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1.malignant tumor in bone marrow (usually in the pelvis or in long bones)
Ewing's sarcoma (n.)
||This article uses bare URLs for citations. (September 2011)|
|Classification and external resources|
Micrograph of metastatic Ewing sarcoma (right of image) in normal lung (left of image). PAS stain.
Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant small, round, blue cell tumour. It is a rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the bone or in soft tissue. The most common areas in which it occurs are the pelvis, the femur, the humerus, the ribs and clavicle.
Because a common genetic locus is responsible for a large percentage of Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, these are sometimes grouped together in a category known as the Ewing family of tumors. The diseases are, however, considered to be different: peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours are generally not associated with bones, while Ewing sarcomas are most commonly related to bone.
Genetic exchange between chromosomes can cause cells to become cancerous. Ewing's sarcoma is the result of a translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22, which fuses the EWS gene of chromosome 22 to the FLI1 gene of chromosome 11.
EWS/FLI functions as the master regulator.
According to The Bone Cancer Research Trust (BCRT) the most common symptoms reported are: Localised pain: bone pain; may come and go and vary in its intensity. Swelling, this can be seen if it is on a bone near the surface of the body but in other places, like on the pelvis, it may not be visible.
Ewing's sarcoma is more common in males and usually presents in childhood or early adulthood, with a peak between 10 and 20 years of age. It can occur anywhere in the body, but most commonly in the pelvis and proximal long tubular bones, especially around the growth plates. The diaphyses of the femur are the most common sites, followed by the tibia and the humerus. Thirty percent are overtly metastatic at presentation. Patients usually experience extreme bone pain.
On conventional radiographs, the most common osseous presentation is a permeative lytic lesion with periosteal reaction. The classic description of lamellated or "onion skin" type periosteal reaction is often associated with this lesion. Plain films add valuable information in the initial evaluation or screening. The wide zone of transition (e.g. permeative) is the most useful plain film characteristic in differentiation of benign versus aggressive or malignant lytic lesions.
MRI should be routinely used in the work-up of malignant tumours. MRI will show the full bony and soft tissue extent and relate the tumour to other nearby anatomic structures (e.g. vessels). Gadolinium contrast is not necessary as it does not give additional information over noncontrast studies, though some current researchers argue that dynamic, contrast enhanced MRI may help determine the amount of necrosis within the tumour, thus help in determining response to treatment prior to surgery.
Bone scintigraphy can also be used to follow tumour response to therapy.
In the group of malignant small round cell tumours which include Ewing's sarcoma, bone lymphoma and small cell osteosarcoma, the cortex may appear almost normal radiographically, while there is permeative growth throughout the Haversian channels. These tumours may be accompanied by a large soft tissue mass while there is almost no visible bone destruction. The radiographs frequently do not shown any signs of cortical destruction.
Radiographically Ewing's Sarcoma presents as "Moth-eaten" destructive radiolucencies of the medulla and erosion of the cortex with expansion.
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Other entities that may have a similar clinical presentation include osteomyelitis, osteosarcoma (especially telangiectatic osteosarcoma) and eosinophilic granuloma. Soft tissue neoplasms such as pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma) that erode into adjacent bone may also have a similar appearance.
Ewing's sarcoma is a small round cell tumor, that typically has a clear cytoplasm on H&E staining, due to glycogen. The presence of the glycogen can be demonstrated with positive PAS staining and negative PAS diastase staining. The characteristic immunostain is CD99 which diffusely marks the cell membrane. Morphologic and immunohistochemical findings are corroborated with an associated chromosomal translocation, of which there are several. The most common translocation, present in approximately 90% of Ewing sarcoma cases, is t(11;22)(q24;q12).
The frequency in the United States depends on the patient's age, with a rate of 0.3 case per 1,000,000 children in those younger than 3 years of age to as high as 4.6 cases per 1,000,000 in adolescents aged 15–19 years. Internationally the annual incidence rate averages less than 2 cases per 1,000,000 children. In the United Kingdom an average of six children per year are diagnosed, mainly males in early stages of puberty. Due to the prevalence of diagnosis during teenage years, there may possibly be a link between the onset of puberty and the early stages of this disease, although no research is currently being conducted to confirm this hypothesis.
Because almost all patients with apparently localized disease at diagnosis have occult metastatic disease, multidrug chemotherapy (often including ifosfamide and etoposide) as well as local disease control with surgery and/or radiation is indicated in the treatment of all patients.
Treatment often consists of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy generally followed by a limb salvage or an amputation and may also include radiotherapy. Complete excision at the time of biopsy may be performed if malignancy is confirmed at the time it is examined. Treatment lengths vary depending on location and stage of the disease at diagnosis. Radical chemotherapy may be as short as 6 treatments at 3 week cycles, however most patients will undergo chemotherapy for 6–12 months and radiation therapy for 5–8 weeks.
Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides have been proposed as possible treatment by down-regulating the expression of the oncogenic fusion protein associated with the development of Ewing's sarcoma resulting from the EWS-ETS gene translocation. In addition, the synthetic retinoid derivative fenretinide (4-hydroxy(phenyl)retinamide) has been reported to induce high levels of cell death in Ewing sarcoma cell lines in vitro and to delay growth of Ewing sarcoma xenografts in vivo mouse models.
In women, chemotherapy may damage the ovaries and cause infertility. To avail for future pregnancies, the woman may preserve oocytes or ovarian tissue by oocyte cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation prior to starting chemotherapy. However, the latter may reseed the cancer upon reinsertion of the ovarian tissue. If it is performed, the ovarian tissue should be examined for traces of malignancy at both the pathological and molecular levels prior to the grafting of the cryopreserved tissue.
Staging attempts to distinguish patients with localized from those with metastatic disease. Most commonly, metastases occur in the chest, bone and/or bone marrow. Less common sites include the central nervous system and lymph nodes.
In the UK and Ireland The Bone Cancer Research Trust (BCRT) funds research and provides information on Ewing sarcoma and other bone cancers. This includes information for teenagers who have this condition.
20. Bone Tumors - Differential diagnosis. Henk Jan van der Woude and Robin Smithuis.Radiology department of the Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam and the Rijnland hospital,Leiderdorp,the Netherlands.