Dictionary and translator for handheld
New : sensagent is now available on your handheld
A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !
With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.
Improve your site content
Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.
Crawl products or adds
Get XML access to reach the best products.
Index images and define metadata
Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.
Please, email us to describe your idea.
Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.
1.(MeSH)Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)
Forensic Anthropology (n.) [MeSH]
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2010)|
||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (August 2011)|
Bloodstain pattern analysis
Forensic footwear evidence
Questioned document examination
Mobile device forensics
Detection of fire accelerants
Forensic materials engineering
Forensic polymer engineering
Vehicular accident reconstruction
|William M. Bass
George W. Gill
Douglas W. Owsley
Auguste Ambroise Tardieu
Perry Mason syndrome
Use of DNA in forensic entomology
Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of physical anthropology and human osteology in a legal setting, most often in criminal cases where the victim's remains are in the advanced stages of decomposition. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable. The adjective "forensic" refers to the application of this subfield of science to a court of law.
Forensic anthropological techniques can be used in the recovery and analysis of human remains. A forensic analysis assesses the age, sex , stature, ancestry, and racial classification of the individual, as well as determine if the individual was affected by accidental or violent trauma or disease prior to or at the time of death. Forensic anthropologists frequently work in conjunction with forensic pathologists, odontologists, and homicide investigators to identify a decedent, discover evidence of trauma, and determine the postmortem interval. Though they typically lack the legal authority to declare the official cause of death, which is the job of forensic pathologists, their opinions are taken into consideration by the medical examiner. They may also testify in court as expert witnesses. Data from some infrequently used techniques, such as forensic facial reconstruction, are inadmissible as forensic evidence in the United States.
Physical anthropology is one of the divisions of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Two of the most important research collections of human skeletal remains in the U.S. are the Hamann-Todd Collection, housed in the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and the Terry Collection, housed in the Smithsonian Institution. These collections are an important historic basis for the statistical analysis necessary to make estimates and predictions from found remains. More modern collections include the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.
There are few people who identify themselves as forensic anthropologists, and in the United States and Canada, there are fewer than 100 anthropologists certified as diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology(DABFA). Most diplomates work in the academic field and consult on casework as it arises.
Forensic anthropology, a sub-field of applied anthropology and physical anthropology, uses a cross-disciplinary approach to identify an individual’s identity, time since death, cause of death, and the manner of death. The discipline has achieved wide recognition in North America and, like other disciplines, it has its own code of ethics for practices among others outlined in the field of anthropology (Snow 101). Forensic anthropology progressed from a peripheral activity to a formally recognized discipline in the early 1970s. Both Canada and the United States have many dedicated professionals in each state, province and territory who work in the field of forensic anthropology; this includes the chief coroner or the chief medical examiner. As part of identifying the individual’s identity the following may be analyzed: age, stature, ancestry, and sex. To evaluate the time since death and the cause of death, many people from the various professional areas in the forensic field may step in; these fields include: pathology, toxicology, chemistry, biology, odontology, entomology, and psychiatry among others (Nafte 3–6). All the professionals in each forensic field are a crucial part of the process of identifying the individuals’ identities.
Even though the discipline of forensic anthropology officially began in the early 1970s, the first forensic paper to be recognized was written by Thomas Dwight. The prize-winning essay titled "The Identification of the Human Skeleton: A Medicolegal Study" was a success in 1878. This successful paper was followed by a successful court case using forensic studies in 1897. Adolph Luetgert was a prosperous sausage manufacturer whose business was beginning to fail. Luetgert claimed that his wife had run off with another man, but a search of his factory led to a foul smell at the bottom of a large vat. There, two of his wife’s rings, a corset stay, and several small bones were found; thus Luetgert was accused of killing his wife. George Dorsey was the first expert forensic analyst to receive a doctoral degree in anthropology by Harvard. He was assigned to the Luetgert case and revealed his findings to the court. Among the bones, rings, and corset stay were other pieces of evidence that made the case a win for Dorsey. This case acquired national recognition and for months, the sale of sausages had fallen as it was rumored that pieces of Luetgert’s wife was mixed in with the product (Snow 99–100).
Canada has ten provinces and three territories where there are professional death investigators who often have police experience. Most of these provinces and territories have a coroner system where coroners need not be medically trained, except in Ontario. In Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and New Foundland, a Medical Examiner system requiring medically qualified investigators to practice as forensic pathologists is employed. Mark Skinner of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia has provided forensic anthropology service to the Office of the Chief Coroner, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and municipal police in the Fraser Region since 1976. Skinner states that the charges for court testimony is usually paid at legal rates by the representative counsel. As a result, services provided by forensic anthropologists in British Columbia, at the least, are not yet representative of the governmental agencies such as the Office of the Chief Coroner (Skinner 192-8).
Forensic anthropology is still a growing field in Canada and still lacks uniformity in practice. In 1989, a review found that forensic anthropology as a profession was marginalized since scholars in the field were university based without any connections to the police or coroners/medical examiners. Graduate thesis research with a forensic focus began to emerge in the late 1980s and gradually became a more acceptable specialization within biological anthropology (Skinner 195). The review article, "Taking the Pulse of Forensic Anthropology in Canada" states that “By 2006, it was clear that forensic anthropology and its specializations had grown a great deal in terms of training and practice; however, forensic anthropology remained university-based with few anthropologically trained individuals placed in death investigative agencies or in hospital settings. The lack of standardized training across Canada remained clearly evident” (Skinner 193).
Within forensic anthropology are many disciplines of specialists; one of which is osteology. For basic identification purposes in forensic anthropology, osteological analysis of age, stature, ancestry, and sex of the skeletal remains are first determined (Nafte 33). The investigator may find evidence regarding cause and manner of death; however, when flesh is still found on the bone, the stage of decomposition is noted and time since death may be more effectively narrowed (Byers 4) When identifying age and stature, a range is given, rather than a definite number. Because an individual's nutrition can affect bone structure, a physiological age is estimated based on the state of the bones. Since lifestyle plays a large role in the growth and decay of bones, it is not possible in many cases to unequivocally determine bone age. Therefore the age is noted as a probable range (Nafte 101). A range is also applied to stature based on the length of long bones, applied to a specific mathematical equation. Different equations have been developed for the sexes and for different races (Nafte 122). Estimated stature is given in a range of centimeters.
Osteological traits on the pelvis and the cranium can provide clues as to ancestry and gender. Features such as the shape of the supraorbital process, incisors, mental protuberance, mastoid process, among other cranial features are fundamental to the identification of ancestry and gender for the skeletal remains (Nafte 115). The pelvis may play a role in the differentiation between male and female. Features such as the pubic symphysis or the ishchio-pubic index can help to identify sex. Theoretically, it is cranial traits that help most with identifying the ancestry of the individual; however, the identification of ancestry is not limited to the cranium (Nafte 118). Analysis of age, stature, and sex are not limited to these procedures as forensic anthropologists use a multi-factorial apporach to provide these results.
All the procedures for identifying the human remains come with a code of ethics both in Canada and the United States. A guide to the code of ethics in anthropological studies including the field of biological and forensic anthropology is provided by the American Anthropological Association (AAA) where ethics in all areas of anthropology is included (www.aaanet.org/committees/ethics/ethcode.htm). When the forensic anthropologist is accused of questionable behavior in regards to the handling of human remains, the consequences may be extreme. The forensic anthropologist may be conducting a legal offence where he or she may face criminal charges (Rogers 1).
Generally, the practices in forensic anthropology in Canada and the United States are the same. However, unlike other disciplines where professionals may be guided through on how to instruct students in their field, forensic anthropologists rarely have that formal training to teach (Higgins 318). Although professionals in the field of forensic anthropology usually do not have any formal training in teaching the field, there are many dedicated professionals who pass on their knowledge in post-secondary institutions.