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Glastonbury Abbey

                   
Glastonbury Abbey
Two ruin parts of walls with arched doorways, surrounded by grass and trees.
View from the former location of the North transept in East direction to the choir.
Glastonbury Abbey is located in Somerset
Location within Somerset
Monastery information
Order Benedictine
Established 712
Disestablished 1539
People
Founder(s) King Ine of Wessex
Important associated figures Saint Dunstan, Henry of Blois, Henry de Sully, Savaric FitzGeldewin, Richard Whiting
Site
Location Glastonbury, Somerset, England
Coordinates 51°8′44″N 2°42′52″W / 51.14556°N 2.71444°W / 51.14556; -2.71444Coordinates: 51°8′44″N 2°42′52″W / 51.14556°N 2.71444°W / 51.14556; -2.71444

Glastonbury Abbey was a monastery in Glastonbury, Somerset, England. The ruins are now a grade I listed building, and a Scheduled Ancient Monument and are open as a visitor attraction.

The abbey was founded in the 7th century and enlarged in the 10th, before a major fire in 1184 destroyed the buildings. It was rebuilt and by the 14th century was one of the richest and most powerful monasteries in England. The abbey also controlled large tracts of surrounding land and was instrumental in major drainage projects on the Somerset Levels. The abbey was suppressed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII of England and the last Abbot Richard Whiting (Whyting) was hung, drawn and quartered as a traitor on Glastonbury Tor in 1539.

From at least the 12th century the Glastonbury area was frequently associated with the legend of King Arthur, a connection promoted by medieval monks who asserted that Glastonbury was Avalon. Christian legends have also claimed that the abbey was founded by Joseph of Arimathea in the 1st century.

Contents

  History

Suggestions that Glastonbury may have been a site of religious importance in Celtic or pre-Celtic times are referred to as dubious by the historian Ronald Hutton.[1] In 1955 Ralegh Radford's excavations uncovered Romano-British pottery at the west end of the nave.[2] The abbey itself was founded by Britons, and it dates at least to the early 7th century. Later medieval Christian legend claimed that the abbey was founded by Joseph of Arimathea in the 1st century. This fanciful legend is intimately tied to Robert de Boron's version of the Holy Grail story and to Glastonbury's connection to King Arthur, which dates at least to the early 12th century.[3]

Glastonbury fell into Saxon hands after the Battle of Peonnum in 658. The Saxons under Cenwalh of Wessex conquered Somerset as far west as the River Parrett, perhaps with the intention of gaining control of the valuable abbey. However, Cenwalh allowed the British abbot, Bregored, to stay in power, a move perhaps intended as a show of good faith to the defeated Britons.[4] After Bregored's death in 669, he was replaced by the Anglo-Saxon Berhtwald, but British monks remained for many years.[4]

  Saxon era

  One of the earliest surviving manuscripts, now at the Bodleian Library, telling that Dunstan the abbot gave orders for the writing of this book.

King Ine of Wessex enriched the endowment of the community of monks already established at Glastonbury.[5] He is said to have directed that a stone church be built in 712,[6] the foundations of which now form the west end of the nave. Glastonbury was ravaged by the Danes in the 9th century.[7] The contemporary reformed soldier Saint Neot was sacristan at Glastonbury before he went to found his own establishment in Somerset.[8] The abbey church was enlarged in the tenth century by the Abbot of Glastonbury, Saint Dunstan, the central figure in the tenth-century revival of English monastic life, who instituted the Benedictine Rule at Glastonbury.[6] Dunstan became Archbishop of Canterbury in 960. Dunstan built new cloisters as well. In 967, King Edmund was laid to rest at Glastonbury.[7] In 1016 Edmund Ironside, who had lost England to Canute but held onto the title of King of Wessex, was buried there too. King Cnut's charter of 1032 was "written and promulgated in the wooden church at Glastonbury, in the kings presence".[2]

The first Glastonbury Canal was built about the middle of the 10th century to link the River Brue with Glastonbury Abbey, a distance of about 1.75 kilometres (1,900 yd). Its initial purpose is believed to be the transport of building stone for the abbey, but later it was used for delivering produce, including grain, wine and fish, from the abbey's outlying properties.[9][10] Much of the stone came from the abbey's own quarries at Doulting,[11] allowing access by way of the River Sheppey at Pilton.[12] From the 11th century onwards Glastonbury Abbey became the centre of a large water-borne transport network as further canalisations and new channels were made in the region, including the diversion of the Brue to afford access to the important estate at Meare and an easier route to the Bristol Channel. In the 13th century the abbey's head boatman is recorded as using the waterways to take the abbot in an eight-oared boat on visits to the abbey's manors in the area.[10]

  Medieval era

  Photochrom image taken around 1900, showing the unrestored interior of the Lady Chapel

  Norman conquest

At the Norman Conquest in 1066, the wealth of Glastonbury made it a prime prize. The new Norman abbot, Turstin, added to the church, unusually building to the east of the older Saxon church and away from the ancient cemetery, thus shifting the sanctified site. Not all the new Normans were suitable heads of religious communities. In 1077, Thurstin was dismissed after his armed retainers killed monks right by the High Altar. In 1086, when Domesday Book was commissioned, Glastonbury Abbey was the richest monastery in the country.[13] Abbot Henry of Blois commissioned a history of Glastonbury, about 1125, from the chronicler William of Malmesbury, whose De Antiquitate Glastoniensis Ecclesiae is our source for the early recorded history, and much of the legend as well.[14]

Early drainage work on the Somerset Levels was carried out in the later years of the 12th century, with the responsibility for maintaining all the watercourses between Glastonbury and the sea being placed on named individuals among whom were Ralph de Sancta Barbara of Brentmarsh.[15] In 1129, the Abbot of Glastonbury was recorded as inspecting enclosed land at Lympsham. Efforts to control flooding on the Parrett were recorded around the same date. In 1234, 722 acres (2.9 km2) were reclaimed near Westonzoyland and, from the accounts in the abbey's rent books, this had increased to 972 acres (393 ha) by 1240.[16] In the 14th century a Fish House was built at Meare for the chief fisherman of the Abbot of Glastonbury that was also used for salting and preparing fish.[17] It is the only surviving monastic fishery building in England.[18] At the time of the Dissolution in 1540, Meare Pool was said to contain a great abundance of pike, tench, roach and eels.[19] In 1638 it was owned by William Freake, who described it as "lately a fish pool".[2] The importance of this industry is illustrated by a series of acrimonious disputes between Glastonbury and the Dean and Chapter of Wells Cathedral.[12] The Abbey required fish on Fridays, fast days and during Lent. As many as 5000 eels were landed in a typical year.[11]

  King Arthur's grave

  Purported site of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere's tomb beneath the high altar

In 1184, a great fire at Glastonbury destroyed the monastic buildings.[6] Reconstruction began almost immediately and the Lady Chapel, which includes the well, was consecrated in 1186.[20][21] There is evidence that, in the 12th century, the ruined nave was renovated enough for services while the great new church was being constructed. Parts of the walls of the aisle and crossing having been completed by 1189, but progress then continuing more slowly.[22]

If pilgrim visits had fallen, the discovery of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere's grave in the cemetery in 1191 provided fresh impetus for visiting Glastonbury. According to two accounts by the chronicler, Giraldus Cambrensis,[23] the abbot, Henry de Sully, commissioned a search, discovering at the depth of 16 feet (5 m) a massive hollowed oak trunk containing two skeletons. Above it, under the covering stone, according to Giraldus, was a leaden cross with the unmistakably specific inscription Hic jacet sepultus inclitus rex Arthurus in insula Avalonia ("Here lies interred the famous King Arthur on the Isle of Avalon").[24]

  Annexation to Bath and Wells

Five years later, in 1197, Savaric FitzGeldewin, Bishop of Bath and Wells, traded the city of Bath to the king in return for the monastery of Glastonbury. Savaric secured the support of Pope Celestine III for the takeover the abbey as the seat of his bishopric, replacing Bath. The plan was that Savaric would be bishop of Bath as well as abbot of Glastonbury. In his support, Savaric obtained letters from various ecclesiastics, including the Archbishop of Canterbury, Hubert Walter, that claimed that this arrangement would settle longstanding disputes between the abbey and the bishops. The monks of Glastonbury objected to Savaric's plan, and sent an appeal to Rome, which was dismissed in 1196. But King Richard, no longer imprisoned in Germany, sided with the monks, and allowed them to elect an abbot, William Pica, in place of Savaric, who responded by excommunicating the new abbot. With the succession of John as king in place of his brother Richard in 1199, Savaric managed to force his way into the monastery and set up his episcopal see within the abbey. The monks appealed to Innocent III, the new pope.[25]

At first, Innocent took the side of the monks, and lifted Pica's excommunication.[25] While the newest appeal was taking place, Pica and a number of his supporters, who had travelled to Rome to appeal in person, died in Rome in 1200,[25][26] and some of the monks alleged this was by poison administered on the orders of Savaric. Meanwhile, Innocent had changed his mind, and reinstalled Savaric as abbot, ordering some English clergy to judge the specifics of the case, and allot the revenues of the abbey between Savaric and the monks. Savaric then attempted to secure more control over other monasteries in his diocese, but died before he could set the plans in motion.[25]

The bishops continued to use the title Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury until finally renouncing their claim to Glastonbury in 1219. Services in the reconsecrated Great Church had begun on Christmas Day, 1213, most likely before it was entirely completed. King Edward I and Queen Eleanor attended the magnificent service at the reburial of King Arthur's remains to the foot of the High Altar in 1278.[27]

  14th and 15th centuries

  The Abbot's Kitchen

In the 14th century, only Westminster Abbey was more richly endowed and appointed than Glastonbury. The abbot of Glastonbury kept great state, now attested to simply by the ruins of the abbot's kitchen, with four huge fireplaces at its corners. The kitchen was part of the magnificent Abbot's house begun under Abbot John de Breynton (1334–42). It is one of the best preserved medieval kitchens in Europe, and the only substantial monastic building surviving at Glastonbury.[28] Archaeological excavations have revealed a special apartment erected at the south end of the Abbot's house for a visit from Henry VII, who visited the Abbot in a royal progress, as he visited any other great territorial magnate. The conditions of life in England during the Wars of the Roses became so unsettled that a wall was built around the Abbey's precincts.

The George Hotel and Pilgrims' Inn was built in the late 15th century to accommodate visitors to the Abbey. It has been designated as a Grade I listed building.[29] The abbey also held lands outside the town serving large parts of Somerset and including parts of neighbouring counties. Tithe barns were built to hold the crops due to the abbey including those at Doulting[30] and Pilton.[31][32]

  Dissolution of the Monasteries

At the start of the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536, there were over 800 monasteries, nunneries and friaries in England. By 1541, there were none. More than 15,000 monks and nuns had been dispersed and the buildings had been seized by the Crown to be sold off or leased to new lay occupiers. Glastonbury Abbey was reviewed as having significant amounts of silver and gold as well as its attached lands.[33] In September 1539, the Abbey was visited by Richard Layton, Richard Pollard and Thomas Moyle, arrived there without warning on the orders of Thomas Cromwell. The abbey was stripped of its valuables[34] and Abbot Richard Whiting (Whyting), who had been a signatory to the Act of Supremacy that made Henry VIII the head of the church, resisted and was hanged, drawn and quartered as a traitor on Glastonbury Tor on 15 November 1539.[35]

  Decline

After the Dissolution, two of the Abbey's manors in Wiltshire were sold by the Crown to John Thynne and thereafter descended in his family, who much later became Marquesses of Bath. The Thynnes have preserved many of the Abbey's Wiltshire records at Longleat up to the present day.[36] The ruins of the abbey itself was stripped of lead and dressed stones hauled away to be used in other buildings. The site was granted by Edward VI to Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset who established a colony of Protestant Dutch weavers on the site. When Seymour was Attaindered in 1551 the abbey site reverted to the crown, however the weavers remained until the reign of Queen Mary. In 1559 Elizabeth I granted the site to Peter Carew and it remained in private ownership until the beginning of the 20th century. Further stones were removed in the 17th century, so that by the beginning of the 18th century it was described as a ruin. The only building to survive intact is the Abbott's Kitchen which served as a Quaker meeting house. Early in the 19th century gunpowder was used to dislodge further stones and the site became a quarry. The Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 stopped further damage to the site and lead to the first historical and archaeological surveys.[37]

  Modern history

The ruins of Glastonbury Abbey were purchased by the Bath and Wells Diocesan Trust in 1908. The ruins are therefore now the property of the Church of England. On acquiring the site the Church appointed Frederick Bligh Bond to direct an archaeological investigation. He was dismissed by Bishop Armitage Robinson in 1921, because of his use of seances and psychic archaeology.[38][39][40]

A pilgrimage to the ruins of Glastonbury Abbey was held by a few local churches in 1924.[41] Pilgrimages continue today to be held; in the second half of June for the Anglicans and early in July for the Catholics and they attract visitors from all over Western Europe. Services are celebrated in the Anglican, Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions.[41] The abbey site is visited by over 100,000 a year.[42]

  Architecture

  A panorama of the south side of the abbey

The ruins of the great church, along with the Lady Chapel, are grade I listed buildings,[43] and a Scheduled Ancient Monument.[5] It is set in 36 acres (150,000 m2) of parkland and open to the public. It is approached by the Abbey Gatehouse which was built in the mid 14th century and completely restored in 1810.[44] The 14th century Abbey Barn is also open to the public, outside the walls, as part of the Somerset Rural Life Museum.[45]

  Lady Chapel interior

The great church was 220 feet (67 m) in length and 45 feet (14 m) wide. The choir was 155 feet (47 m) long and the transept was 160 feet (49 m) long. St Joseph's chapel was 110 feet (34 m) long and 24 feet (7.3 m) wide.[46] The remaining portions are of the clerestory and triforium arcades which were the supports of the central square tower.[47] Other fragments of structures which remain include portions of the outer walls of the chancel aisles and the 14the century retroquire. There is also surviving stonework from the south nave aisle wall, west front and the Galilee along with its crypt linked to St Mary's Chapel.[48] The Lady Chapel, from which the walls survive, was described in 1478 as being 34 yards (31 m) in length and 8 yards (7.3 m) wide.[49]

The Abbots Kitchen is described as "one of the best preserved medieval kitchens in Europe".[50] The 14th century octagonal building is supported by curved buttresses on each side leading up to a cornice with grotesque gargoyles. Inside are four large arched fireplaces with smoke outlets above them, with another outlet in the centre of the pyramidal roof.[50] The kitchen was attached to the 80 feet (24 m) high abbot's hall, although only one small section of its wall remains.[51]

Work is still underway to analyse the results from excavations during the 20th century, and a new geophysical survey, which may help to specify exactly the size of different buildings and were they were situated. Early work has identified a Saxon enclosure ditch and, potentially the earliest cloister in Britain.[52][53]

  Library

The Abbey library was described by John Leland, King Henry VIII's antiquary who visited it, as containing unique copies of ancient histories of England and unique early Christian documents. It seems to have been affected by the fire of 1184, but still housed a remarkable collection until 1539 when it was dispersed at the Dissolution of the Monasteries.[54] Around 40 of the manuscripts from Glastonbury are known to have survived after the dissolution.[55]

  Abbey Retreat House

  Retreat House

Within the abbey wall, but closed to the public is the Abbey retreat house, which is now used by the Diocese of Bath and Wells. The Tudor Gothic house was built between 1829 and 1830 by John Buckler, from the stones of the Abbey ruins for John Reeves. It was altered and extended between 1850 and 1860 with further alterations in 1957.[56]

  Glastonbury Thorn

A specimen of Common Hawthorn found at Glastonbury, first mentioned in an early sixteenth century anonymous metrical Lyfe of Joseph of Arimathea, was unusual in that it flowered twice in a year, once as normal on "old wood" in spring, and once on "new wood" (the current season's matured new growth) in the winter.[57][58][59][60] This tree has been widely propagated by grafting or cuttings, with the cultivar name 'Biflora' or 'Praecox'.[61] The custom of sending a budded branch of the Glastonbury thorn to the Queen at Christmas was initiated by James Montague, Bishop of Bath and Wells during James I's reign, who sent a branch to Queen Anne, King James I's consort.[62] Trees survive from earlier grafts to perpetuate the Glastonbury legend, among them two other Holy Thorns in the grounds of St John’s. The blossom sent to the Queen now comes from one of these.[63]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ Hutton, 1991, p.107
  2. ^ a b c Havinden p.74
  3. ^ Ashe pp.83-90 and p.279
  4. ^ a b Ashe, p.279
  5. ^ a b "Glastonbury Abbey". Pastscape National Monuments Record. English Heritage. http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=196705. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c "Monasticism". England in the Middle Ages. Archived from the original on 21 June 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080621064047/http://www.anglistik.rwth-aachen.de/de/lehrstuehle/anglistik2/projekte/middleages/articles/Religion/monasti.htm. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  7. ^ a b Castelli, Jorge H.. "Glastonbury Abbey". Tudor Place. http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Documents/glastonbury_abbey.htm. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  8. ^ "History". St Neots Town Council. Archived from the original on 12 February 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070212204514/http://www.stneots-tc.gov.uk/content.php?page=history. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  9. ^ Gathercole, Clare (2003) (PDF). An archaeological assessment of Glastonbury. English Heritage Extensive Urban Survey. Taunton: Somerset County Council. pp. 19–20. http://www1.somerset.gov.uk/archives/hes/downloads/EUS_GlastonburyText.pdf. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  10. ^ a b Hollinrake pp.235–239
  11. ^ a b Searle p.100
  12. ^ a b Rippon, Stephen (2004). "Making the Most of a Bad Situation? Glastonbury Abbey, Meare, and the Medieval Exploitation of Wetland Resources in the Somerset Levels". Medieval Archaeology (Leeds, England: The Society for Medieval Archaeology) 48: 93. DOI:10.1179/007660904225022816. ISSN 0076-6097. 
  13. ^ "Glastonbury Abbey". Sacred destinations. http://www.sacred-destinations.com/england/glastonbury-abbey. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  14. ^ "Glastonbury Abbey". New advent. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06579a.htm. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  15. ^ "'Introduction', A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 8: The Poldens and the Levels". A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 8. Victoria County History. pp. 1–7. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=15100. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  16. ^ Williams p.50
  17. ^ "The Abbot's Fish House". Images of England. English Heritage. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=267765. Retrieved 3 November 2008. 
  18. ^ "Meare Fish House". English Heritage website. http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.16217. Retrieved 3 November 2008. 
  19. ^ Bulleid, L.R.C.P., F.S.A.,, Arthur; Harold St. George Gray, M.A., F.S.A., (1948/53/66). The Meare Lake Village. Taunton: pub. privately. pp. 1–14. http://www.gallica.co.uk/meare/description.htm. 
  20. ^ "Glastonbury Abbey". Cathedrals Plus. The Pilgrims Association. http://www.cathedralsplus.org.uk/index.php/front_end/member/47/about.html. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  21. ^ "The Lady Chapel". Archaeology at Glastonbury Abbey on-line. Archeology Data Service. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/glastonbury_abbey_2007/lady_chapel/. Retrieved 27 August 2011. (Free registration required)
  22. ^ "The Great Church". Archaeology at Glastonbury Abbey on-line. Archeology Data Service. http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/glastonbury_abbey_2007/report1/overview.cfm?CFID=7821. Retrieved 27 August 2011. (Free registration required)
  23. ^ Sutton, John William. "The Tomb of King Arthur". University of Rochester. http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/gerald.htm. Retrieved 27 August 2011. "In his Liber de Principis instructione ("Book of the instruction of princes"), of circa 1193, and his Speculum Ecclesiae ("Mirror of the Church"), of circa 1216. He identified the abbot in charge as "Abbot Henry, who was later elected Bishop of Worcester"." 
  24. ^ "Two Accounts of the Exhumation of Arthur's Body". Britania.com. http://www.britannia.com/history/docs/debarri.html. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  25. ^ a b c d Knowles, 2004, p.328
  26. ^ Knowles, et. al., 2005, p.52
  27. ^ "Glastonbury's History and Traditions". Isle of Avalon. http://www.isleofavalon.co.uk/avalon-history.html. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  28. ^ "Abbot's Kitchen, Glastonbury Abbey". Images of England. English Heritage. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=265971. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  29. ^ "George Hotel and Pilgrims' Inn". Images of England. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=265915. Retrieved 11 November 2006. 
  30. ^ "Tithe Barn in farmyard at Manor Farm". Images of England. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=268348. Retrieved 17 March 2008. 
  31. ^ "Former Tithe Barn in farmyard at Cumhill Farm". Images of England. English Heritage. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=267584. Retrieved 2 November 2008. 
  32. ^ "Case Study | Pilton Barn" (PDF). Caroe & Partners Architects. http://www.caroe.co.uk/uploads/download/pilton-barn.pdf. Retrieved 2 November 2008. 
  33. ^ "The Suppression of Glastonbury Abbey 1539". Medieval Sourcebook. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/h8-glastonbury.asp. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  34. ^ "The Suppression of Glastonbury Abbey". Medieval Sourcebook. Internet medieval Sourcebook. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/h8-glastonbury.html. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  35. ^ Gasquet, p.90
  36. ^ Harris, p.83
  37. ^ Carley, 1988, pp.169-175
  38. ^ "Discovering Glastonbury Abbey — the psychic way". BBC Somerset — Historic Places. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/somerset/content/articles/2008/06/04/glastonbury_abbey_archeology_feature.shtml. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  39. ^ "Glastonbury Enigma". Fortean Times. Archived from the original on 27 March 2003. http://web.archive.org/web/20030727035211/http://www.forteantimes.com/articles/143_blighbond.shtml. Retrieved 10 May 2007. 
  40. ^ Hill, p.156
  41. ^ a b "Services & Pilgrimage". Glastonbury Abbey. http://glastonburyabbey.com/services.php?&rpn=info. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  42. ^ "Conservation Area Appraisal Glastonbury" (PDF). Mendip District Council. p. 43. http://www.mendip.gov.uk/Documents/Regeneration/Glastonbury%20Conservation%20Area%20Appraisal.pdf. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  43. ^ "Glastonbury Abbey". Images of England. English Heritage. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=265970. Retrieved 11 November 2006. 
  44. ^ "Abbey Gatehouse, including the porters' lodge". Images of England. English Heritage. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=265968. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  45. ^ "Abbey Tithe Barn, including attached wall to east". Images of England. English Heritage. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=265895. Retrieved 29 September 2007. 
  46. ^ Dowling, 1845, pp.231-232
  47. ^ Bond, 1920, p.22
  48. ^ "Glastonbury Abbey". Pastscape National Monuments Record. English Heritage. http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=196705. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  49. ^ Willis, 1866, p.77
  50. ^ a b "Abbot's Kitchen, Glastonbury Abbey". Images of England. English Heritage. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=265971. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  51. ^ Dunning, R. W.; M.C. Siraut, A.T. Thacker, Elizabeth Williamson. "Glastonbury and Street". A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 9:. British History Online. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=117174. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  52. ^ "Glastonbury Abbey Excavations". University of Reading. http://www.reading.ac.uk/archaeology/research/Projects/arch-RG-Glastonbury.aspx. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  53. ^ "Excavation Archive Project (2009-2012)". Glastonbury Abbey. http://www.glastonburyabbeysymposium.com/background.php. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  54. ^ "'Houses of Benedictine monks: the abbey of Glastonbury',". A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 2. British History Online. 1911. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=40921. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  55. ^ Carley, 1988, pp.143-144
  56. ^ "Abbey Retreat House". Images of England. English Heritage. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=265893. Retrieved 19 August 2008. 
  57. ^ Salkeld, Luke (9 December 2010). "Vandals have hacked at the heart of Christianity: 2000-year-old Holy Thorn Tree of Glastonbury is cut down". Daily Mail Online (London). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1337159/Glastonburys-2000-year-old-Holy-Thorn-Tree-hacked-vandals.html. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  58. ^ Hallett, Emma (9 December 2010). "Vandals destroy sacred thorn tree". London: The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/vandals-destroy-sacred-thorn-tree-2155627.html. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  59. ^ "Historic Holy Thorn tree cut down in Glastonbury". BBC News. 9 December 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-somerset-11957440. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  60. ^ Kennedy, Maev (9 December 2010). "Glastonbury Thorn chopped down as town rages over attack on famous tree". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/dec/09/glastonbury-mourns-felling-thorn-tree. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  61. ^ Lance et al., p.15
  62. ^ "Sprig of Holy Thorn in Glastonbury is cut for the Queen". BBC. 8 December 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/somerset/hi/people_and_places/newsid_9268000/9268731.stm. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  63. ^ Humphrys, Geoffrey (December 1998). "Attempts to regrow the Glastonbury thorn after it died in 1991". History Today. http://www.historytoday.com/MainArticle.aspx?m=10632&amid=10632. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 

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WordGame

The English word games are:
○   Anagrams
○   Wildcard, crossword
○   Lettris
○   Boggle.

Lettris

Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.

boggle

Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !

English dictionary
Main references

Most English definitions are provided by WordNet .
English thesaurus is mainly derived from The Integral Dictionary (TID).
English Encyclopedia is licensed by Wikipedia (GNU).

Copyrights

The wordgames anagrams, crossword, Lettris and Boggle are provided by Memodata.
The web service Alexandria is granted from Memodata for the Ebay search.
The SensagentBox are offered by sensAgent.

Translation

Change the target language to find translations.
Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more.

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