definition of Wikipedia
|City of Española|
|— City —|
|Nickname(s): The Heart of Northern New Mexico|
|Motto: Serving The Community With Pride|
|County||Rio Arriba, Santa Fe|
|Named for||See history section|
|• Type||Mayor-City Council Government|
|• Mayor||Alice Lucero (D)|
|• City Council|
|• State House|
|• State Senate|
|• U.S. House|
|• City||8.5 sq mi (21.9 km2)|
|• Land||8.4 sq mi (21.7 km2)|
|• Water||0.08 sq mi (0.2 km2)|
|• Density||1,140/sq mi (440.0/km2)|
|• Metro||188,210 (CSA)|
|ZIP codes||87532, 87533|
|GNIS feature ID||928729|
Española //, also known as Espanola (without the tilde), is a city primarily in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, in the United States. A portion of the central and eastern section of the city is in Santa Fe County. Española was founded in 1880 as a railroad village and incorporated as a city in 1925. The city is situated in an area Juan de Oñate declared a capital for Spain in 1598. Española has been called the first capital city in America. At the 2010 census the city had a total population of 10,495. Española is within the Santa Fe-Española Combined Statistical Area.
Present day Española was founded in 1880, with the introduction of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. In early 1880, the famous railroad which ran predominantly through the Rocky Mountain region, announced a route extension of its narrow gauge into northern New Mexico. The line was built along the Rio Grande, and later was known as the Chili Line. The route would extend into what today is the downtown Española area, and the railroad began selling lots of property in the area.
Before the railroads this area was known as originally was known as "La Vega de los Vigiles" (the Vigils' meadow). Many residents of the nearby town of Santa Fe were not happy with the decision, and failure of connection prompting protest. The Española station however, included an engine facility station along with a roundhouse and turntable so they could service the locomotives. The facilities were built but torn down or no longer in use after six years; plans for the town had changed. The railroad would later reach Santa Fe to connect with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway in late 1887.
At the time of railroad construction a small restaurant in the area was nicknamed "Las Española's", referred to as such by railroad workers because of the beautiful Spanish women in the area. There was no official name for the village at the time, railroad workers and new business owners began referring to the area as "Espanola" (without the eñe, at the time) and the name quickly stuck. The name became official by 1900 and Española would become a small "railroad village". Anglo merchants, mountain men, and settlers slowly filtered into Española. The Bond family from Canada would later arrive in the city and with them came the state's largest mercantile.
Frank R. Frankenburger a business man born in Ft. Scott, Kansas was the first mayor, elected in 1923. In 1925 Española was incorporated as a city. As the population rose, there was a high demand for public education in the city. Española High School was established; it would be the largest school in the area for decades. The first high school in the area however, was Santa Cruz High School. Two miles away from downtown Española, it opened in 1906 in the historic Santa Cruz area. Today, both high schools are no longer in existence after a merger of school districts in 1975.
The existence of the railroad began to dissipate, minimal passenger traffic and low shippments forced the railroad to close in the early 1940s. Many locals would become unemployed and would follow the railroad to Santa Fe, Albuquerque and central Colorado for jobs. Española's population would fall dramatically and many homes in downtown became abandoned. Most of the locals that remained, would turn to farming as a way of life. Many people saw Española as another failed railroad town.
Along came the 1970s and 80s, many historical buildings, 'mom/pop shops' and homes of historical significance were torn down. More modern business began to move into the downtown area, However, most would fail due opportunities moving across the city. Although several buildings of historical significance remain downtown Española many are unused or abandoned. The city removed the railroad tracks and the train depot in 1950, and the existence of railroads completely vanished.
Soon strip malls soon became visible in Española, the first being the Big Rock shopping center, owned by oil tycoon Roy Honstein. With the beginnings of Manhattan Project in the nearby city of Los Alamos many locals would find jobs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which would later employee nearly 9% of Española's population. In 1970 the city's population would triple in size.
A controversial plan to build a "plaza" and mission church where many historic buildings once stood was up for consideration. In the late 1990s the city went with the plan, and locals supported the plaza. Although a plaza never existed in Española before the railroads, it was built to tribute to the Spanish culture in the area.
Franklin Bond (1863–1945) is believed as one of the founders of the city, he was also the first multiple merchant owner in Española. He was a wool grower who emigrated from Canada in 1882. Bond would later married May Anna Caffell of Pueblo, Colorado. At age 21, He established the largest mercantile company in New Mexico (Espanola Mercantile), along with G.W. Bond & Bros, and Bond & Nohl companies with his brother George, who was already living in New Mexico. In addition to running the retail business, Frank Bond acquired extensive tracts of land, including the Valle Grande (Baca Location) in the Jemez Mountains. Using this land to raise sheep, he quickly took advantage of the lucrative wool market. His businesses expanded to include wool storage and marketing ventures. In 1924 Bond was spoken of as a possible gubernatorial candidate and again in 1928, but preferred the more reserved work of building the state's economic enterprises than serving in politics. In 1925, Bond temporarily relocated to Albuquerque, establishing business ventures such as the Wool Warehouse Company with his son, Franklin Bond Jr., and other partners.
When Franklin Bond Sr. died in 1945, his son took over as president of Frank Bond & Son. He held the vast family interests until his sudden death from illness in 1953. At that time, with no family member able to manage operations, the family began selling off assets and the company was liquidated. The family also owned mercantiles in Wagon Mound and Roy.
The Bond Family home, which began as a small adobe home grew into a large two-story home, modeling the neoclassical revival style it still exists in downtown. The city purchased the building in the 1970s. The Bond family name has held a strong family legacy, there are 3rd and 4th generations of the Frank Bond name. The family no longer resides in the city.
The Española Valley (known as the "San Juan Valley" to the early Spaniards) is also known as the first European-founded capital of the "New World." In 1598 Don Juan de Oñate declared a capital for Spain the area of Don Diego de Vargas' new villa at Santa Cruz. Oñate arrived in the Española Valley on July 11, 1598 at the confluence of the Chama River and the Rio Grande, where he established a camp at a place then called Yunque-Yunque. He created a Spanish settlement in an area already inhabited by the indigenous descendants of the Anasazi. The treatment of the natives was typical of the Conquistadores at that time, with enslavement and brutality being a mainstay, despite the initially warm welcome.
In 1998, Española celebrated the 400th Anniversary of the colonization by the Spanish and the founding of the first permanent European colony in North America. The event was celebratory for some and controversial for others; on January 5, 1998 someone cut the foot off of a sculpture of Juan de Oñate in the Oñate Monument Visitors Center. A group calling itself Brothers of Acoma claimed responsibility.
Heroin use in the area increased rapidly beginning in the 1970s. In the period 2001–2005, Rio Arriba County had the highest per capita rate of drug fatalities in the country, with 42.5 deaths per 100,000 population compared to 7.3 nationally.
On September 18, 2008 then Sen. Barack Obama, a Democratic nominee for President of the United States, visited Española for a rally at the city's New Plaza in the Main Street district. Nearly 10,000 people packed the Plaza from around the Española Valley. Española has a large number of Hispanics and a large majority are Democrats.
Española is located at (36.001884, -106.064587).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.9 square kilometers (8.5 sq mi). 21.7 square kilometers (8.4 sq mi) of it is land and 0.2 square kilometers (0.077 sq mi) of it is water. The total area covered by water is 0.83%.
Española is over a mile high at an elevation of around 5,595 feet (1,705 m) with much variance. It is in a valley nestled between the Jemez and Sangre de Cristo mountain ranges, and the meeting point of three rivers, the Rio Grande, the Rio Chama, and the Rio Santa Cruz.
July is the warmest month in Española, the Average is 91 °F (33 °C). The highest recorded temperature was 107 °F (42 °C) in 2003. The average coolest month is January at 45 °F (7 °C). The lowest recorded temperature was −38 °F (−39 °C) in 1971. The maximum average precipitation occurs in August with an average of 1.90 inches (48 mm).
|Climate data for Española, New Mexico|
|Record high °F (°C)||67
|Average high °F (°C)||45
|Average low °F (°C)||14
|Record low °F (°C)||−38
|Precipitation inches (mm)||0.40
According to an annual report by the American Lung Association, the Santa Fe-Espanola CSA (metropolitan area) has the cleanest Ozone layer in the country (ranked #1), cleanest area in the country for 24-hour particle pollution (ranked #1) and cleanest area in the country for annual particle pollution (ranked #2).
At the census of 2000, there were 9,688 people, 5,751 households, and 4,569 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,155.4 people per square mile (446.4/km²). There were 5,107 housing units at an average density of 189.2/square kilometer (489.8/square mile). The racial makeup of the city was 67.55% White, 0.58% African American, 2.86% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 25.56% from other races, and 3.25% from two or more races. 84.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 5,751 households, of which 35.6% had children under the age of eighteen living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 18.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.5% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of single individuals, and 9.7% had someone living alone who was sixty-five years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.08.
In the city the population was spread out, with 27.8% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was thirty-four years. For every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females aged eighteen and over, there were 94.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,144, and the median income for a family was $32,255. Males had a median income of $25,558 versus $23,177 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,303. 21.6% of the population and 16.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 28.4% of those under the age of eighteen and 15.1% of those sixty-five and older were living below the poverty line.
As of the census of 2010, there were 10,495 people, 5,897 households, and 4,690 families residing in the city.
The racial makeup of the city was:
|Largest Employers in Española|
|1||Española Public Schools|
|2||Los Alamos National Laboratory|
|3||Akal Securities Inc|
|4||Española – Presbyterian Hospital|
|5||Northern New Mexico College|
|6||New Mexico State Government|
|7||Santa Claran Resort and Casino|
|8||Española City Government|
|9||Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.|
|10||Lowe's Companies, Inc.|
The Education sector is the largest employer of the city, the public schools and local college combined account for nearly 10% of the city's workforce, while Los Alamos National Laboratory accounts for nearly 6% of the city's employment.
In the past 4 years Española has seen plenty of commercial development on Riverside Drive, the city's secondary main road. Big retail and eatery chains such as Lowe's Home Improvement and Chili's, are anchors of a massive shopping center located next to Wal-Mart which was built in late 1999. Many other stores such as CVS/Pharmacy and Petsense have added locations in Española. However, most residents are employed at near-by city Los Alamos at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
At Española Industrial Park, Nambe Mills (relocated from Santa Fe in what will be a multi-phase move of their entire silver working operation) is in the forefront of an industrial expansion that may soon see a host of businesses taking advantage of the city's relatively low-cost industrial land.
Irrigation ditches, set up by the Spanish helped them to prosper as an agrarian society. These life-giving lines are, in some ways, the only things that remain unchanged in Española today. While there is a tangible feeling of pride for culture and family amongst Hispanics and natives, there is an ever-increasing influence and presence of people that do not belong to either of these groups.
The prosperous agrarian society of the natives and the Spanish was replaced by a money-based system with the introduction of the railroad. As is typical throughout history, this disadvantaged many locals. They were forced to adopt a system for which they lacked the education. Many continued to farm, and their families still do today; however, they were taught to farm to sell rather than to sustain, and so were also disadvantaged. With poverty and gentrification came fewer resources for the community.
There has been a steady influx of documented immigration to the Valley for the last decade, which has significantly increased their visibility and influence in the area. Española (especially the neighboring community of Sombrillo) is also home to the largest community of ethnically diverse Sikhs in the world. While most Sikhs descend from the Punjab region of India, the Sikhs in Española come from all over the world.
Española's restaurants and convenience stores are popular with travelers between Santa Fe and northern communities, as well as with local people. The local fiestas are held in the summer and include live New Mexican-style Spanish or country music, vendors, and many locals.
There are many locations near Española to do almost any outdoor activity such as hiking, biking, and river sports like rafting and kayaking. Nearby winter sports include skiing (downhill and cross-country) and snowboarding.
The city of Española is served by an elected four-year term mayor and an eight-member city council. The Española City Council is the legislative authority of the city, and has the power to adopt all ordinances, resolutions, or other legislation. The council members are elected from the eight council districts on four-year terms, with four districted Councilors elected every two years. One of the council members is elected by the members of the council to be the mayor pro tempore. The mayor can approve or veto any decision made by the council. However, the council can override the mayor's veto with a five out of eight member vote.
|Mayors of Española|
|Dr. Tobias Espinosa||1929-1932|
|John Block Jr.||1950-1954|
|Joe E. Roybal||1954-1958|
|Consuelo S. Thompson||1982-1986|
Espanola Public Schools serves the City of Española.
|This section requires expansion.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Espanola, New Mexico|
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