"Flaccid" redirects here. For the states of the half-erect penis or clitoris tissues, see Tumescence
Flaccid paralysis (pronounced /ˈflæksɪd pəˈræləsɪs/) a clinical manifestation characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause (e.g., trauma).
The term acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is often used to describe a sudden onset, as might be found with polio.
AFP is the most common sign of acute polio, and used for surveillance during polio outbreaks. AFP is also associated with a number of other pathogenic agents including enteroviruses, echoviruses, and adenoviruses, among others.
The Clostridium botulinum bacteria are the cause of botulism. Vegetative cells of C. botulinum may be ingested. Introduction of the bacteria may also occur via endospores in a wound. When the bacteria is in vivo, they induce flaccid paralysis. This happens because C. botulinum produces a toxin which blocks the release of acetylcholine. When this occurs, the muscles are unable to contract.
Flaccid paralysis can be associated with a lower motor neuron lesion. This is in contrast to a upper motor neuron lesion, which often presents with spastic paralysis.Included in AFP's list are Poliomyelitis, Transverse myelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, enteroviral encephalopathy , traumatic neuritis, Reye's syndrome etc.An AFP Surveillance programme is conducted to increase case yield of poliomyelitis. This includes collection of 2 stool samples within 14 days of onset of paralysis and identification of virus. and control of the outbreak and strengthening immunisation in that area.
- ↑ Alberta Government Health and Wellness (2005) Acute Flaccid Paralysis Public Health Notifiable Disease Management Guidelines.
- ↑ Kelly H, Brussen KA, Lawrence A, Elliot E, Pearn J, Thorley B (2006). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Polioviruses and other enteroviruses isolated from faecal samples of patients with acute flaccid paralysis in Australia, 1996-2004"]. Journal of paediatrics and child health 42 (6): 370–6. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2006.00875.x. PMID 16737480.
- ↑ Disease Listing, Botulism, General Information | CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases
- ↑ Anis-ur-Rehman, Idris M, Elahi M, Jamshed, Arif A (Jan-Mar 2007). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Guillain Barre syndrome: the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis in Hazara division"]. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 19 (1): 26–8. PMID 17867475.
- Approach to Acute Flaccid Paralysis (Diagnosis, Management etc.)
- WHO Programme for Immunization Preventable Diseases (IPD) A Collaboration between World Health Organization and Government of Nepal
- ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS information from the IPD
- National Polio Surveillance Project of India
- "Progress towards poliomyelitis eradication, Nepal, 1996-1999". Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 74 (42): 349–53. October 1999. PMID 10895300. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a2.htm.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (September 2002). "Acute flaccid paralysis syndrome associated with West Nile virus infection—Mississippi and Louisiana, July-August 2002". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51 (37): 825–8. PMID 12353741. http://www.cdc.gov/MMWR/PREVIEW/MMWRHTML/mm5137a1.htm.
- Sejvar JJ, Leis AA, Stokic DS, et al. (July 2003). "Acute flaccid paralysis and West Nile virus infection". Emerging Infect. Dis. 9 (7): 788–93. PMID 12890318. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no7/03-0129.htm.
- Saeed M, Zaidi SZ, Naeem A, et al. (2007). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Epidemiology and clinical findings associated with enteroviral acute flaccid paralysis in Pakistan"]. BMC Infect. Dis. 7: 6. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-7-6. PMID 17300736.