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Lettris is a curious tetris-clone game where all the bricks have the same square shape but different content. Each square carries a letter. To make squares disappear and save space for other squares you have to assemble English words (left, right, up, down) from the falling squares.
Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. You can also try the grid of 16 letters. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. See if you can get into the grid Hall of Fame !
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1.(MeSH)A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 126.96.36.199.
Glutamate Decarboxylase (n.) [MeSH]
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / EGO|
|Glutamic acid decarboxylase 1|
|GAD67 derivated from PDB 2okj|
|Alt. symbols||glutamate decarboxylase 1
(brain, 67kD); GAD67
|Locus||Chr. 2 q31|
|glutamic acid decarboxylase 2|
|Locus||Chr. 10 p11.23|
Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO2. GAD uses PLP as a cofactor. The reaction proceeds as follows:
In mammals, GAD exists in two isoforms encoded by two different genes - GAD1 and GAD2. These isoforms are GAD67 and GAD65 with molecular weights of 67 and 65 kDa, respectively. GAD1 and GAD2 are expressed in the brain where GABA is used as a neurotransmitter, GAD2 is also expressed in the pancreas.
At least two more forms, GAD25 and GAD44 (embryonic; EGAD) are described in the developing brain. They are coded by the alternative transcripts of GAD1, I-80 and I-86: GAD25 is coded by both, GAD44 - only by I-80.
Both GAD67 and GAD65 are targets of autoantibodies in people who later develop type 1 diabetes mellitus or latent autoimmune diabetes. Injections with GAD65 has been shown to preserve some insulin production for 30 months in humans with type 1 diabetes.
Substantial dysregulation of GAD mRNA expression, coupled with downregulation of reelin, is observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The most pronounced downregulation of GAD67 was found in hippocampal stratum oriens layer in both disorders and in other layers and structures of hippocampus with varying degrees.
The bilateral delivery of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) by an adeno-associated viral vector into the subthalamic nucleus of patients between 30 and 75 years of age with advanced, progressive, levodopa-responsive Parkinson disease resulted in significant improvement over baseline during the course of a six-month study.
Intracerebellar administration of GAD autoantibodies to animals increase the excitability of motoneurons and impairs the production of nitric oxide (NO), a molecule involved in learning. Epitope recognition contributes to cerebellar involvement.
Pregabalin, an antiepileptic drug, increases neuronal GABA levels by producing a dose-dependent increase in glutamic acid decarboxylase activity. Extracts from Centella asiatica (gotu kola) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian) stimulated GAD activity.