much of an ingredient in a recipe and has a failed product can learn the right amount to use and avoid repeating the mistake. However, some errors can occur even when individuals have the required knowledge to perform a task correctly. Examples include forgetting to collect change after buying chocolate from a vending machine, forgetting the original document after making photocopies, and forgetting to turn the gas off after cooking a meal. Some errors occur when an individual is distracted by something else.

Contents

  Human behavior

  One error and its catastrophic results: Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, painted by Adolph Northen in the 19th century

One reference differentiates between "error" and "mistake" as follows:

An 'error' is a deviation from accuracy or correctness. A 'mistake' is an error caused by a fault: the fault being misjudgment, carelessness, or forgetfulness. Now, say that I run a stop sign because I was in a hurry, and wasn't concentrating, and the police stop me, that is a mistake. If, however, I try to park in an area with conflicting signs, and I get a ticket because I was incorrect on my interpretation of what the signs meant, that would be an error. The first time it would be an error. The second time it would be a mistake since I should have known better.[1]

In human behavior the norms or expectations for behavior or its consequences can be derived from the intention of the actor or from the expectations of other individuals or from a social grouping or from social norms. (See deviance.) Gaffes and faux pas can be labels for certain instances of this kind of error. More serious departures from social norms carry labels such as misbehavior and labels from the legal system, such as misdemeanor and crime. Departures from norms connected to religion can have other labels, such as sin.

  Oral and written language

An individual language user's deviations from standard language norms in grammar, syntax, pronunciation and punctuation are sometimes referred to as errors. However in light of the role of language usage in everyday social class distinctions, many feel that linguistics should be descriptive rather than prescriptive to avoid reinforcing dominant class value judgments about what linguistic forms should and should not be used. See also Error analysis.

  Herzliya Airport (Israel) Runway location and Traffic pattern chart (left) was erroneously printed as a result of "black layer" 180° misplacement. The corrected chart is on the right.

  Gaffe

A gaffe is a verbal mistake, usually made in a social environment. The mistake may come from saying something that is true, but inappropriate. It may also be an erroneous attempt to reveal a truth. Finally, gaffes can be malapropisms, grammatical errors or other verbal and gestural weaknesses or revelations through body language. Actually revealing factual or social truth through words or body language, however, can commonly result in embarrassment or, when the gaffe has negative connotations, friction between people involved.

As used by some journalists, particularly sportswriters, "gaffe" becomes an imagined synonym for any kind of mistake, e.g., a dropped ball by a player in a baseball game. Philosophers and psychologists interested in the nature of the gaffe include Freud and Gilles Deleuze. Deleuze, in his Logic of Sense, places the gaffe in a developmental process that can culminate in stuttering.

  Medicine

See medical error for a description of error in medicine.

  Science and engineering

  Erroneous traffic sign in Israel. The correct sign is depicted on the lower-right corner.
  Indication of an error; one clock not only "stopped". With is 12-o'clock position, it also indicates its failure

In statistics, an error (or residual) is not a "mistake" but rather a difference between a computed, estimated, or measured value and the accepted true, specified, or theoretically correct value. See also Observational error.

In science and engineering in general an error is defined as a difference between the desired and actual performance or behavior of a system or object. This definition is the basis of operation for many types of Control systems, in which error is defined as the difference between a set point and the process value. An example of this would be the thermostat in a home heating system—the operation of the heating equipment is controlled by the difference (the error) between the thermostat setting and the sensed air temperature. Another approach is related to considering a scientific hypothesis as true or false, giving birth to two types or errors: Type 1 and Type 2. The first one is when a true hypothesis is considered false, while the second is the reverse (a false one is considered true).

Engineers seek to design devices, machines and systems and in such a way as to mitigate or preferably avoid the effects of error, whether unintentional or not. Such errors in a system can be latent design errors that may go unnoticed for years, until the right set of circumstances arises that cause them to become active. Other errors in engineered systems can arise due to human error, which includes cognitive bias. Human factors engineering is often applied to designs in an attempt to minimize this type of error by making systems more forgiving or error-tolerant.

(In computational mechanics, when solving a system such as Ax = b there is a distinction between the "error" — the inaccuracy in x — and residual—the inaccuracy in Ax.)

  Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis provides a variety of techniques to compute approximations to mathematical numerical values. Errors arise from a trade-off between efficiency and precision, which is limited anyway, since (using floating-point arithmetic) only some rational numbers can be represented exactly. The discrepancy between the exact mathematical value and the computed value is called the approximation error.

  Cybernetics

The word cybernetics stems from the Greek Κυβερνήτης (kybernētēs, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder — the same root as government). In applying corrections to the trajectory or course being steered cybernetics can be seen as the most general approach to error and its correction for the achievement of any goal. The term was suggested by Norbert Wiener to describe a new science of control and information in the animal and the machine. Wiener's early work was on noise.

The cybernetician Gordon Pask held that the error that drives a servomechanism can be seen as a difference between a pair of analogous concepts in a servomechanism: the current state and the goal state. Later he suggested error can also be seen as an innovation or a contradiction depending on the context and perspective of interacting (observer) participants. The founder of management cybernetics, Stafford Beer, applied these ideas most notably in his Viable System Model.

  Biology

In biology, an error is said to occur when perfect fidelity is lost in the copying of information. For example, in an asexually reproducing species, an error (or mutation) has occurred for each DNA nucleotide that differs between the child and the parent. Many of these mutations can be harmful, but unlike other types of errors, some are neutral or even beneficial. Mutations are an important force driving evolution. Mutations that make organisms more adapted to their environment increase in the population through natural selection as organisms with favorable mutations have more offspring.

  Philately

In philately, an error refers to a postage stamp or piece of postal stationery that exhibits a printing or production mistake that differentiates it from a normal specimen or from the intended result. Examples are stamps printed in the wrong color or missing one or more colors, printed with a vignette inverted in relation to its frame, produced without any perforations on one or more sides when the normal stamps are perforated, or printed on the wrong type of paper. Legitimate errors must always be produced and sold unintentionally. Such errors may or may not be scarce or rare. A design error may refer to a mistake in the design of the stamp, such as a mislabeled subject, even if there are no printing or production mistakes.

  Governmental policy

Within United States government intelligence agencies, such as Central Intelligence Agency agencies, error refers to intelligence error, as previous assumptions that used to exist at a senior intelligence level within senior intelligence agencies, but has since been disproven, and is sometimes eventually listed as unclassified, and therefore more available to the American public and citizenry of the United States. The Freedom of information act provides American citizenry with a means to read intelligence reports that were mired in error. Per United States Central Intelligence Agency's website (as of August, 2008) intelligence error is described as:

"Intelligence errors are factual inaccuracies in analysis resulting from poor or missing data; intelligence failure is systemic organizational surprise resulting from incorrect, missing, discarded, or inadequate hypotheses."[2]

  Numismatics

In numismatics, an error refers to a coin or medal that has a minting mistake, similar to errors found in philately. Because the U.S. Bureau of the Mint keeps a careful eye on all potential errors, errors on U.S. coins are very few and usually very scarce. Examples of numismatic errors: extra metal attached to a coin, a clipped coin caused by the coin stamp machine stamping a second coin too early, double stamping of a coin. A coin that has been overdated, e.g.: 1942/41, is considered an error.

  Error correction

Norman (1986, 1988) argued that because error is inevitable, ‘designers’ should minimize the causes of error, make it possible to undo erroneous actions and make it easier to discover and correct errors. Edmondson’s research focuses on pinpointing specific conditions on group levels which can influence the degree of errors caught and corrected. Although her study was in a specific sector (medicine) some of her conditions can be generalized: a) Unit Leader behaviours. b) Unit performance outcomes c) Unit shared beliefs.

Unit leader behaviours are crucial in creating a culture in which openness of discussing errors, through their open and stimulating behaviour, are used as an example for the others. The unit performance outcomes consist of factors such as quality of interpersonal relations, unit performance and detected error rates. The leader behaviour and the performance outcomes result in shared beliefs. The shared beliefs of error report that first of all, everybody should accept that making mistakes is normal and that it will not be used against one (Helmreich, 1988). Further, the more errors are reported and discussed, the bigger the incentive should be to report and solve other errors.

Jones (1999) adds that technocratic movements have a positive influence on error correction due improved communication. Technological improvements stimulate collaborate thinking and striving for optimalization of systems. Through this, error correction is maximalized. Tsuvijek (1988) implies how technology on one hand can improve error correction, but on the other hand cause more errors due to decreased human intervention.

In mathematics, computer science, telecommunication, and information theory, error correction has a very precise meaning discussed in the article about error detection and correction.

  See also

Psychology of error
Error in reasoning
Errors in language
Errors on the Web
Error diagnosis and prevention
Production quality terminology

  References

  1. ^ Robinson, P. "In the Matter of:The Gatekeeper: The Gate Contracts"
  2. ^ United States Central Intelligence Agency. Analytic Culture in the U.S. Intelligence Community. Retrieved August 30, 2008.

  External links

   
               

 

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