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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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1.an officer holding the highest rank in the army
Field Marshal (n.) [British]
grand officier royal (fr)[Classe]
métier : militaire (fr)[Classe]
field marshal (n.)
|Common anglophone military ranks|
|Admiral of the fleet||Marshal /
the Air Force
|Commander||Lieutenant colonel||Wing commander|
|Ensign||2nd lieutenant||Pilot officer|
|Midshipman||Officer cadet||Officer cadet|
|Seamen, soldiers and airmen|
|Warrant officer||Sergeant major||Warrant officer|
Field marshal is a military rank. Traditionally, it is the highest military rank in an army.
The origin of the rank of field marshal dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the king's horses (from Old German Marh-scalc = "horse-servant"), from the time of the early Frankish kings.
Some nations use the title of marshal instead, while some have used field marshal general. The Air Force equivalent in the Commonwealth and many Middle Eastern air forces is marshal of the air force (not to be confused with air marshal). The corresponding naval ranks are normally fleet admiral, grand admiral or admiral of the fleet.
Traditionally, upon their promotion, field marshals are awarded a decorative baton as a symbol of their rank. The baton is often studded with jewels and inlaid with precious metals. In many countries like Austria-Hungary, Prussia and Germany, extraordinary military achievement by a general (a wartime victory) is required for a promotion to the rank of field marshal.
Historically, however, several armies used field marshal as a divisional command rank, notably Spain and Mexico (Spanish: mariscal de campo). In France, Portugal and Brazil (French: maréchal de camp, Portuguese marechal de campo) it was formerly a brigade command rank.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, held the rank of a field marshal, or equivalent rank, in eight armies. Nine of his field marshal batons are on display in Apsley House (see Batons of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington).
During Imperial rule in China, successful generals were given the title of field marshal (元帅 Yuan Shuai) or grand field marshal (大元帅 da yuan shuai). One of the most famous of these generals was Yue Fei from the Song Dynasty.
After the People's Republic of China was established in 1949, it has promoted 10 military commanders to the rank of marshal.
Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, has been the de facto head of state of Egypt since former president Hosni Mubarak's resignation caused by the 2011 Egyptian revolution.
In the French army of the Ancien Régime, the normal brigade command rank was field marshal (maréchal de camp). In 1793, during the French Revolution, the rank of field marshal was replaced by the rank of brigade general. The rank insignia of field marshal was two stars (one-star being used for a senior colonel rank). The French field marshal rank was below lieutenant-general, which in 1793 became divisional-general. In the title maréchal de camp and the English "field marshal", there is an etymological confusion in the French camp between the English words "camp" and "field". The French rank of field marshal should not be confused with the rank of Marshal of France, which was the highest rank of the Ancien Régime and is in effect the highest French rank today (although in theory it is not an actual rank but a "state dignity").
Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw was the 8th chief of staff of the Indian Army in 1969 and under his command, Indian forces concluded the surrender of the Pakistan Forces after the Bangladesh Independence War from Pakistan on 16 December 1971. Sam Manekshaw was the second of only two Indian military officers to hold the highest rank of Field Marshal in the Indian Army, the other being Field Marshal Kodandera Madappa Cariappa.
Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan has remained the only field marshal in the Pakistan army to date. He appointed himself as a field marshal when he was the second president of Pakistan, as well as the commander in chief of the army.
In the Turkish Armed Forces, the corresponding rank is mareşal. The rank of mareşal can trace its origins to the Ottoman Empire and to the military of Persia, where it was called "مشير" (müşir) and bestowed upon senior commanders upon order of the ruling Sultan. The rank of mareşal can only be bestowed by the National Assembly, and only given to a General who leads an army, navy and/or air force successfully in three battles or at various front lines at the same time, gaining a victory over the enemy. Only two persons have been bestowed the rank mareşal to date: Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey, and his Chief of Staff Fevzi Çakmak, both for their successes in the Turkish War of Independence.
On December 16, 1944, George Marshall became the first American general to be promoted to five-star rank, the newly created General of the Army. A Washington columnist suggested (with tongue in cheek) that Marshall disliked the plan because five stars was the rank of field marshal and the Chief of Staff could then be addressed as “Marshal Marshall.”
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Field marshals|