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Gatorade

                   
Gatorade
GatoradeGlogoconverted.svg
The current Gatorade "G" logo, produced by TBWA\Chiat\Day.[1]
Type Sports drink
nutrition bar
protein drink
other sports nutrition products
Owner PepsiCo
Country United States
Introduced September 9, 1965[2]
Markets United States, Canada, United Kingdom, (80 countries total)
Website gatorade.com

Gatorade is a brand of sports-themed food and beverage products, built around its signature product: a line of sports drinks. Gatorade is currently manufactured by PepsiCo and distributed in over 80 countries.[3] The beverage was first developed in 1965 by researchers at the University of Florida, to replenish the combination of water, carbohydrates, and electrolytes that the school's student-athletes lost (in sweat) during rigorous athletic competitions. Its name was derived from the collective nickname of the university's athletic teams, "the Gators".

Originally produced and marketed by Stokely-Van Camp, the Gatorade brand was purchased by the Quaker Oats Company in 1983, which itself was bought by PepsiCo in 2001. As of 2010, Gatorade is PepsiCo’s 4th-largest brand, on the basis of worldwide annual retail sales.[4] It primarily competes with Coca-Cola's Powerade and Vitaminwater brands worldwide; plus, Lucozade Sport in the United Kingdom. Within the United States, Gatorade accounts for approximately 75 percent market share in the sports drink category.[5]

Contents

  History

  University of Florida football player Chip Hinton testing out Gatorade in 1965, pictured next to one of its inventors, Robert Cade

The first iteration of Gatorade was formulated in 1965 by a team of researchers at the University of Florida College of Medicine, including Robert Cade, Dana Shires, Harry James Free, and Alejandro de Quesada.[6] It was created following a request from Florida Gators football head coach Ray Graves to aid athletes by acting as a hydrating replacement for body fluids lost during physical exertion in hot weather. The earliest versions of the beverage consisted of a mixture of water, sodium, sugar, potassium, phosphate and lemon juice.[7] Ten players on the University of Florida football team tested the first version of Gatorade during practices and games in 1965, and the tests were deemed successful. The football team credited Gatorade as having contributed to their first Orange Bowl win over the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets in 1967, at which point the drink gained traction within the athletic community. Yellow Jackets coach Bobby Dodd, when asked why his team lost, replied: "We didn't have Gatorade. That made the difference."[8]

Shortly after the 1967 Orange Bowl, Robert Cade entered into an agreement providing Stokely-Van Camp, Inc. (S-VC), a canned-food packaging company, with the U.S. rights to production and sale of Gatorade as a commercial product.[7] In the same year, a licensing arrangement made Gatorade the official sports drink of the National Football League, representing the first in a history of professional sports sponsorship for the Gatorade brand. A year after its commercial introduction, S-VC tested multiple variations of the original Gatorade recipe, finally settling on more palatable variants in lemon-lime and orange flavors. This reformulation also removed the sweetener cyclamate-which was banned by the FDA in 1969-replacing it with additional fructose.[9] In the early 1970s, legal questions arose regarding whether or not the researchers who invented Gatorade were entitled to ownership of its rights, since they were working under a federal government grant that provided stipends at the time.[7] The University of Florida also claimed partial rights ownership, which was brought to resolution in 1973 in the form of a settlement awarding the university with a 20 percent share of Gatorade royalties, totaling $100 million as of 2004.[10]

  Prior version of the Gatorade logo, in use (with minor variations) from 1973-2009.

The Quaker Oats Company purchased S-VC and Gatorade in 1983 for a sum of $220 million, following a bidding war with rival Pillsbury. In its first two decades of production, Gatorade was primarily sold and distributed within the United States. Beginning in the 1980s, then-parent Quaker Oats Company began to work at expanding distribution of Gatorade beyond the United States, venturing into Canada in 1984, regions of Asia in 1987, South America and parts of Europe in 1988, and Australia in 1993. International expansion came at the cost of $20 million in 1996 alone; however the resulting efforts produced worldwide sales of $283 million in more than 45 nations during the same year.[11] In 1997, distribution of Gatorade in an additional 10 countries prompted an 18.7 percent growth in annual sales.[12]

In 2001, the multinational food and beverage company PepsiCo acquired Gatorade's parent company, the Quaker Oats Company, for $13 billion in order to add Gatorade to its portfolio of food and beverage brands. PepsiCo had also recently developed All Sport, which it divested of shortly following the Quaker acquisition to satisfy antitrust regulations. Worldwide development of Gatorade continued into the 2000s, including expansion into India in 2004 and the U.K. and Ireland in 2008.[12] As of 2010, Gatorade products were made available for sale in more than 80 countries.[3] As the number one sports drink by annual retail sales in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Italy, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia and the Philippines, Gatorade is also among the leading sports drink brands in Korea and Australia.[13]

As distribution of Gatorade expanded outside of the U.S., localized flavors were introduced to conform to regional tastes and cultural preferences, among other factors. For example, Blueberry is available in Colombia, and in Brazil a Pineapple flavor of Gatorade is sold. Rainbow has been a flavor sold in Russia, and in Australia, flavors include Antarctic Freeze and Wild Water Rush. Some flavors that have been discontinued in the U.S., such as Alpine Snow and Starfruit, have since been made available in other countries.[12]

In 2011 Gatorade was reintroduced to New Zealand by Bluebird Foods, a Pepsico subsidiary in New Zealand. The product is made in Australia by Schweppes Australia and imported to New Zealand and distributed along with Bluebird potato chips.

  Products

  Lemon-lime Gatorade in a glass bottle, circa 1970s

In its early years, the Gatorade brand consisted of a single product line — Gatorade Thirst Quencher — which was produced in liquid and powder form under two flavor variants: lemon-lime and orange.[14] These remained as the only two flavor options for nearly 20 years, until the addition of the fruit punch flavor in 1983.[15] In 1988 a Citrus Cooler flavor was introduced. The rise to popularity of this flavor was largely result of Michael Jordan, who — at the height of his NBA career in the early 1990s — stated that it was his favorite flavor. This claim appeared on the packaging beginning in 1991, as part of a 10-year endorsement deal.[16][17] The Citrus Cooler flavor was reportedly discontinued at some point in the 1990s;[18] however as of 2011 it is listed as being a current product in the U.S.[19]

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, as well as the late 90s to early 2000s, a Gatorade brand of chewing gum called Gator Gum was produced. The product, manufactured by Fleer Corporation, was available in both of Gatorade's original flavors (lemon-lime and orange). In the late 1970s, Stokely-Van Camp (owner of Gatorade before 1983) negotiated a long-term licensing deal with Swell and Vicks to market Gator Gum. The gum was discontinued in 1989 after the contract expired.[11][12]

It was not until the mid and late 1990s that Gatorade beverages became available in a broader range of flavor variations. Among these initial flavor extensions were Watermelon, introduced in 1995, and Cherry Rush, Strawberry Kiwi, and Mandarina flavors, added in 1996.[11][12]:171[20] In January 1997 Gatorade launched a new sub-line called Gatorade Frost with the intent of broadening the brand's appeal beyond traditional team competitive sports. Three initial flavors under the Frost product line were introduced at this time: Alpine Snow, Glacier Freeze, and Whitewater Splash.[21] Aimed at what the company described as the 'active thirst' category — a market 10 times the size of the sports drink segment — Gatorade Frost proved to be successful, far surpassing the company's initial expectations. Flavors in the Frost line were the first from Gatorade to divert from fruit names; it was described as consisting of 'light-tasting fruit-flavor blends.'[11]

Gatorade revealed the Gatorade Energy Bar in 2001. This bar was Gatorade's first foray into solid foods and was introduced to compete with PowerBar and Clif Bar. Gatorade Energy Bars contained a large proportion of protein, in addition to carbohydrates. The bar was primarily made up of puffed grains and corn syrup, common components of other energy bars.[12] In 2001, Gatorade introduced the Gatorade Performance Series, a special line of sports nutrition products. These products include Gatorade Carbohydrate Energy Drink, Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake, the Gatorade Nutrition Shake, and the Gatorade Nutrition Bar. The Endurance Formula, introduced in 2004, contained twice the sodium and three times the potassium of the typical Gatorade formula as well as chloride, magnesium and calcium, to better replace what athletes lose while training and competing.[22]

  Introduced as Gatorade Ice in 2002, this flavor was re-labeled as Gatorade Rain in 2006 and No Excuses in 2009.

Introduced in 2002, Gatorade Ice was marketed as a lighter flavored Gatorade and came in Strawberry, Lime, Orange, and Watermelon. All of these flavors were colorless and transparent. Ice was re-branded in 2006 as Gatorade Rain and the flavor selections altered. In late 2007, a low-calorie line of Gatorade drinks, named G2, was released.[23] Still in production As of 2011, G2 has been produced in eight flavors: Orange, Fruit Punch, Grape, Lemon-Lime, Strawberry Kiwi, Blueberry-Pomegranate, Raspberry Melon, and Glacier Freeze.[24] SymphonyIRI Group named G2 the "top new food product of 2008," noting that the product generated retail sales of $159.1 million in its first full year of production.[25]

Gatorade Tiger was a Gatorade Thirst Quencher sports drink formed as the result of a sponsorship arrangement with Tiger Woods. Debuting in March 2008, Gatorade Tiger was available in Red Drive (cherry), Cool Fusion (lemon-lime), and Quiet Storm (grape). Gatorade Tiger contained 25 percent more electrolytes than Gatorade Thirst Quencher.[26] As part of the 2009 rebranding, Gatorade Tiger was re-labeled as Focus. It was reformulated, adding the amino acid theanine which is naturally found in many forms of tea, improving mental focus. Focus contained about 25 mg per 8 US fluid ounces (240 ml) serving or 50 mg per 16.9 US fluid ounces (500 ml) bottle. On 25 November 2009, it was reported by Beverage Digest, and later confirmed by PepsiCo, that they had made a decision, several months before November 2009, to discontinue some products to make room for the Prime and Recover products as part of a then-upcoming G Series re-branding.[27]

  Re-branding

 
G Series introduced in 2010, from left to right:
Gatorade Prime 01 (pre-game fuel)
Perform 02: Gatorade Thirst Quencher (original Gatorade)
Perform 02: G2 (low-calorie version of original Gatorade)
Gatorade Recover 03 (post-workout Gatorade with additional protein)

Between 2008 and 2010, Gatorade re-branded a number of its products.[28] Original Gatorade was initially re-labeled as Gatorade G. Gatorade Rain was re-labeled as No Excuses. Gatorade AM was re-labeled Shine On; Gatorade X-Factor was relabeled as Be Tough; and Gatorade Fierce was relabeled Bring It. However these names were short-lived, as a two percent decline in market share in 2009 led to a broader repositioning of the entire line in 2010.[29][30] Beginning in February 2010, the Gatorade product portfolio was re-positioned around what the company refers to as the G Series,[31] categorizing varieties of its products into three main segments: before, during, and after athletic events.[31]

  • The Prime 01 product line consists of a pre-game fuel in a gel consistency, positioned for consumption prior to athletic activity.[3]
  • Traditional Gatorade products such as Gatorade Thirst Quencher (Original Gatorade), G2, and Gatorade Powder are categorized under the Perform 02 classification, representing their intention for consumption during periods of physical exertion.[31]
  • Recover 03 refers to a post-workout protein and carbohydrate drink, formulated with the consistency of a sports drink. The composition of this beverage reflects its intention to provide both hydration and muscle recovery after exercise.[3]

G Series Pro, a brand extension initially developed for professional athletes, began to be sold in Home Depot and Dick's Sporting Goods stores in the U.S. in 2010 after first being available only in professional locker rooms and specialized training facilities.[32] Also in 2010, Gatorade introduced the G Natural Gatorade line which is made with "natural flavors and ingredients," specifically sweetened with Stevia and sold in Whole Foods grocery stores within the United States. G Natural was released in two flavors: G Orange Citrus and G2 Berry.[33] The G Series began to replace prior iterations of Gatorade product lines in the U.S. (the brand's highest volume market) in 2010,[34] and Canada in 2011.[35] While Gatorade products have historically been developed for athletes engaging in competitive sporting events, a separate line of products formulated for consumption before, during and after personal fitness exercise was introduced in the U.S. in 2011.[36] Labeled under the name G Series FIT, this product line consists of pre-workout fruit-and-nut bites, lightly flavored electrolyte replacement drinks, as well as post-workout protein recovery smoothies.[37][38]

  Composition

Original Gatorade Thirst Quencher
Nutritional value per serving
Serving size 20 US fluid ounces (590 ml)
Energy 50 kcal (210 kJ)
Carbohydrates 14
- Sugars 10
- Dietary fiber 0
Fat 0
Protein 0
Potassium 30 mg (1%)
Sodium 5 mg (0%)
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Gatorade Perform 02
Nutritional value per serving
Serving size 12 US fluid ounces (350 ml)
Energy 80 kcal (330 kJ)
Carbohydrates 21
- Sugars 21
- Dietary fiber 0
Fat 0
Protein 0
Potassium 45 mg (1%)
Sodium 150 mg (10%)
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.

The original Gatorade is based on oral rehydration therapy, a mixture of salt, sugar, and water, with the citrus-based flavoring and food coloring added. The composition of individual Gatorade products varies depending upon the product in question, as well as the country in which it is sold. Gatorade Thirst Quencher contains water, sucrose (table sugar), dextrose, citric acid, natural flavor, sodium chloride (table salt), sodium citrate, monopotassium phosphate, and flavoring/coloring ingredients; some Gatorade flavor variations use brominated vegetable oil as a stabilizer.[39] An 8 US fluid ounces (240 ml) serving of Gatorade Perform 02 (Gatorade Thirst Quencher) contains 50 calories, 14 grams of carbohydrates, 110 mg sodium and 30 mg potassium.[40]

In regards to sweeteners, Gatorade Thirst Quencher is produced using a sucrose-dextrose mix. For a period of time in the 1990s and early 2000s, high fructose corn syrup was used to sweeten Gatorade distributed in North America. As of 2011, the drink is sweetened with a sucrose-dextrose combination, which the company describes as being "preferred by consumers." G2 and G2 Natural, labeled as being "lower calorie" variants, are sweetened in part with PureVia, an extract of the Stevia plant.[41]

The presence of calories, sugar and sodium in Gatorade products has drawn attention from public school constituents, who have raised question over whether the sale of Gatorade beverages should be permitted in such schools. In 2010, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger sponsored a bill (SB 1295) which proposed a ban on the sale of sports drinks in California schools.

  Research and development

  The work of the Gatorade Sports Science Institute,[42] located in Barrington, Illinois, is often featured in the company's commercials.

The Gatorade Sports Science Institute (GSSI) is a research facility operated in Barrington, Illinois that has been featured in a number of the company's commercials.[42] Established in 1985,[3] this organization consists of scientists studying the correlation and effects of exercise, environmental variables, and nutrition on the human body. It regularly conducts testing and research on how hydration and nutrition affect athletic performance.[42] Professional athletes such as Eli Manning[43] as well as collegiate and amateur athletes have been involved in fitness testing programs at the GSSI, which in part have led to innovations in new Gatorade formula variations and product lines.[44]

In 2001, the GSSI observed that professional race car drivers were not maintaining adequate levels of hydration during races, attributable to the nature of drivers enduring multiple-hour races in high temperatures. As a result, it developed a product called the "Gatorade In-Car Drinking System," which has since been implemented in the vehicles of many professional race car drivers.[45]

  Advertising and publicity

Gatorade is the official sports drink of NASCAR, the NFL, MLB, NBA, WNBA, USA Basketball, NHL, Association of Volleyball Professionals, US Soccer Federation, Major League Soccer, and other professional and collegiate athletic organizations,[3] providing supplies of the drinks to sponsored teams in some cases. Distribution was extended to include the U.K. in 2008, coinciding with an agreement designating Gatorade as the official sports drink of the Chelsea F.C.[46][47] Gatorade's 1991 "Be Like Mike" ads featured Michael Jordan of the Chicago Bulls, a North American basketball team which had just won its first National Basketball Association championship at the time. The ads began airing in August 1991 and the phrase "Be Like Mike" became household lingo in America.[48] In more recent years, the Gatorade brand has continued to employ professional sports athletes in the promotion of its products. Primary endorsers in the 2000s have included Major League Baseball player Derek Jeter, National Hockey League player Sidney Crosby, National Basketball Association player Dwyane Wade, PGA Tour golfer Tiger Woods, and National Football League quarterback Peyton Manning.[49]

  In popular culture

Gatorade has been the subject of substantial media attention and reference in popular culture situations, most of which are in relation to team or individual athletic sports. The most notable and ongoing presence of Gatorade in popular culture is the Gatorade shower, originally called the "Gatorade Dunk," where players from a victorious team pick up the Gatorade cooler, sneak up behind the head coach, and pour the contents of the cooler (generally Gatorade and ice) over his head at the end of an American football game. This tradition was popularized in the mid-1980s when Harry Carson and Jim Burt, of the New York Giants, doused head coach Bill Parcells during the 1985 season. Burt's teammates picked up on this practice and popularized it during the team's championship season of 1986–87. The tradition has since become a recurring tradition across other team sports.[50]

Gatorade has also achieved status as the cliché representative for sports drinks in American media, for example, in the film Clerks, the character Dante is at one point forced to give free Gatorade to his hockey teammates, and in the film The Waterboy Adam Sandler is told that "the water sucks" and that Gatorade is superior.

  References

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  39. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". gatorade.com. Gatorade. January 5, 2005. http://www.gatorade.com/frequently_asked_questions/. Retrieved 2007-05-28. 
  40. ^ "Gatorade Ingredients and Nutrition Content". Pepsi Product Facts. http://pepsiproductfacts.com/infobyproduct.php?prod_size=20&brand_fam_id=1043&brand_id=1002&product=Gatorade+Lemon+Lime. Retrieved 24 January 2011. [dead link]
  41. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". gatorade.com. Gatorade. January 1, 2010. http://www.gatorade.com/frequently_asked_questions/. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  42. ^ a b c Gatorade Sports Science Institute
  43. ^ "Eli Manning On Good Day NY". My Fox New York. 4 February 2010. http://www.myfoxny.com/dpp/good_day_ny/100204-eli-manning-on-good-day-ny. Retrieved 2 December 2010. [dead link]
  44. ^ Konecky, Chad (19 July 2006). "Sports drinks like Gatorade hydrate better than water". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2006/highschool/07/19/gatorade.study/. Retrieved 2 December 2010. 
  45. ^ Circelli, Deborah (2 July 2010). "Race drivers struggle to stay cool". The Daytona Beach News-Journal. http://www.news-journalonline.com/news/local/east-volusia/2010/07/02/race-drivers-struggle-to-stay-cool.html. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
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  48. ^ A more detailed account of its creation appears in Rovell, Darren (2006). First in thirst: how Gatorade turned the science of sweat into a cultural phenomenon. New York: American Management Association. OCLC 60393271. 
  49. ^ Howard, Theresa (29 November 2007). "Gatorade ready to pump up marketing efforts". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/money/advertising/2007-11-28-gatorade_N.htm. Retrieved 2 December 2010. 
  50. ^ Trex, Ethan (7 January 2010). "Who invented the Gatorade shower?". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2010/LIVING/wayoflife/01/07/mf.gatorade.shower.inventors/index.html#cnnSTCText. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 

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