» 
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definitions - Gaza_Strip

Gaza Strip (n.)

1.a coastal region at the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean bordering Israel and Egypt"he is a Palestinian from Gaza"

2.(MeSH)The countries of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)

   Advertizing ▼

definition (more)

definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Gaza_Strip

Gaza Strip (n.)

Gaza

   Advertizing ▼

analogical dictionary

Wikipedia

Gaza Strip

                   
Flag of Palestine

Flag of Hamas
Gaza Strip
(Palestinian territories)
Hamas-led Palestinian government
  Gaza city skyline

The Gaza Strip (Arabic: قطاع غزةQiṭāʿ Ġazzah, IPA: [qitˤaːʕ ɣazza]) lies on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, within the Middle East (at 31 25 N, 34 20 E). The Strip borders Egypt on the southwest, 11km long, and Israel on the east and north, 51km long. It is about 41 kilometres (25 mi) long, and between 6 and 12 kilometres (4–7.5 mi) wide. The total area is 365 square kilometres (141 sq mi), which comprises 1.4 % of historic Palestine (exclusive Jordan). [1] It has a 40 km coastline onto the Mediterranean Sea, but has no maritime claims due to Israeli administration. The territory takes its name from Gaza-city, its main city and administrative center.

The Gaza Strip has a temperate climate, with mild winters, and humid and hot summers. The terrain is flat or rolling, with dunes near the coast. The highest point is Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Auda), at 105 metres above sea level. Main resources are arable land (about a third of the strip is irrigated), and recently discovered natural gas. Environmental issues include desertification; salination of fresh water; sewage treatment; water-borne disease; soil degradation; and depletion and contamination of underground water resources.

The population of Gaza Strip is about 1.7 million people,[2] most of them descendants of refugees. One million of the population, as of March 2005, were considered refugees, although the vast majority of them were actually born in the Gaza Strip;[3] the older generation fled to Gaza in 1948 as part of the 1948 Palestinian exodus following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, from some parts of Mandate Palestine that became Israel. The population is predominantly Sunni Muslim. With a yearly growth rate of about 3.2%, the Gaza strip has the 7th highest population growth rate in the world.[4]

The Gaza Strip acquired its current boundaries at the cessation of fighting in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, which was confirmed in the Israel-Egypt Armistice Agreement on 24 February 1949.[5] Article V of the Agreement declared that the demarcation line was not to be an international border. The Gaza Strip continued to be occupied by Egypt. At first Gaza Strip was officially administered by the All-Palestine Government, established by the Arab League in September 1948. Since the dissolution of the All-Palestine Government in 1959 and until 1967, the Gaza Strip was directly administered by Egyptian military governor.

In 1967, Israel occupied it following the Six-Day War. Pursuant to the Oslo Accords signed between Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization in 1993, the Palestinian Authority was set up as an interim administrative body to govern Palestinian population centres, with Israel maintaining control of Gaza Strip's airspace, all but one of its land borders and territorial waters, until a final agreement could be reached. As agreement remained elusive, Israel unilaterally disengaged from Gaza in 2005.

The Gaza Strip is one of the territorial units forming the Palestinian territories.[6][7][8][9] Since July 2007, following the 2006 Palestinian legislative election and the following Battle of Gaza, Hamas has functioned as the de-facto ruler in the Gaza Strip, forming an alternative Hamas Government in Gaza.

Contents

  History

  British rule (1923–1948)

The Palestine Mandate was based on the principles contained in Article 22 of the draft Covenant of the League of Nations and the San Remo Resolution of 25 April 1920 by the principal Allied and associated powers after the First World War.[10] The mandate formalised British rule in the southern part of Ottoman Syria from 1923–1948.

  All-Palestine government

On 22 September 1948, towards the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the All-Palestine Government was proclaimed in the Egyptian occupied Gaza City by the Arab League. It was conceived partly as an Arab League attempt to limit the influence of Transjordan in Palestine. The All-Palestine Government was quickly recognized by six of the then seven members of the Arab League: Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, but not by Transjordan.[11] It was not recognised by any country outside the Arab League.

After the cessation of hostilities, the Israel-Egypt Armistice Agreement of 24 February 1949 established the separation line between Egyptian and Israeli forces, and established what became the present boundary between the Gaza Strip and Israel. Both sides declared that the boundary was not to be an international border. The southern border with Egypt continued to be the international border which had been drawn in 1906 between the Ottoman Empire and the British Empire.[12]

The population of the Gaza Strip had been greatly augmented by an influx of Palestinian refugees who fled from Israel before and during the fighting. Palestinians living in the Gaza Strip or Egypt were issued All-Palestine passports. Egypt did not offer the Palestinians citizenship. From the end of 1949, they received aid from UNRWA.

During the Sinai campaign of November 1956, the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula were occupied by Israeli troops. International pressure led Israel to withdraw.

The government was accused of being little more than a façade for Egyptian control, with negligible independent funding or influence. It subsequently moved to Cairo and was dissolved in 1959, by decree of Gamal Abdul Nasser, President of Egypt.

  Egyptian occupation (1959–1967)

Since the dissolution of the All-Palestine Government in 1959, under the excuse of the pan-Arabism, Egypt continued to occupy the Gaza Strip until 1967. Egypt never annexed the Gaza Strip, but instead treated it as a controlled territory and administered it through a military governor.[13]

  Israeli occupation (1967–1994/2005)

Israel controlled the Gaza Strip again beginning in June 1967, after the Six-Day War. During the period of Israeli control, Israel created a settlement bloc, Gush Katif, in the southwest corner of the Strip near Rafah and the Egyptian border. In total Israel created 21 settlements in the Gaza Strip, comprising 20% of the total territory. Besides ideological reasons for being there, these settlements also served Israel's security concerns.

In March 1979 Israel and Egypt signed the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Among other things, the treaty provided for the withdrawal by Israel of its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had captured during the Six-Day War, to the 1906 international border.[citation needed] The Egyptians agreed to keep the Sinai Peninsula demilitarized. The final status of the Gaza Strip, and other relations between Israel and Palestinians, was not dealt with in the treaty. Egypt renounced all territorial claims to territory north of the international border.

The Gaza Strip remained under Israeli military administration until 1994. During that period the military was responsible for the maintenance of civil facilities and services. In May 1994, following the Palestinian-Israeli agreements known as the Oslo Accords, a phased transfer of governmental authority to the Palestinians took place. Much of the Strip (except for the settlement blocs and military areas) came under Palestinian control. The Israeli forces left Gaza City and other urban areas, leaving the new Palestinian Authority to administer and police those areas. The Palestinian Authority, led by Yasser Arafat, chose Gaza City as its first provincial headquarters. In September 1995, Israel and the PLO signed a second peace agreement, extending the Palestinian Authority to most West Bank towns. The agreement also established an elected 88-member Palestinian National Council, which held its inaugural session in Gaza in March 1996.

The Palestinian Authority rule of the Gaza Strip and West Bank under the leadership of Arafat suffered from serious mismanagement and corruption scandals. For example, exorbitant bribes were demanded for allowing goods to pass in and out of the Gaza Strip, while heads of the Preventive Security Service apparatus profited from their involvement in the gravel import and cement and construction industries, such as the Great Arab Company for Investment and Development, the al-Motawaset Company, and the al-Sheik Zayid construction project.[14]

The Second Intifada broke out in September 2000 with its waves of protest, civil unrest and bombings against Israeli military and civilians, many of them perpetrated by suicide bombers, and the beginning of rockets and bombings of Israeli border localities by Palestinian guerrillas from Gaza Strip, especially from Hamas and Jihad Islami movements. In February 2005, the Israeli government voted to implement a unilateral disengagement plan from the Gaza Strip. The plan began to be implemented on 15 August 2005, and was completed on 12 September 2005. Under the plan, all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip (and four in the West Bank) and the joint Israeli-Palestinian Erez Industrial Zone were dismantled with the removal of all 9,000 Israeli settlers (most of them in the Gush Katif settlement area in the Strip's southwest) and military bases. On 12 September 2005 the Israeli cabinet formally declared an end to Israeli military occupation of the Gaza Strip. To avoid allegations that it was still in occupation of any part of the Gaza Strip, Israel also withdrew from the Philadelphi Route, which is a narrow strip adjacent to the Strip's border with Egypt, after Egypt's agreement to secure its side of the border. Under the Oslo Accords the Philadelphi Route was to remain under Israeli control to prevent the smuggling of materials (such as ammunition) and people across the border with Egypt. With Egypt agreeing to patrol its side of the border, it was hoped that the objective would be achieved. However, Israel maintained its control over the crossings in and out of Gaza. The Rafah crossing between Egypt and Gaza was monitored by the Israeli army through special surveillance cameras. Official documents such as passports, I.D. cards, export and import papers, and many others had to be approved by the Israeli army.[citation needed]

  Israel-Gaza Strip barrier

Between 1994 and 1996, Israel built the Israeli Gaza Strip barrier. The separation barrier was first constructed to improve security in Israel. The barrier was largely torn down by Palestinians at the beginning of the Al-Aqsa Intifada in September 2000.[15] Between December 2000 and June 2001, the barrier fence between the Gaza Strip and Israel was reconstructed. A barrier on the Gaza Strip-Egypt border was constructed from 2004.[16] There are three main crossing points in the barrier: the northern Erez Crossing into Israel, the southern Rafah Crossing into Egypt, and the eastern Karni Crossing used only for cargo.[17] Israel controls the Gaza Strip's northern borders, as well as its territorial waters and airspace. Egypt controls Gaza Strip's southern border, under an agreement between it and Israel.[18]

  2005 – Israel's unilateral disengagement

The Israel Defence Forces left the Gaza Strip on 1 September 2005 as part of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, and all Israeli citizens were evicted from the area. An 'Agreement on Movement and Access' between Israel and the Palestinian Authority was brokered by Condoleezza Rice in November 2005 to improve Palestinian freedom of movement and economic activity in the Gaza Strip. Under its terms, the Rafah crossing with Egypt was to be reopened, with transits monitored by the Palestinian National Authority and the European Union. Only people with Palestinian ID, or foreign nationals, by exception, in certain categories, subject to Israeli oversight, were permitted to cross in and out. All goods, vehicles and trucks to and from Egypt had to pass through the Israeli crossing at Kerem Shalom, under full Israeli supervision.[19] Goods were also permitted transit at the Karni crossing in the north.

  Legal status

  Al Deira hotel on the Gaza coast

The UN, Human Rights Watch and many other international bodies and NGOs consider Israel to be the occupying power of the Gaza Strip as Israel controls Gaza's airspace and territorial waters, and does not allow the movement of goods in or out of Gaza by air or sea (only by land).[20][21][22] However, the border crossing into Egypt is not controlled by Israel; similar to Israel, Egypt has alternately restricted or allowed goods and people to cross that terrestrial border. Israel states that Gaza is no longer occupied, inasmuch as Israel does not exercise effective control or authority over any land or institutions in the Gaza Strip.[23][24] Foreign Affairs Minister of Israel Tzipi Livni stated in January, 2008: "Israel got out of Gaza. It dismantled its settlements there. No Israeli soldiers were left there after the disengagement."[25] After Israel withdrew in 2005, Palestinian Authority Chairman Mahmoud Abbas stated, "the legal status of the areas slated for evacuation has not changed."[23] Palestinian American attorney Gregory Khalil said "Israel still controls every person, every good, literally every drop of water to enter or leave the Gaza Strip. Its troops may not be there... but it still restricts the ability for the Palestinian authority to exercise control."[26]. The issue of the legal status of Gaza strip appears to be particularly complex according to international law and legally intriguing, even after the Operation "Cast Lead" and the Israeli invasion of Gaza in January 2009.[27]

In his statement on the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict Richard Falk, United Nations Special Rapporteur wrote that international humanitarian law applied to Israel "in regard to the obligations of an Occupying Power and in the requirements of the laws of war."[28] In a 2009 interview on Democracy Now Christopher Gunness, spokesperson for the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) called Israel an occupying power. However, Meagan Buren, Senior Adviser to the pro-Israeli media group Israel Project, contested that characterization.[29]

The co-founder of Hamas, Mahmoud Zahar, has stated that Gaza is no longer occupied since the Israeli withdrawal.[30]

  Palestinian Authority control (1994–2007)

In accordance with the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian Authority took over the administrative authority of the Gaza Strip (other than the settlement blocs and military areas) in 1994. After the complete Israeli withdrawal of Israeli settlers and military from the Gaza Strip on 12 September 2005, the Palestinian Authority had complete administrative authority in the Gaza Strip. Since the Israeli withdrawal the Rafah Border Crossing had been supervised by EU Border Assistance Mission Rafah under an Agreement finalised in November 2005.[31]

  Post-election violence

In the Palestinian parliamentary elections held on January 25, 2006, Hamas won a plurality of 42.9% of the total vote and 74 out of 132 total seats (56%).[32][33] When Hamas assumed power the next month, the Israeli government and the key players of the international community, the United States and the EU refused to recognize its right to govern the Palestinian Authority. Direct aid to the Palestinian government there was cut off, although some of that money was redirected to humanitarian organizations not affiliated with the government.[34] The resulting political disorder and economic stagnation led to many Palestinians emigrating from the Gaza Strip.[35]

In January 2007, fighting erupted between Hamas and Fatah. The deadliest clashes occurred in the northern Gaza Strip, where General Muhammed Gharib, a senior commander of the Fatah-dominated Preventative Security Force, died when a rocket hit his home. Gharib's two daughters and two bodyguards were also killed in the attack, which was carried out by Hamas gunmen.[36]

At the end of January 2007, a truce was negotiated between Fatah and Hamas.[37] However, after a few days, new fighting broke out.[38] Fatah fighters stormed a Hamas-affiliated university in the Gaza Strip. Officers from Abbas' presidential guard battled Hamas gunmen guarding the Hamas-led Interior Ministry.[39]

In May 2007, new fighting broke out between the factions.[40] Interior Minister Hani Qawasmi, who had been considered a moderate civil servant acceptable to both factions, resigned due to what he termed harmful behavior by both sides.[41]

Fighting spread in the Gaza Strip with both factions attacking vehicles and facilities of the other side. In response to constant attacks by rocket fire from the Gaza Strip, Israel launched an air strike which destroyed a building used by Hamas. Ongoing violence prompted fear that it could bring the end of the Fatah-Hamas coalition government, and possibly the end of the Palestinian authority.[42]

Hamas spokesman Moussa Abu Marzouk blamed the worsening situation on Israel, stating that the constant pressure of economic sanctions resulted in the "real explosion."[43] Expressions of concerns were received from many Arab leaders, with many offering to try to help by doing some diplomatic work between the two factions.[44] Associated Press reporter Ibrahim Barzak wrote an eyewitness account stating:

Today I have seen people shot before my eyes, I heard the screams of terrified women and children in a burning building, and I argued with gunmen who wanted to take over my home. I have seen a lot in my years as a journalist in Gaza, but this is the worst it's been.[45]

  Casualties

From 2006-2007 more than 600 Palestinians were killed in factional fighting between Hamas and Fatah.[46] In the aftermath of the Gaza War, a series of violent acts killed 54 Palestinians, while hundreds have claimed they were tortured.[47] 349 Palestinians were killed in fighting between factions in 2007. 160 Palestinians killed each other in June alone.[48]

  Hamas control (2007–present)

Following the victory of Hamas in the 2006 Palestinian legislative election, Hamas and Fatah formed a Palestinan authority national unity government headed by Ismail Haniya. Shortly after, Hamas took control of the Gaza Strip in the course of the Battle of Gaza,[49] seizing government institutions and replacing Fatah and other government officials with its own.[50] By 14 June, Hamas fully controlled the Gaza Strip. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas responded by declaring a state of emergency, dissolving the unity government and forming a new government without Hamas participation. PNA security forces in the West Bank arrested a number of Hamas members.

Abbas's government received widespread international support. In late June 2008 Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia said that the West Bank-based Cabinet formed by Abbas was the sole legitimate Palestinian government, and Egypt moved its embassy from Gaza to the West Bank.[51] The Hamas government in the Gaza Strip faces international, diplomatic, and economic isolation.

  Watchtower, Rafah border with Egypt

Both Saudi Arabia and Egypt supported reconciliation and the forming of a new unity government, and pressed Abbas to start serious talks with Hamas. Abbas had always conditioned this on Hamas' returning control of the Gaza Strip to the Palestinian Authority. Hamas has been invited to and has visited a number of countries, including Russia, and the EU member states. Opposition parties and politicians have also called for a dialogue with Hamas as well as an end to the economic sanctions.

After the takeover, Israel and Egypt closed their border crossings with Gaza. Palestinian sources reported that European Union monitors fled the Rafah Border Crossing, on the Gaza–Egypt border for fear of being kidnapped or harmed.[52] Arab foreign ministers and Palestinian officials presented a united front against control of the border by Hamas.[53]

Meanwhile, Israeli and Egyptian security reports said that Hamas continued smuggling in large quantities of explosives and arms from Egypt through tunnels. Egyptian security forces uncovered 60 tunnels in 2007.[54]

  After the Hamas takeover

After Hamas' June win, it ousted Fatah-linked officials from positions of power and authority (such as government positions, security services, universities, newspapers, etc.) and strove to enforce law by progressively removing guns from the hands of peripheral militias, clans, and criminal groups, and gaining control of supply tunnels. According to Amnesty International, under Hamas rule, newspapers have been closed down and journalists have been harassed.[55] Fatah demonstrations have been forbidden or suppressed, as in the case of a large demonstration on the anniversary of Yasser Arafat's death, which resulted in the deaths of seven people, after protesters hurled stones at Hamas security forces.[56]

Violence against Christians has been recorded. The owner of a Christian bookshop was abducted and murdered,[57] and on 15 February 2008, the Christian Youth Organization's library in Gaza City was bombed.[58]

Hamas and other militant groups continued to fire Qassam rockets across the border into Israel. According to Israel, between the Hamas takeover and the end of January 2008, 697 rockets and 822 mortar bombs were fired at Israeli towns.[59] In response, Israel targeted home made Qassam launchers and military targets and on 19 September 2007, declared the Gaza Strip a hostile entity. In January 2008, Israel curtailed travel from Gaza, the entry of goods, and cut fuel supplies, resulting in power shortages. This brought charges that Israel was inflicting collective punishment on the Gaza population, leading to international condemnation. Despite multiple reports from within the Strip that food and other essentials were in extremely short supply, [60] Israel countered that Gaza had enough food and energy supplies for weeks.[61] In early March 2008, air strikes and ground incursions by the IDF led to the deaths of over 110 Palestinians and extensive damage to Jabalia.[62] After Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak resigned, on May 28, 2011, Egypt permanently opened its border with the Gaza Strip.[63]

  Barrier breach

On 23 January 2008, after months of preparation during which the steel reinforcement of the border barrier was weakened,[64] Hamas destroyed several parts of the wall dividing Gaza and Egypt in the town of Rafah. Hundreds of thousands of Gazans crossed the border into Egypt seeking food and supplies. Due to the crisis, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak ordered his troops to allow the Palestinians in but to verify that they did not bring weapons back across the border.[65] Egypt arrested and later released several armed Hamas militants in the Sinai who presumably wanted to infiltrate into Israel. At the same time, Israel increased its state of alert along the length of the Israel-Egypt Sinai border, and warned its citizens to leave Sinai "without delay."

The EU Border Monitors indicated their readiness to return to monitor the border, should Hamas guarantee their safety; while the Palestinian Authority demanded that Egypt deal only with the Authority in negotiations relating to borders. Israel eased up some influx of goods and medical supplies to the strip, but it curtailed electricity by 5% in one of its ten lines, while Hamas and Egypt shored up some of the gaping holes between the two areas.[66] The first attempts by Egypt to reclose the border were met by violent clashes with Gaza gunmen, but after 12 days the borders were sealed again.[citation needed]

By mid-February the Rafah crossing remained closed.[67] In February 2008 a Haaretz poll indicated that 64% of Israelis favour their government holding direct talks with Hamas in Gaza about a cease-fire and to secure the release of Gilad Shalit,[68] an Israeli soldier who had been captured in a cross border raid by Hamas militants on 25 June 2006 and held hostage since.[69][70][71]

In February 2008, Israeli-Palestinian fighting intensified with rockets launched at Israeli cities and Israel attacking Palestinian gunmen. Military aggression by Hamas led to a heavy Israeli military action on 1 March 2008, resulting in over 110 Palestinians being killed according to BBC News, as well as 2 Israeli soldiers. Israeli human rights group B'Tselem estimated that 45 of those killed were not involved in hostilities, and 15 were minors.[72]

After a round of tit-for-tat arrests between Fatah and Hamas in the Gaza Strip and West Bank, the Hilles clan from Gaza were relocated to Jericho on 4 August 2008.[73] Retiring Prime Minister Ehud Olmert said on 11 November 2008, "The question is not whether there will be a confrontation, but when it will take place, under what circumstances, and who will control these circumstances, who will dictate them, and who will know to exploit the time from the beginning of the ceasefire until the moment of confrontation in the best possible way.” On 14 November 2008, Gaza was blockaded by Israel in response to the rocket and mortar attacks by Hamas and other militant groups operating inside Gaza,[74] however food, power and water can still enter from Egypt if the Egyptian authorities allow it.

On November 28, 2008, after a 24-hour period in which no Qassam rockets were fired into Israel, the IDF facilitated the transfer of over 30 truckloads of food, basic supplies and medicine into the Gaza Strip, and it also transferred fuel to the main power plant of the area.[75] On 25 November 2008 Israel closed its cargo crossing with Gaza due to two rockets being shot at Israel.[76]

  Gaza War

  Combined Monthly rocket & Mortar hits in Israel in 2008
  Israelis killed by Palestinians in Israel (blue) and Palestinians killed by Israelis in Gaza (red)
  Housing damaged during Operation Cast Lead

On 27 December 2008,[77] Israeli F-16 strike fighters launched a series of air strikes against targets in Gaza as a response to 3,278 rockets fired from the strip to Israel that year.[78] Various sites being used as weapons depots were struck: police stations, schools, hospitals, UN warehouses, mosques, various Hamas government buildings and other buildings.[79] Israel said that the attack was a response to Hamas rocket attacks on southern Israel, which totaled over 3,000 in 2008, and which intensified during the few weeks preceding the operation. Palestinian medical staff claimed at least 434 Palestinians were killed, and at least 2,800 wounded, consisting of many civilians and an unknown number of Hamas members, in the first five days of Israeli strikes on Gaza. The Israel Defense Forces rejected claims the majority of those killed were civilians, providing evidence that Hamas deliberately hides weapons and fighters in "mosques, school yards and civilian houses" to deter an attack and exploit Israel's rules of engagement.[80] Israel began a ground invasion of the Gaza Strip on 3 January 2009.[81] Israel rebuffed many cease-fire calls and both sides declared unilateral cease-fires.[82][83]

A total of 1,100-1,400[84] Palestinians and 13 Israelis were killed in the 22-day war.[85] After 22 days of fighting, Israel declared a ceasefire. Hamas vowed to continue the battle if Israeli forces did not leave the Strip.[86] The conflict damaged or destroyed tens of thousands of homes,[87] 15 of Gaza’s 27 hospitals and 43 of its 110 primary health care facilities,[88] 800 water wells,[89] 186 greenhouses,[90] and nearly all of its 10,000 family farms;[91] leaving 50,000 homeless,[92] 400,000-500,000 without running water,[92][93] one million without electricity,[93] and resulting in acute food shortages.[94]

By February 2009, food availability returned to pre-war levels but the supplies of local fresh foods were anticipated to decrease seriously by April-June 2009 due to the severe damages sustained by the agricultural sector during the war.[95]

  Gaza blockade

The blockade of the Gaza strip continued after the end of the war, although Israel allowed in limited quantities of medical humanitarian aid. The Red Cross said that the blockade was harming the Gazan economy and causing a shortage of basic medicines and equipment such as painkillers and x-ray film.[96]

Director of the Shin Bet (Israel Security Agency) Yuval Diskin has said he would not oppose the loosening of trade restrictions, but believed that smuggling tunnels in the Sinai and an open seaport in the Gaza Strip endangered the security of Israel. According to Diskin, Hamas and Islamic Jihad have smuggled over "5,000 rockets with ranges up to 40 kilometers." Some of the rockets can reach as far as the Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area.[97]

Mark Regev, spokesman for the Israeli prime minister’s office, described Israel's actions as "sanctions," not a blockade, but a Gazan legal consultant for UNRWA called the blockade "an action outside of international law.”[98]

In July 2010, British prime minister David Cameron criticized the blockade, saying "Humanitarian goods and people must flow in both directions. Gaza cannot and must not be allowed to remain a prison camp." [99] In response, the spokesman for the Israeli embassy in London said "The people of Gaza are the prisoners of the terrorist organisation Hamas. The situation in Gaza is the direct result of Hamas' rule and priorities."

  Tent camp, April 2009

The Arab League has accused Israel of waging a financial war.[100]

The IDF strictly controls travel within the area of the crossing points between Israel and the Gaza Strip, and has sealed its border with Gaza. The security environment within Gaza and along its borders, including its border with Egypt and its seacoast, is dangerous and can change at any time.[101]

Facing mounting international calls to ease or lift their blockade, Egypt and Israel lessened the restrictions starting in June 2010, when the Rafah border crossing from Egypt to Gaza has been partially opened by Egypt, and Egypt’s foreign ministry has made it clear that the crossing will remain open mainly for people, but not for supplies, to go through.[102] Israel announced that it will allow all strictly civilian goods into Gaza while preventing certain weapons and dual-use items from entering the Hamas-run Gaza.[103]

  Islamization trend

From 1987 to 1991, during the first intifada, Hamas campaigned for the wearing of the hijab alongside other measures, including insisting women stay at home be segregated from men, and the promotion of polygamy. In the course of this campaign women who chose not to wear the hijab were verbally and physically harassed, with the result that the hijab was being worn 'just to avoid problems on the streets'.[104]

Since Hamas took control of the Gaza Strip in 2007, some of its members have attempted to impose Islamic dress or the Hijab head covering on women.[105][106] Also, the government’s "Islamic Endowment Ministry" has deployed Virtue Committee members to warn citizens of the dangers of immodest dress, card playing and dating.[107] However, there are no government laws imposing dress and other moral standards, and the Hamas education ministry reversed one effort to impose Islamic dress on students.[105] There has also been successful resistance to attempts by local Hamas officials to impose Islamic dress on women.[108]

According to Human Rights Watch, the Hamas-controlled government of Gaza stepped up its efforts to "Islamize" Gaza in 2010, efforts that included, according to the organization, the "repression of civil society" and "severe violations of personal freedom."[109]

Palestinian researcher Dr. Khaled Al-Hroub has criticized what he called the "Taliban-like steps" Hamas has taken. He wrote, "The Islamization that has been forced upon the Gaza Strip – the suppression of social, cultural, and press freedoms that do not suit Hamas's view[s] – is an egregious deed that must be opposed. It is the reenactment, under a religious guise, of the experience of [other] totalitarian regimes and dictatorships.[110]

Hamas officials denied having any plans to impose Islamic law, one legislator stating that “What you are seeing are incidents, not policy,” and that Islamic law is the desired standard "but we believe in persuasion.”[107]

  Israel's cooperation with international aid programs

In January and February 2011, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) conducted an assessment of the effects of the measures to ease the access restrictions.[111] They concluded that they did not result in a significant improvement in people’s livelihoods.[111] They found that the "pivotal nature of the remaining restrictions" and the effects of three years of strict blockade prevented a significant improvement in livelihoods and called on Israel to fully abolish the blockade including removing restrictions on the import of construction materials and the exports of goods, and to lift the general ban on the movement of people between Gaza and the West Bank via Israel in order to comply with what they described as international humanitarian and human rights law obligations.[111]

  Geography and climate

  Principal geographical features of Israel and south-eastern Mediterranean region
  Gaza beach

The Gaza Strip is located in the Middle East (at 31°25′N 34°20′E / 31.417°N 34.333°E / 31.417; 34.333Coordinates: 31°25′N 34°20′E / 31.417°N 34.333°E / 31.417; 34.333). It has a 51 kilometres (32 mi) border with Israel, and an 11 km border with Egypt, near the city of Rafah. Khan Yunis is located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) northeast of Rafah, and several towns around Deir el-Balah are located along the coast between it and Gaza City. Beit Lahia and Beit Hanoun are located to the north and northeast of Gaza City, respectively. The Gush Katif bloc of Israeli localities used to exist on the sand dunes adjacent to Rafah and Khan Yunis, along the southwestern edge of the 40 kilometres (25 mi) Mediterranean coastline.

Gaza strip has an arid climate, with mild winters, and dry, hot summers subject to drought. The terrain is flat or rolling, with dunes near the coast. The highest point is Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Auda), at 105 metres (344 ft) above sea level. Natural resources include arable land (about a third of the strip is irrigated), and recently discovered natural gas. Environmental issues include desertification; salination of fresh water; sewage treatment; water-borne disease; soil degradation; and depletion and contamination of underground water resources.


  See also

  References

  1. ^ Arie Arnon, Israeli Policy towards the Occupied Palestinian Territories: The Economic Dimension, 1967-2007. MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL, Volume 61, No. 4, AUTUMN 2007 (p. 575)
  2. ^ Gaza Strip Entry at the CIA World Factbook
  3. ^ Cobham and Kanafani, 2004, p. 179.
  4. ^ Gaza Strip Entry at the CIA World Factbook
  5. ^ Egypt Israel Armistice Agreement UN Doc S/1264/Corr.1 23 February 1949
  6. ^ "Palestinian Territories". U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/p/nea/ci/pt/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  7. ^ "Occupied Palestinian Territory". European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/occupied_palestinian_territory/index_en.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  8. ^ "Israel, the occupied territories and the autonomous territories — ICRC maps". ICRC. http://www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/map_israel!OpenDocument. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  9. ^ "Country profile: Israel and Palestinian territories". London: BBC. 15 December 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/803257.stm. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  10. ^ Palestine Royal Commission Report Presented by the Secretary of State for the Colonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty, July 1937, Cmd. 5479. His Majesty’s Stationery Office., London, 1937. 404 pages + maps.
  11. ^ All-Palestine Government, by Shlaim, Avi
  12. ^ Gardus, Yehuda; Shmueli, Avshalom, ed. (1978–79). The Land of the Negev (English title). Ministry of Defense Publishing.  (Hebrew), pp. 369–370
  13. ^ "How has the Gaza Strip influenced the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?" entry at ProCon.org citing "An Historical Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict"
  14. ^ Samuels, David. "The Atlantic". The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200509/samuels/8. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  15. ^ Almog, Major General Doron (2004-12-23). Lessons of the Gaza Security Fence for the West Bank. 4 (12 ed.). Jerusalem Centre for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief004-12.htm 
  16. ^ Barnard, Anne (2006-10-22). "Life in Gaza Steadily Worsens". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/world/middleeast/articles/2006/10/22/life_in_gaza_steadily_worsens/. 
  17. ^ Myre, Greg (2006-03-04). "Gaza Crossing:Choked Passages to Frustration". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/04/international/middleeast/04gaza.html?ex=1299128400&en=5ce2d89055b684dc&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss. 
  18. ^ "Gaza crisis: key maps and timeline". BBC News. 2009-01-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/5122404.stm. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  19. ^ Tanya Reinhart, The Road to Nowhere, Verso, London 2006 pp.134-5
  20. ^ "Israel/Occupied Palestinian Territories: The conflict in Gaza: A briefing on applicable law, investigations and accountability". Amnesty International. 2009-01-19. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE15/007/2009/en/4c407b40-e64c-11dd-9917-ed717fa5078d/mde150072009en.html. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  21. ^ "Human Rights Council Special Session on the Occupied Palestinian Territories" July 6, 2006; Human Rights Watch considers Gaza still occupied.
  22. ^ Levs, Josh (2009-01-06). "Is Gaza 'occupied' territory?". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/01/06/israel.gaza.occupation.question/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-30. 
  23. ^ a b Dore Gold, JCPA Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws, Jerusalem Centre for Public Affairs, Vol. 5, No. 3, August 26, 2005.
  24. ^ International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense, Jerusalem Centre for Public Affairs, Vol. 7, No. 29 28 January 2008.
  25. ^ Israeli MFA Address by Israeli Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel), January 22, 2008.
  26. ^ Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status, University of Virginia School of Law, November 17, 2005.
  27. ^ Susan Power, Re-engaging the Gaza Debate: the impact of Operation "Cast Lead", (06) 2009 Intellectum, pp. 033-045,Re-engaging the Gaza debate: the impact of Operation "Cast Lead"
  28. ^ Richard Falk, Statement by Prof. Richard Falk, United Nations Special Rapporteur for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, United Nations Human Rights Council, December 27, 2008.
  29. ^ A Debate on Israel’s Invasion of Gaza: UNRWA's Christopher Gunness v. Israel Project’s Meagan Buren Democracy Now, January 5, 2009.
  30. ^ [1] "'Against whom could we demonstrate in the Gaza Strip? When Gaza was occupied, that model was applicable,' Zahar said." Retrieved from Ma'an News Agency, January 5, 2012
  31. ^ EU Border Assistance Mission for Rafah Crossing Point (EU BAM Rafah). United nations : European union. 25 November 2005. http://www.europa-eu-un.org/articles/en/article_5366_en.htm. 
  32. ^ Counting underway in Palestinian elections, International Herald Tribune, 25 January 2006.
  33. ^ Election officials reduce Hamas seats by two, ABC News Online, 30 January 2006.
  34. ^ Weisman, Steven R. (2006-04-08). "U.S. and Europe Halt Aid to Palestinian Government". Nytimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/08/world/middleeast/08hamas.html?scp=4&sq=aid&st=nyt. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  35. ^ More Palestinians flee homelands[dead link], Sarah El Deeb, Associated Press, December 9, 2006.
  36. ^ Abu, Khaled. "US to give $86 million to Abbas's forces". Jerusalem Post. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1167467655416&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  37. ^ Palestinian Cease-Fire Holds on 1st Day[dead link], Ibrahim Barzak, 31 January 2007, Associated Press; Cease-Fire Starts Taking Hold in Gaza[dead link] Ibrahim Barzak, 30 January 2007, Associated Press.
  38. ^ [2][dead link]
  39. ^ Gaza erupts in fatal clashes after truce[dead link], Associated Press, 2 February 2007.
  40. ^ Hamas kills 8 in Gaza border clash[dead link], By Ibrahim Barzak, Associated Press Writer, 15 May 2007.
  41. ^ Top Palestinian security official quits[dead link] By Sarah El Deeb, Associated Press, 14 May 2007; Resignation deepens Gaza crisis, BBC, 14 May 2007.
  42. ^ Israel attacks in Gaza amid factional violence[dead link], by Nidal al-Mughrabi, Associated Press, 16 May 2007.
  43. ^ "Hamas Blames World". Jerusalem Post. 2007-05-16. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1178708616387&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  44. ^ Gaza bloodshed alarms West's Arab allies[dead link] by Hala Boncompagni, Associated Press, 16 May 2007.
  45. ^ "Eyewitness: Carnage in Gaza". Jerusalem Post. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1178708618493&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  46. ^ "Over 600 Palestinians killed in internal clashes since 2006". Ynetnews.com. 1995-06-20. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3409548,00.html. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  47. ^ Kalman, Matthew (22 January 2009). "Hamas executes suspected Fatah traitors in Gaza". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/01/21/MNHV15EHUT.DTL. 
  48. ^ "B'Tselem - Violations of the human rights of Palestinians by Palestinians - Severe human rights violations in inter-Palestinian clashes". Btselem.org. 2007-11-12. http://www.btselem.org/English/Inter_Palestinian_Violations/. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  49. ^ Black, Ian; Tran, Mark (Friday 15 June 2007). "Hamas takes control of Gaza". Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/jun/15/israel4. Retrieved 3 June 2010. 
  50. ^ Abrahams, Fred; Human Rights Watch (2008). Internal fight: Palestinian abuses in Gaza and the West Bank. Human Rights Watch. pp. 14–15. 
  51. ^ "Mubarak calls Hamas' takeover of the Gaza Strip a 'coup'". Haaretz Daily Newspaper. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/874106.html. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  52. ^ Dudkevitch, Margot (2006-03-14). "EU monitors flee Rafah border crossing". Jerusalem Post. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull&cid=1139395602714. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  53. ^ "Middle East — Abbas wins Egypt backing on border". Al Jazeera English. 2008-01-28. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2008/01/2008525125823983496.html. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  54. ^ "Egypt finds 60 Gaza tunnels in 10 months". Jerusalem Post. 2007-11-13. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1192380807070&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  55. ^ "Torn apart by factional strife". Amnesty International. 24 October 2007. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071025073634/http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGMDE210202007. Retrieved 2007-10-23. 
  56. ^ Hamas kills seven at Arafat rally in Gaza[dead link] , AFP, (via SBS World News Australia), 13 November 2007.
  57. ^ Silver, Eric (8 October 2007). "Gaza's Christian bookseller killed". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/gazas-christian-bookseller-killed-396283.html. Retrieved 3 May 2010. 
  58. ^ http://www.maannews.net/en/index.php?opr=ShowDetails&ID=27804
  59. ^ "Israeli MFA". Mfa.gov.il. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071011023634/http%3A//www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism-%2BObstacle%2Bto%2BPeace/Palestinian%2Bterror%2Bsince%2B2000/Missile%2Bfire%2Bfrom%2BGaza%2Bon%2BIsraeli%2Bcivilian%2Btargets%2BAug%2B2007.htm#statistics. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  60. ^ "Profile: Gaza Strip". BBC News. 2009-01-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/5122404.stm. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  61. ^ "IDF official rejects claims of humanitarian crisis in Gaza". Ynetnews.com. 1995-06-20. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3496654,00.html. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  62. ^ Dozens die in Israel-Gaza clashes BBC News. 2 March 2008.
  63. ^ [3] Wall Street Journal. 29 May 2011.
  64. ^ Ha'aretz[dead link]
  65. ^ "Egypt 'won't force Gazans back'". BBC News. 23 January 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7205668.stm. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  66. ^ Abu Toameh, Khaled (January 29, 2008). "Fatah, Hamas fight for border control". Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 2008-02-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20080202031535/http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?c=JPArticle&cid=1201523779483&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  67. ^ "Maan news". Maan news. http://www.maannews.net/en/index.php?opr=ShowDetails&ID=27807. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  68. ^ Yossi Verter (2008-02-27). "Poll: Most Israelis back direct talks with Hamas on Shalit". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/958473.html. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  69. ^ 'Israelis threaten a broader action' by Ian Fisher and Steven Erlanger, International Herald Tribune
  70. ^ "Gilad Shalit's birthday marked". BBC News. 2007-08-28. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/6967230.stm. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  71. ^ 'Militants issue Israel hostage demands'(CNN)[dead link]
  72. ^ "Israeli Gaza operation 'not over'". BBC News. 2008-03-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7274929.stm. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  73. ^ Katz, Yaakov. "IDF: Hilles clan won't boost terrorism | Israel | Jerusalem Post". Jerusalem Post. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1215331192135&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  74. ^ Boudreaux, Richard (14 November 2008). "Blockade leaves Gazans in the dark". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-gaza14-2008nov14,0,5998371.story. Retrieved 3 May 2010. 
  75. ^ Keinon, Herb (2008-11-24). "Ministries at odds over journalists' entry into Gaza". Jerusalem Post. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1226404825125&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  76. ^ "Israel closes Gaza crossings". Jerusalem Post. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1226404835055&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  77. ^ El-Khodary, Taghreed; Bronner, Ethan (28 December 2008). "Israelis Say Strikes Against Hamas Will Continue". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/28/world/middleeast/28mideast.html. Retrieved 3 May 2010. 
  78. ^ A Timeline of Terror: 2001 to 2012, The Official Blog of the Israel Defence Forces
  79. ^ Mozgovaya, Natasha. "IDF shell kills 30 in Gaza UN school; Israel mulls appeal over Hamas fire from UN facilities". Haaretz Daily Newspaper. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1053233.html. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  80. ^ Erlanger, Steven (2009-01-10). "A Gaza War Full of Traps and Trickery". Israel;Gaza Strip: Nytimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/11/world/middleeast/11hamas.html. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  81. ^ The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2009/01/03/world/international-palestinians-israel.html. [dead link]
  82. ^ McClatchy Newspapers, January 5, 2009, "Israel Rebuffs Cease-Fire Calls as Gaza Casualties Rise" http://www.mcclatchydc.com/world/story/58981.html
  83. ^ "Hamas Rejects Cease-Fire With Israel in Gaza — Mideast Watch". usnews.com. http://www.usnews.com/blogs/mideast-watch/2009/01/12/hamas-rejects-cease-fire-with-israel-in-gaza.html. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  84. ^ Kasher, Asa. "Analysis: A moral evaluation of the Gaza War". Jpost.com. http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Article.aspx?id=168061. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  85. ^ "Slow recovery from wounds of Gaza conflict". BBC News. 27 December 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/8428883.stm. Retrieved 3 May 2010. 
  86. ^ Erlanger, Steven (18 January 2009). "Israel Declares Cease-Fire; Hamas Says It Will Fight On". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/18/world/middleeast/18mideast.html?hp. Retrieved 3 May 2010. 
  87. ^ http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/media/press-briefing-notes/pbnAF/cache/offonce/lang/en?entryId=21830; Reuters, January 12, 2009 Lappin, Yaakov. IDF releases Cast Lead casualty, The Jerusalem Post, March 26, 2009.
  88. ^ http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ochaopt_who_gaza_health_fact_sheet_20100120_english.pdf
  89. ^ "MIDEAST: Attack on Water Brings Sanitation Crisis - IPS". Ipsnews.net. 2009-06-18. http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=47273. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  90. ^ http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/UNEP_Gaza_EA.pdf
  91. ^ http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/tc/tce/pdf/FAO_brief_on_Gaza_23_Jan_09.pdf
  92. ^ a b "Gaza 'looks like earthquake zone'". BBC News. 20 January 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7838618.stm. 
  93. ^ a b "Gaza: Humanitarian situation". BBC News. 30 January 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7845428.stm. 
  94. ^ "Launches Emergency Food Distributions to Families in Gaza | WFP | United Nations World Food Programme - Fighting Hunger Worldwide". WFP. http://www.wfp.org/content/wfp-launches-emergency-food-distributions-families-gaza. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  95. ^ "Gaza Emergency Food Security Assessment (EFSA) - FAO/WFP report (24 February 2009)". Unispal.un.org. http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/373CC85C90E938F485257574005E7B2B. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  96. ^ "Red Cross: Israel trapping 1.5m Gazans in despair". Haaretz. 2009-06-29. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1096443.html. 
  97. ^ "Diskin: No aid crisis in Gaza". Jpost.com. 2010-06-15. http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Article.aspx?ID=178503. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  98. ^ John Pike. "ISRAEL-OPT: UN report details grim effects of Israeli blockade on Gaza". Globalsecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2009/08/mil-090823-irin01.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  99. ^ Watt, Nicholas (2010-07-27). "David Cameron: Israeli blockade has turned Gaza Strip into a 'prison camp'". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/jul/27/david-cameron-gaza-prison-camp. Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  100. ^ Arab League : Israel waging a financial war[dead link]
  101. ^ "Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Travel Warning". Travel.state.gov. http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/tw/tw_922.html. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  102. ^ Egypt eases own Gaza blockade after Israel Freedom Flotilla raid, Christian Science Monitor, June 2, 2010 (page 2)
  103. ^ Rabinowitz, Gavin (2010-06-20). "AFP: Israel to allow more 'civilian' goods into Gaza: official". Google.com. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hYVYAfX_Mu7L_Kv-VU_3g4XdDiSA. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  104. ^ Rubenberg, C., Palestinian Women: Patriarchy and Resistance in the West Bank (USA, 2001) p.230-231
  105. ^ a b Hamas Fights Over Gaza’s Islamist Identity New York Times, September 5, 2009
  106. ^ "Hamas encourages Gaza women to follow Islamic code". News.xinhuanet.com. 2010-01-03. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2010-01/03/content_12748559.htm. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  107. ^ a b Hamas Bans Women Dancers, Scooter Riders in Gaza Push By Daniel Williams, Bloomberg, November 30, 2009
  108. ^ Hamas patrols beaches in Gaza to enforce conservative dress code The Guardian (UK), October 18, 2009
  109. ^ "In Gaza, prisoners twice over; Palestinians are being squeezed by the Israeli blockade and Hamas' 'Islamizing' actions," Bill Van Esveld, Bill Van Esveld is a Middle East researcher for Human Rights Watch, June 27, 201o, Los Angelies Times.
  110. ^ The Hamas Enterprise and the Talibanization of Gaza, by Khaled Al-Hroub, Al-Ayyam (Palestinian Authority), October 11, 2010. Translation by the Middle East Research Institute, October 22, 2010.
  111. ^ a b c "Easing the blockade – Assessing the humanitarian impact on the population of the Gaza Strip". UNITED NATIONS Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs occupied Palestinian territory. March 2011. http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ocha_opt_special_easing_the_blockade_2011_03_english.pdf. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 

  Bibliography

  • Cobham, David P.; Kanafani, Noman (2004). The economics of Palestine: economic policy and institutional reform for a viable Palestinian state (Illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32761-X, 9780415327619. 

  External links

Maps
   
               

 

All translations of Gaza_Strip


sensagent's content

  • definitions
  • synonyms
  • antonyms
  • encyclopedia

Dictionary and translator for handheld

⇨ New : sensagent is now available on your handheld

   Advertising ▼

sensagent's office

Shortkey or widget. Free.

Windows Shortkey: sensagent. Free.

Vista Widget : sensagent. Free.

Webmaster Solution

Alexandria

A windows (pop-into) of information (full-content of Sensagent) triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites !

Try here  or   get the code

SensagentBox

With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by Sensagent.com. Choose the design that fits your site.

Business solution

Improve your site content

Add new content to your site from Sensagent by XML.

Crawl products or adds

Get XML access to reach the best products.

Index images and define metadata

Get XML access to fix the meaning of your metadata.


Please, email us to describe your idea.

WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

last searches on the dictionary :

5726 online visitors

computed in 0.078s

   Advertising ▼

I would like to report:
section :
a spelling or a grammatical mistake
an offensive content(racist, pornographic, injurious, etc.)
a copyright violation
an error
a missing statement
other
please precise:

Advertize

Partnership

Company informations

My account

login

registration

   Advertising ▼

Palestinians in the Arab World by Laurie A. Brand 1988 Gaza Strip, Kuwait,Jordan (8.25 USD)

Commercial use of this term

FREE PALESTINE Palestinian peace sign hand FLAG Gaza Strip BLACK T-SHIRT FP01 (15.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Can't Keep Calm Until PALESTINE IS FREE Flag Gaza Strip Palestinian T-SHIRT FP2 (14.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

EVERYBODY'S 1956: Martine Carol Stratford Shakespeare; Gaza Strip; Jacob Epstein (13.59 USD)

Commercial use of this term

BUM 1:72 #72920 Israel Army & Hamas Gaza Strip (24.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

MADE IN PALESTINE Flag free Gaza Strip Palestinian black or white T-SHIRT PAL (14.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1958 Press Photo Camel Caravan in The Gaza Strip (15.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Palestine Israel Dead Sea Gaza Strip Ottoman Empire 1841 antique engraved map (44.95 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1967 Press Photo Mideast Crisis Map of Gaza Strip (15.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

S26 Middle East War Arab Refugee Return Gaza Strip Home Original Press Photo (16.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

EGYPT SCOTT # 546, N85 MNH REFUGEES, FLAG, GAZA STRIP (3.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Gaza Strip Palestine World Country Flag - FITS iPhone 4 4s Plastic Snap On Case (12.99 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1885 MAP OF PALESTINE ISRAEL HOLY LAND / EGYPT SINAI PENINSULA GAZA STRIP (13.5 USD)

Commercial use of this term

Palestine And The Arab-Israeli Conflict by Charles D. Smith 1992 SC Gaza Strip (10.25 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1957 Press Photo UN Forces Occupy The Gaza Strip (15.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1957 Press Photo Israeli Troops Leaving The Gaza Strip (15.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1958 Press Photo Roman tomb Uncovered at Gaza Strip (15.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1957 Press Photo UN Soldier at Gaza Strip Outpost (15.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term

1956 Press Photo Street Marketplace on The Gaza Strip (15.0 USD)

Commercial use of this term